Aging and Drug Testing in Cultured Normal Human Cells

  • L. Hayflick
Conference paper


Several years ago Moorhead and I showed that cultured human cells have a finite capacity for replication in vitro (Hayflick and Moorhead 1961). We showed that embryo-derived fibroblasts which have the greatest capacity for replication in vitro undergo 50 ± 10 population doublings before division ceases in about 10–12 months. We divided these events into three phases. Phase I represents the primary culture; phase II, the active replication period; and phase III, the period when cell replication slows, ceases, and ultimately ends with complete cell degeneration and death.


Cellular Senescence Population Doubling Population Doubling Level Normal Human Cell Immortal Cell 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Hayflick
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Gerontological StudiesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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