Facial Paralysis Reconstruction

  • Ralph T. Manktelow


Each patient with facial paralysis requires a unique plan of treatment based upon the individual’s particular deformities and concerns. Innumerable procedures have been used for facial reconstruction. For mouth reconstruction, these include static and dynamic slings, muscle transfers and transplantations, nerve repairs, grafts and transfers, neurectomies and myectomies and various soft tissue procedures. Most of these procedures have a useful place in the correction of the deformities of facial paralysis. However, for smile reconstruction, vascularized muscle transplantation is gradually becoming the procedure of choice.


Facial Nerve Nerve Graft Normal Side Gracilis Muscle Facial Paralysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderl F (1973) Reconstruction of face through cross-face nerve transplantation in facial paralysis. Chirurgia Plastica 2: 17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harii K, Ohmori K, Tori S (1976) Free gracilis muscle transplantation with microneurovascular anastomoses for the treatment of facial paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 57: 133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kempe LG (1980) Topical organization of the distal portion of the facial nerve. J Neurosurg 52: 671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Manktelow RT, Zuker RM (1984) Muscle transplantation by fascicular territory. Plast Reconstr Surg 73: 751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mayou BJ, Watson JS, Harrison DH (1981) Free microvascular and microneural transfer of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle for the treatment of unilateral facial paralysis. Br J Plast Surg 34: 362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O’Brien BM, Franklin JD, Morrison WA (1980) Cross-facial nerve grafts and microneurovascular free transfer for long established facial palsy. Br J Plast Surg 33: 202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith JW (1971) A new technique of facial animation. Transactions of the Fifth International Congress of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Butterworths 83Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thompson N (1971) Autogenous free grafts and skeletal muscle. A preliminary experimental and clinical study. Plast Reconstr Surg 48: 11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thompson N, Wynn Parry CB (1981) In: Freilinger G, Hole J and Carlsen M. Muscle Transplantation. New York, Springer VerlagGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tolhurst DE, Bos KE (1982) Free vascularized muscle grafts in facial paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 69: 760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph T. Manktelow
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of Plastic SurgeryToronto General HospitalTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations