Muscarinic Receptors on Neurones of the Submucous Plexus

  • R. A. North
  • A. Surprenant

Abstract

The functions of the gastrointestinal epithelium are controlled by transmitters released from nerves. These nerves are of three main classes, corresponding to Langley’s (1921) divisions of the autonomic nervous system. First, sympathetic fibers reach the mucosa along the course of the blood vessels, passing directly through the enteric plexuses; however, a large number of sympathetic fibers end by making synaptic contacts with nerve cells of the submucous plexus and do not directly reach the mucosa (Costa and Furness 1984). Second, cholinergic nerves of the postganglionic part of the parasympathetic outflow innervate the mucosa. The cell bodies of these neurones constitute an unknown fraction of the neurones of the submucous plexus. Third, neurones intrinsic to the enteric nervous system, having their cell bodies in the submucous plexus, provide a dense projection to the mucosa. These cells are identified by their contents of cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and the synthesizing enzyme for acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) (for review, see Furness et al. 1984). Although the relative roles of the various types of innervation are not fully understood, it is well established that all three sets of nerves can under various circumstances have significant effects on secretory and absorptive activity (Gaginella and O’Dorisio 1979; Cooke et al. 1983; Tapper 1983).

Keywords

Depression Dopamine Polypeptide Noradrenaline Choline 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cooke HJ, Shonnard K, Wood JD (1983) Effects of neuronal stimulation on mucosal transport in guinea-pig ileum. Am J Physiol 245: G290–G296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Costa M, Furness JB (1984) Somatostatin is present in a subpopulation of noradrenergic nerve fibres supplying the intestine. Neuroscience 13: 911–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Furness JB, Costa M, Keast JR (1984) Choline acetyltransferase and peptide immunoreactivity of submucous neurons in the small intestine of the guinea-pig. Cell Tissue Res 237: 329–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gaginella TS, O’Dorisio TM (1979) Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: neuromodulator of intestinal secretion? In: Bind HJ (ed) Mechanisms of intestinal secretion. Liss, New York, pp 231–237.Google Scholar
  5. Hartzell HC, Kuffler SW, Stickgold R, Yoshikami D (1977) Synaptic excitation and inhibition resulting from direct action of acetylcholine on two types of chemoreceptors on individual amphibian parasympathetic neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 271: 817–846.Google Scholar
  6. Hirst GDS, McKirdy HC (1975) Synaptic potentials recorded from neurones of the submucous plexus of the guinea-pig small intestine. J Physiol (Lond) 249: 369–385.Google Scholar
  7. Hirst GDS, Silinsky EM (1975) Some effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and noradrenaline on neurones in the submucous plexus of guinea-pig small intestine. J Physiol (Lond) 251, 817–832.Google Scholar
  8. Langley JN (1921) The autonomic nervous system. Part 1. Heffer, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  9. Mihara S, Katayama Y, Nishi S (1985) Slow synaptic potentials in neurones of submucous plexus of guinea-pig caecum and their mimicry by noradrenaline and various peptides. Neuroscience (to be published).Google Scholar
  10. Morita K, North RA, Tokimasa T (1982) Muscarinic presynaptic inhibition of synaptic transmission in myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig ileum. J Physiol (Lond) 333: 141–149.Google Scholar
  11. North RA (1982) Electrophysiology of the enteric nervous system. Neuroscience 7: 315–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. North RA (1985) Mechanisms of autonomic integration. In: Bloom FE (ed) Handbook of physiology, section 1, the nervous system, vol 2. American Physiological Society, Washington DC (to be published).Google Scholar
  13. North RA, Surprenant A (1985a) Inhibitory synaptic potentials resulting from α2-adrenoceptor activation in guinea-pig submucous plexus neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 358: 17–32.Google Scholar
  14. North RA, Surprenant A (1985b) Muscarinic m1 and m2 receptors mediate depolarization and presynaptic inhibition in guinea-pig enteric nervous system. J Physiol (Lond) (to be published).Google Scholar
  15. North RA, Tokimasa T (1982) Muscarinic synaptic potentials in guinea-pig myenteric neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 333: 151–156.Google Scholar
  16. North RA, Tokimasa T (1984) The time-course of muscarinic depolarization of guinea-pig myenteric neurones. Br J Pharmacol 82: 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Pagani F, Schiavone A, Monferini E, Hammer R, Giachetti A (1984) Distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1 and m2) controlling acid secretion in rodents. Trends Pharmacol Sci 4 [Suppl]: 66–74.Google Scholar
  18. Surprenant A (1984a) Slow excitatory synaptic potentials recorded from neurones of guinea-pig submucous plexus. J Physiol (Lond) 351: 343–362.Google Scholar
  19. Surprenant A (1984b) Two types of neurones lacking synaptic input in the submucous plexus of guinea-pig small intestine. J Physiol (Lond) 351: 363–378.Google Scholar
  20. Surprenant A (1986) Transmitter mechanisms in the enteric nervous system: an electrophysiological vantage point. In: Kalsner S (ed) Trends in autonomic pharmacology, vol.3. Schwarzenberg, Baltimore (to be published).Google Scholar
  21. Tapper EJ (1983) Local modulation of intestinal ion transport by enteric neurons. Am J Physiol 244: G457–G468.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. North
  • A. Surprenant

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations