Restriction of Cellular Swelling and Spontaneous Increase in the Osmolality of the Intracellular Fluid in a Simplistic Cell Model
As a possible mechanism of the cellular swelling in cytotoxic edema, fluid shift from the extracellular compartment to the intracellular compartment due to isothermal, isobaric, and iso-osmotic osmosis was demonstrated experimentally by Tomita  in a simplistic cell model. This process would proceed iso-osmotically if the cell membrane were sufficiently flaccid not to impede the cellular swelling. However, cellular swelling in situ is restricted by the tension developed by the surrounding tissue of the glial layers, the constraint of the pia and dura, and finally the rigidity of the closed calvarium.
Key wordsCytotoxic edema cellular swelling iso-osmotic osmosis hyperosmotic osmosis osmolality
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