The Reproducibility of the Pressure-Flow Relationship in the Normal Upper Urinary Tract of the Pig
The widespread use of reconstructive surgery in the management of upper urinary tract dilatations has created a need for diagnostic procedures by which it will be possible to discriminate between a stable and a progressive dilatation. In 1965 clinical use of urodynamics in the upper urinary tract was introduced (Bácklund et al. 1965). The theory of the investigation was that an obstructed system would show a high pressure response to a given flow rate in contrast to a non-obstructed system. Later the method was standardized with regard to flow rate and normal ranges were outlined (Whitaker 1973). In the following years several reports in favour of using this urodynamic test were published (Pfister 1982; Whitaker 1978, 1982). Unfortunately documentation of the predictive value of this method is still not available. On the contrary several reports question its value. Clinical investigations have shown that a low pressure response system may exist in spite of progressive disease (Coolsaet et al. 1980; Djurhuus et al. 1982) and that a high pressure response may be present in spite of stable kidney function (Kinn 1981). Experimental investigations have shown that the normal range of pressures in the multicalyceal system of the pig clearly exceeds the clinically accepted normal range (Mortensen et al. 1983), and furthermore do partial experimental obstructions not always exhibit an obstructive pressure flow response in spite of progressive disease (Koff and Thrall 1981).
KeywordsCatheter Respiration Ampicillin Ketalar Halothane
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