Advertisement

Time Constants of Various Parts of the Human Auditory System and Some of Their Consequences

  • Per V. Brüel
  • Keld Baden-Kristensen
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)

Abstract

Noise, according to a rather hackneyed expression, is undesired sound; that is, sounds that disturb, annoy, and even impair hearing. Nevertheless, the internationally standardized Sound Level Meter (IEC 1973) has been developed entirely on the basis of arbitrarily agreed equal loudness contours (inverted), without due consideration of the sounds that disturb or annoy, and (which is much worse) none at all to those which involve a risk for hearing damage. When one therefore asks, Do we measure noise correctly? the answer must be that where hearing level is concerned, the scale in use today is applicable because it was originally developed on the basis of hearing level. If, however, one considers the annoyance caused by noise, then our noise scale is no longer appropriate, and even less acceptable when used to stipulate permissible noise limits to prevent hearing loss. The latter is rather serious, since large sums are offered for prevention of hearing loss caused by industry and traffic.

Keywords

Hearing Loss Sound Pressure Level Basilar Membrane Impulse Noise International Electrotechnical Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson DJ, Rose JE, Hind JE, Brugge JF (1971) Temporal position of discharge in single auditory nerve fibers within the cycle of a sine-wave stimulus: Frequency and intensity effects. J Acoust Soc Am 49:1131–1139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Békésy G von (1949) On the resonance curve and the decay period at various points on the cochlear partition. J Acoust Soc Amer 21:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brüel PV (1977) Do we measure damaging noise correctly? Noise Control Engineering, March/AprilGoogle Scholar
  4. Churcher BG, King AJ (1937) The performance of noise meters in terms of primary standard. Proc Inst Electr Engrs. England, London, 57–90Google Scholar
  5. Fletcher H, Munson WA (1933) Loudness, its definition, measurement and calculation. J Acoust Soc Amer 5:82–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guinan JJ Jr, Peake WT (1967) Middle ear characteristics of anesthetised cats. J Acoust Soc Amer 41:1237–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hamernik RP, Henderson D, Salvi RJ (1980) Contribution of animal studies to our understanding of impulse noise induced hearing loss. Scand Audiol Suppl 12:128–146Google Scholar
  8. IEC “International Electronical Commission”, Geneve, Publication 179: Precision Sound Level Meters (1973) and revised edition 651 (1980)Google Scholar
  9. Kiang NYS (1965) Discharge patterns of single fibers in the cat’s auditory nerve. MIT research monograph no 35, chapter 7. MIT Press, Cambridge, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  10. Lynch TJ III, Nedzelnitsky V, Peake WT (1982) Input impedance of the cochlea in cat. J Acoust Soc Amer 72:108–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Passchier-Vermeer W (1971) Steady-state and fluctuating noise. Its effects on the hearing of people. Occupational hearing loss. British Acoustical Society. Special Volume no 1, London, p 15Google Scholar
  12. Price GR (1984) Practical applications of basic research on impulse noise hazard. In: Proceedings of the 1984 International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Hawaii, 821–826Google Scholar
  13. Sellick PM, Patuzzi R, Johnstone BM (1982) Measurement of basilar membrane motion in the guinea pig using the Mössbauer technique. J Acoust Soc Amer 72:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Russell IJ, Sellick PM (1978) Intracellular studies of hair cells in the mammalian cochlea. J Physiol 284:261–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Siebert WM (1974) Ranke revisited — a simple short-wave cochlear model. J Acoust Soc Amer 56:594–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wiener FM, Ross DA (1946) The pressure distribution in the auditory canal in a progressive sound field. J Acoust Soc Amer 18:401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per V. Brüel
    • 1
  • Keld Baden-Kristensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Brüel & KjærNærumDenmark

Personalised recommendations