Advertisement

Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type: Diagnostic and Differential Diagnostic Features with Special Reference to Functional Assessment Staging

  • B. Reisberg
  • S. H. Ferris
  • M. J. de Leon
Part of the Advances in Applied Neurological Sciences book series (NEUROLOGICAL, volume 2)

Abstract

At the time we embarked on our investigations into the clinical symptomatology of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) approximately 6 years ago, little was known about this disorder. Old age as a cause of dementia had been recognized by Aretaeus of Cappadocia and popularized by Galen in the second century A.D. (Adams 1861; Galen 1821–1833). This conception does not appear to have advanced further until Rush’s seminal description of a patient with “the marks of second infancy” (Rush 1793). In 1838, Esquirol provided a more general definition of “démence sénile” as an illness: (a) in which there occurs a weakening of the memory for recent experiences and a loss of drive and willpower; (b) which appears gradually; and (c) which may be accompanied by emotional disturbances. At approximately the same time, Prichard (1837) described an entity he called “senile incoherence”, which he divided into four successive stages: (a) impaired memory; (b) loss of reasoning power; (c) incomprehension; and (d) loss of instinctive action. In 1907, Alzheimer described the case of a woman who succumbed to the illness in her fifties.

Keywords

Urinary Incontinence Fecal Incontinence Senile Dementia Care Giver Global Deterioration Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams F (ed) (1861) The extant works of Aretaeus, the Cappadocian. Sydenham, London, p 103Google Scholar
  2. Alzheimer A (1907) Über eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde. Allg Z Psychiatr Psych Gericht Med 64: 146–148Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC, pp 124–126Google Scholar
  4. Blessed G, Tomlinson BE, Roth M (1968) The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile changes in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. Br J Psychiatry 114: 797–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Ajuriaguerra J, Rey M, Bellet-Muller M (1964) A propos de quelques problèmes posés par le déficit opératoire des vieilliards atteints de démence dégénérative en début d’évolution. Cortex I: 232–256Google Scholar
  6. Eisenberg L (1975) Normal child development. In: Freedman AM, Kaplan HR, Sadock BJ (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry II, vol 2. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 20362054Google Scholar
  7. Esquirol JED (1838) Des maladies mentales. Balliere, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) Mini-mental state. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinican. Psychiatr Res 12: 189–198Google Scholar
  9. Galen C (1821–1833) De symptomatum differentis liber. In: Kuhn CG (ed) Opera omnia. Knobloch, Leipzig, pp 200–201Google Scholar
  10. Go RCP, Todovov AB, Elston RC, Constantinidis J (1978) The malignancy of dementias. Ann Neurol 3: 559–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jarvik LF, Falek A (1963) Intellectual stability and survival in the aged. J Gerontol 18: 173–176Google Scholar
  12. Kahn RL, Goldfarb AI, Pollack M, Peck A (1960) Brief objective measures for the determination of mental status in the aged. Am J Psychiatry 117: 326–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaszniak AW, Fox J, Gandell DL, Garron DC, Huckman MS, Ramsey RG (1978) Predictors of mortality in presenile and senile dementia. Ann Neurol 3: 246–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pierce CM (1975) Enuresis and encopresis. In: Freedman AM, Kaplan HR, Sadock BJ (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry II, vol 2. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 21162125Google Scholar
  15. Prichard JC (1837) A treatise on insanity and other disorders affecting the mind. Haswell, Barnington and Haswell, Philadelphia, pp 69–80Google Scholar
  16. Reisberg B (1981) Brain failure: an introduction to current concepts of senility. Free Press/Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Reisberg B (1983) Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and symptomatology of age-associated cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. In: Reisberg B (ed) Alzheimer’s disease. Free Press/ Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Reisberg B (1984) Stages of cognitive decline. Am J Nurs 84: 225–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Reisberg B, Ferris SH (1985) A clinical rating scale for symptoms of psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 21: 101–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Reisberg B, Schneck MK, Ferris SH, Schwartz GE, de Leon MJ ( 1983 a) The brief cognitive rating scale (BCRS): findings in primary degenerative dementia ( PDD ). Psychopharmacol Bull 19: 47–50Google Scholar
  21. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, Schneck MK, de Leon MJ, Crook T, Gershon S (1981) The relationship between psychiatric assessments and cognitive test measures in mild to moderately cognitively impaired elderly. Psychopharmacol Bull 17: 99–101Google Scholar
  22. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, de Leon MJ, Crook T (1982) The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry 139: 1136–1139Google Scholar
  23. Reisberg B, London E, Ferris SH, Borenstein J, Scheier L, de Leon MJ (1983) The brief cognitive rating scale: language, motoric and mood concomitants in primary degenerative dementia. Psychopharmacol Bull 19: 702–708Google Scholar
  24. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, Anand R, Buttinger C, Borenstein J, Sinaiko E, de Leon MJ (1984a) Clinical assessments of cognition in the elderly. In: Shamoian CA (ed) Biology and treatment of dementia in the elderly. American Psychiatric, Washington DC, pp 15–37Google Scholar
  25. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, Sinaiko E, Borenstein J, Anand R, Buttinger C, de Leon MJ ( 1984 b) Aging and dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type (DAT): longitudinal course of community residing subgroups. Collegium internationale neuro-psychiopharmacollegium, June 19–23. In: Book of Abstracts, p 164Google Scholar
  26. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, Anand R, de Leon MJ, Schneck MK, Buttinger C, Borenstein J (1984c) Functional staging of dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Ann NY Acad Sci 435: 481–483Google Scholar
  27. Rush B (1793) An account of the state of mind and body in old age. In: Medical inquiries and observations, vol 2. Dobson, Philadelphia, p 311Google Scholar
  28. Vaughn VC (1969) Growth and development. In: Nelson WE, Vaughn VC, McKay RJ (eds) Textbook of pediatrics. 9th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 15–57Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Reisberg
  • S. H. Ferris
  • M. J. de Leon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations