The Placenta

  • Mandfred Hansmann
  • Bernhard-Joachim Hackelöer
  • Alfons Staudach

Abstract

Visualization of the placenta with B-mode ultrasound is superior to all other imaging techniques (Doppler method, radiographic placentography or arteriography, thermography, scintigraphy). It is the simplest means of establishing the topographic relation of the placenta to the uterine wall and cervix. This makes sonography the method of choice for localizing the placenta (excluding placenta previa) and for evaluating the separation of a normally positioned placenta. Localization of the placenta is an essential part of routine obstetric examinations. With the development of high-resolution gray-scale equipment, tissue differentiation of the placenta has become possible, although the correlation between ultrasound appearance and pathologic anatomy is not entirely clear. Ultrasound may be of value in the assessment of placental maturity and the recognition of a growth-retarded (SGA) fetus. It appears that the combination of clinical and sonographic data (hypertension, gestational age, growth retardation) can also provide a basis for predicting placental function in cases of accelerated placental maturation. Research into these areas is made all the more urgent by the disappointing results of hormonal methods for the diagnosis of placental insufficiency.

Keywords

Migration Smoke Posit Stein Encapsulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bleker OP, Kloosterman GJ, Breur W, Mieras DJ (1977) The volumetric growth of the human placenta: A longitudinal ultrasonic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 127: 657–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Clair MR, Rosenberg E, Tempkin D, Andreotti RF, Bowie JD (1983) Placental grading in the complicated high-risk pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med 2: 297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Fischer CC, Garrett W, Kossoff G (1976) Placental aging monitored by gray scale echography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 124: 483 - 488Google Scholar
  4. Gottesfeld KR, Thompson HE, Homes JH et al. (1966) Ultrasonic placentography — a new method for placental localization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 96: 538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Grannum P, Hobbins JC (1983) The placenta. In: Callen PW (ed) Ultrasonography in obstetrics and gynecology. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 141–157Google Scholar
  6. Grannum P, Berkowitz RI, Hobbins JC (1979) The ultrasonic changes in the maturing placenta and their relation to fetal pulmonic maturity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 915–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hackeloer BJ, Nitschke S (1975) Placental changes during pregnancy. V. European Congress on Ultrasound in Medicine, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  8. Hansmann M (1974) Kritische Bewertung der Leistungsfahigkeit der Ultraschalldiagnostik in der Geburtshilfe heute. Gynakologe 7: 26 - 39Google Scholar
  9. Hansmann M, Voigt U (1973) Ultrasonic fetal thoracometry: an additional parameter for determing fetal growth. Excerpta Medica (Abstr), 2nd World Congress on Ultrasonics in Medicine, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  10. Harman CR, Manning FA, Stearns E, Morrison I (1982) The correlation of ultrasonic placental grading and fetal pulmonary maturation in 563 pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 143: 941 - 943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hellmann LM, Koboyashi M, Tolles WE, Cromb E (1970) Ultrasonic studies on the volumetric growth of the human placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108: 740–745Google Scholar
  12. Hollander HJ (1975) Ultraschalldiagnostik in der Schwangerschaft. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Berl in WienGoogle Scholar
  13. Hollander HJ, Mast H (1968) Intrauterine Dickenmessungen der Plazenta mittels Ultraschall bei normalen Schwangerschaften und bei Rh-Inkompatibilitat. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 28: 662–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoogland HJ (1982) Ultrasonic placental morphology. Gynecol Obstet Invest 14: 81–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kazzi GM, Gross TL, Sokol RJ, Kazzi NH (1983) Detection of intrauterine growth retardation: A new use for sonographic placental grading. Am J Obstet Gynecol 145: 733–737Google Scholar
  16. Koslowski P, Terinde R, Schmidt H (1980) Bestimmung des Plazentawachstums aus Ultraschallschnittbildern. Ultraschall 1: 116–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kratochwil A (1975) The state of ultrasound diagnosis in perinatal medicine. J Perinat Med 3: 75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kurjak A, Barsic B (1977) Changes of placental site diagnosed by repeated ultrasonic examination. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 56: 161–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Petrucha RA, Golde SH, Piatt LD (1982) Real-time ultrasound of the placenta in assessment of fetal pulmonic maturity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 142: 463–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Quinlan R, Cruz A (1982) Ultrasonic placental grading and fetal pulmonary maturity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 142: 110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Schlensker KH (1976) Ultraschallplazentographie. Gynakologe 9: 156–165Google Scholar
  22. Stein WW, Kramer A, Halberstadt E (1976) Mikrokalzifikation der Plazenta. In: Haller U (ed) Ultraschalldiagnostik. Thieme, Stuttgart, New York, S 51Google Scholar
  23. Winsberg F (1973) Echographic changes with placental aging. J Clin Ultrasound 1: 52CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mandfred Hansmann
  • Bernhard-Joachim Hackelöer
  • Alfons Staudach

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations