Brain Mechanisms of Language

  • J. W. Brown
Conference paper
Part of the Dahlem Workshop Reports book series (DAHLEM, volume 29)

Abstract

Our knowledge of the brain mechanisms of language depends heavily on evidence derived from aphasia study, supplemented by electrocortical and metabolic investigations. Clinical observation reveals definite patterns of language change with focal lesions. These patterns are also apparent with stimulation of regions in the left frontal and temporo-parietal areas. The symptoms of aphasia reflect processing stages in normal language, and areas identified with these symptoms correspond to stages in forebrain evolution. A consideration of this material leads to a microgenetic or unfolding model of language representation in the brain.

Keywords

Dementia Neurol Aphasia Metathesis Florid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Arkin, A.M., and Brown, J.W. 1972. NREM sleep speech, drowsy speech, aphasic and schizophrenic speech. Psychophysiol. 9 (2): 210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Bancaud, J.; Talairach, J.; Geier, S.; Bonis, A.; Trottier, S.; and Manrique, M. 1976. Manifestations comportementales induites par la stimulation électrique du gyrus cingulaire chez l’homme. Rev. Neurol. 132: 705–724.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Betlheim, S., and Hartmann, H. 1951. On parapraxes in the Korsakoff psychosis. In Organization and Pathology of Thought, ed. D. Rappaport. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Bignall, K.E.; Imbert, M.; and Buser, P. 1966. Optic projections to nonvisual cortex of the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 29: 396–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Blumstein, S. 1973. A Phonological Investigation of Aphasic Speech. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Blumstein, S. 1981. Phonological aspects of aphasia. In Acquired Aphasia, ed. M. Sarno. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Bogen, J. 1976. Linguistic performance in the short-term following cerebral commissurotomy. In Studies in Neurolinguistics, ed. H. Whitakers, vol. 2. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    Brown, J., ed. 1981. Jargonaphasia. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Brown, J., and Hecaen, H. 1976. Lateralization and language representation. Neurology 26: 183–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Brown, J.W. 1972. Aphasia, Apraxia acid Agnosia. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    Brown, J.W. 1977. Mind, Brain and Consciousness. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    Brown, J.W. 1979. Language representation in the brain. In Neurobiology of Social Communication in Primates, eds. H. Steklis and M. Raleigh. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Brown, J.W. 1983. The microstructure of perception: physiology and patterns of breakdown. Cog. Brain Theory 6 (2): 145–184.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    Brown, J.W., and Grober, E. 1983. Age, sex and aphasia type. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 171: 431–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Brown, J.W., and Jaffe, J. 1975. Hypothesis on cerebral dominance. Neuropsychologia 13: 107–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    Buckingham, H. 1981. Where do neologisms come from? In Jargonaphasia, ed. J.W. Brown. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    Buell, S., and Coleman, P. 1979. Dendritic growth in the aged brain and failure of growth in senile dementia. Science 206: 854–856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Buge, A.; Escourolle, R.; Rancurel, G.; and Poisson, M. 1975. Mutisme akinetique et ramollissement bi-cingulaire. Rev. Neurol. 131: 121–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. (19).
    Butterworth, B. 1979. Hesitation and the production of verbal paraphasias and neologisms in jargon aphasia. Brain Lang. 8: 133–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. (20).
    Cappas, S.; Cavallotti, G.; and Vignolo, L. 1981. Phonemic and lexical errors in fluent aphasia: correlation with lesion site. Neuropsychologia 19: 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (21).
    Caramazza, A., and Zurif, E., eds. 1978. Language Acquisition and Language Breakdown. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Cermak, L., and Butters, N. 1973. Information-processing deficits of alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Q. J. Stud. Alchol. 34: 1110–1132.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Corkin, S.; Twitchell, T.; and Sullivan, E. 1979. Safety and efficacy of cingulotomy for pain and psychiatric disorder. In Modern Concepts in Psychiatric Surgery, eds. E. Hitchcock et al. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    Critchley, M. 1962. Speech and speech-loss in relation to the duality of the brain. In Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance, ed. V. Mountcastle. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Damasio, H., and Damasio, A. 1980. The anatomical basis of conduction aphasia. Brain 103: 337–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    De Renzi, E.; Pieczuro, A.; and Vignolo, L. 1966. Oral apraxia and aphasia. Cortex 2: 50–73.Google Scholar
  27. (27).
    Eisenson, J. 1962. Language and intellectual modifications associated with right cerebral damage. Lang. Speech 5: 49–53.Google Scholar
  28. (28).
    Goldman, P. 1976. Advances in the Study of Behavior, vol. 7, pp. 1–90. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. (29).
    Goldstein, K. 1948. Language and Language Disturbances. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    Green, E., and Howes, D. 1977. The nature of conduction aphasia. In Studies in Neurolinguistics, ed. H. Whitakers, vol. 3. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Hecaen, H., and Consoli, S. 1973. Analyse des troubles du langage au cours des lesions de l’aire de Broca. Neuropsychologia 11: 377–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    Hecaen, H., and Sauguet, J. 1971. Cerebral dominance in left-handed subjects. Cortex 7: 19–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    Jonas, S. 1981. The supplementary motor region and speech emission. J. Comm. Disord. 14: 349–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. (34).
    Jurgens, U., and Pratt, R. 1979. The cingular vocalization pathway in the squirrel monkey. Exp. Brain Res. 34: 499–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. (35).
    Jurgens, U., and von Cramon, D. 1982. On the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in phonation: a case report. Brain Lang. 15: 234–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (36).
    Kertesz, A. 1981. The anatomy of jargon. In Jargonaphasia, ed. J.W. Brown. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. (37).
    Kornhuber, H. 1974. Cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. In The Neurosciences: Third Study Program, eds. F.O. Schmitt and F.G. Worden. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  38. (38).
    Knopman, D.; Rubens, A.; Klassen, A.; and Meyer, M. 1982. Regional cerebral blood flow correlates of auditory processing. Arch. Neurol. 39: 487–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    Laplane, D.; Talairach, J.; Meininger, V.; Bancaud, J.; and Bouchareine, A. 1977. Motor consequences of motor area ablations in man. J. Neurol. Sci. 31: 29–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (40).
    Larsen, B.; Skinhoj, E.; and Lassen, N. 1978. Variations in regional cortical blood flow in the right and left hemispheres during automatic speech. Brain 101: 193–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. (41).
    Lhermitte, F., and Signoret, J. 1972. Analyse neuropsychologique et différentiation des syndromes amnésiques. Rev. Neurol. 126: 161–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. (42).
    Luria, A. 1970. Traumatic Aphasia. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  43. (43).
    Marty, R. 1962. Développement post-natal des responses sensorielles du cortex cerebral chez le chat et le lapin - aspects psychologiques et histologiques. Arch. Anat. Micr. 51: 129–264.Google Scholar
  44. (44).
    Masdeu, J., and O’Hara, R. 1983. Motor aphasia unaccompanied by faciobrachial weakness. Neurology 33: 519–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. (45).
    Maximilian, V.A. 1980. Cortical blood flow asymmetries during monoaural verbal stimulation. In Functional Changes in the Cortex during Mental Activation, ed. V. Maximilian, pp. 103–121. Malmo: University of Lund.Google Scholar
  46. (46).
    Mazziotta, J.; Phelps, M.; Carson, R.; and Kuhl, D. 1982. Tomographic mapping of human cerebral metabolism: auditory stimulation. Neurology 32: 921–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. (47).
    Merzenich, M., and Kass, J. 1980. Principles of organization of sensory perceptual systems in mammals. Progr. Psychobiol. Physiol. Psychol. 9: 1–42.Google Scholar
  48. (48).
    Miceli, G.; Mazzucchi, A.; Menn, L.; and Goodglass, H. 1983. Contrasting cases of Italian agrammatic aphasia without comprehension disorder. Brain Lang. 19: 65–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. (49).
    Mohr, J.; Pessin, M.; and Finkelstein, S.; et al. 1978. Broca’s aphasia: pathological and clinical. Neurology 28: 311–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. (50).
    Nielsen, J., and Jacobs, L. 1951. Bilateral lesions of the anterior cingulate gyri. Bull. LA Neurol. Soc. 16: 231–234.Google Scholar
  51. (51).
    Obler, L.; Albert, M.; Goodglass, H.; and Benson, D. 1978. Aphasia type and aging. Brain Lang. 6: 318–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. (52).
    Ojemann, G. 1983. Brain organization for language from the perspective of electrical stimulation mapping. Behay. Brain Sci. 6 (2): 189–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. (53).
    Penfield, W., and Roberts, L. 1959. Speech and Brain-Mechanisms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  54. (54).
    Penfield, W., and Welch, K. 1949. The supplementary motor area of the cerebral cortex of man. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc. 74: 179–184.Google Scholar
  55. (55).
    Perecman, E. 1983. Cognitive Processing in the Right Hemisphere. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. (56).
    Perecman, E., and Brown, J.W. 1981. Phonemic jargon: a case report. In Jargonaphasia, ed. J.W. Brown. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  57. (57).
    Peuser, G., and Temp, K. 1981. The evolution of jargonaphasia. In Jargonaphasia, ed. J. Brown. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. (58).
    Poeck, K., and Kerschensteiner, M. 1975. Analysis of sequential motor events in oral apraxia. In Cerebral Localization, eds. K. Zulch et al. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  59. (59).
    Puusepp, L. 1937. Alcune considerazioni sugli interventi chirurgici nelle malattie mentali. Gior. Accad. med. Torino 100: 3–16.Google Scholar
  60. (60).
    Rubens, A. 1975. Aphasia with infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery. Cortex 11: 239–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. (61).
    Sanides, F. 1975. Comparative neurology of the temporal lobe in primates including man with reference to speech. Brain Lang. 2: 396–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. (62).
    Scheibel, A.; Fried, I.; Paul, L.; et al. 1982. A histological substrate for speech-related cortical asymmetry. Ann. Neurol. 12: 76.Google Scholar
  63. (63).
    Schilder, P. 1951. Studies concerning the psychology and symptomatology of general paresis. In Organization and Pathology of Thought, ed. D. Rappaport. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  64. (64).
    Semmes, J. 1968. Hemispheric specialization: a possible clue to mechanism. Neuropsychologia 6: 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. (65).
    Teuber, H.-L. 1964. The riddle of frontal lobe function in man. In The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior, ed. J. Warren and K. Akert. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  66. (66).
    Tonkonogy, J., and Goodglass, H. 1981. Language function, foot of the third frontal gyrus and Rolandic operculum. Arch. Neurol. 38: 486–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. (67).
    Travis, A. 1955. Neurological deficiencies following supplementary motor area lesions in Mucaca mulatta. Brain 78: 174–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. (68).
    Van Buren, J., and Fedio, P. 1976. Functional representation on the medial aspect of the frontal lobes in man. J. Neurosurg. 44: 275–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. (69).
    Victor, M.; Adams, R.; and Collins, G. 1971. The Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Philadelphia: Davis.Google Scholar
  70. (70).
    Zaidel, E. 1977. Lexical organization in the right hemisphere. In Cerebral Correlates of Conscious Experience, eds. P. Buser and A. Rougeul-Buser. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Berlin, Heildelberg, New York, Tokyo: Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of NeurologyNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations