Advertisement

Strata-Bound and Stratiform Iron Sulfides, Sulfur, and Galena in the Miocene Evaporites, Ranga, Red Sea, Egypt (With Special Emphasis on Their Diagenetic Crystallization Rhythmites)

  • M. M. El Aref

Abstract

The sulfides and sulfur minerals of the Ranga occurrences form three geometric types: (a) strata-bound rhythmic type of pyrite/marcasite associated with cryptalgal calcite, barite, and quartz; (b) stratiform to strata-bound rhythmic type of sulfur associated with anhydrite, calcite, and bitumen; and (c) strata-bound authigenic galena growing in karst cement. The systematic investigations lead to conclude that the iron sulfides and sulfur of the rhythmic types are of syndiagenetic origin, deposited with their gangue associations by generations of fractional crystallization in shallow marine environments. Crystallization processes, corresponding with diagenetic differentiation satisfy the petrographic observations carried out on the karst cement minerals including the authigenic galena crystals. Considering these observations there is no need to assume an unknown outside source which “mineralized” the country rock epigenetically.

Keywords

Iron Sulfide Shallow Marine Environment Argillaceous Limestone Algal Crust Diagenetic Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amstutz GC (1968) The logic of some relations in ore genesis. Trans Int Univ Geol Congr Leicester, England, Dec 1967, pp 13–30Google Scholar
  2. Amstutz GC, Bubenicek L (1967) Diagenesis in sedimentary mineral deposits. In: Larsen G, Chilingar GV (eds) Diagenesis in sediments, vol 8. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 417–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amstutz GC, Park WC (1967) Stylolites of diagenetic age and their role in the interpretation of the southern Illinois fluorspar deposits. Mineral Deposita 2: 44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amstutz GC, Park WC (1971) The paragenetic position of sulfides in the diagenetic crystallization sequence. Soc Min Geol Japan (Spec Issue) 3: 280–282Google Scholar
  5. Amstutz GC, Ramdohr P, El Baz F, Park WC (1964) Diagenetic behaviour of sulphides. In: Amstutz GC (ed) Sedimentology and ore genesis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 65–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barakat N, El Shazly EM (1956) Spectrographic distribution of chemical elements in Egyptian minerals from lead-zinc, copper, and gold deposits. Bull Inst D’Egypte 37:31–46Google Scholar
  7. Barker JM, Cochran DE, Semrad R (1979) Economic geology of the Mishraq native sulfur deposit, Northern Iraq. Econ Geol 74:484–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis JB, Kirkland DW (1979) Bioepigenetic sulfur deposits. Econ Geol 74: 462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dessau G, Jensen ML, Nakai N (1962) Geology and isotopic studies of Sicilian sulfur deposits. Econ Geol 57: 410–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El Aref M, Amstutz GC (1983) Lead-zinc deposits along the Red Sea Coast of Egypt (new observations and genetic models on the occurrences of Um Gheig, Wizr, Essel, and Zug El Bohar. Monogr Ser Mineral Deposits 21. Borntraeger, Stuttgart, 103 pGoogle Scholar
  11. El Shazly EM (1957) Classification of Egyptian mineral deposits. Egypt J Geol 1: 1–21Google Scholar
  12. El Shazly EM, Mansour AO, Afia MS, Ghobrial MG (1959) Miocene lead and zinc deposits in Egypt. 20th Int Geol Congr Mexico (1956) Sect XIII: 119–134Google Scholar
  13. El Shazly EM, Abdallah AM (1964) Geology of the sulphur occurrence of Ranga, Eastern Desert. Geol Sury Egypt 31: 10Google Scholar
  14. Fontbotd L (1981) Strata-bound Zn-Pb-F-Ba-deposits in carbonate rocks: new aspects of paleo-geographic location, facies factors and diagenetic evolution (with a comparison of occurrences from the Triassic of Southern Spain, the Triassic/Liassic of Central Peru and other localities). Diss, Universität Heidelberg, 192 pGoogle Scholar
  15. Fontboté L, Amstutz GC (1980) New observations on diagenetic crystallization rhythmites in the carbonate facies of the Triassic of the Alpujarrides (Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain). Comparison with other diagenetic rhythmites. I. symp diagenesis, Barcelona 1980. Rev Inst Inv Geol Dip Barcelona 34: 293–310Google Scholar
  16. Fontboté L, Amstutz GC (1981) Observations on ore rhythmites of the Trzebionka Mine, Upper Silesian-Cracow region, Poland. In: Amstutz GC, El Goresy A, Frenzel G, Kluth C, Moh H, Wauschkuhn A, Zimmermann RA. Ore genesis. The state of the art. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 83–91Google Scholar
  17. ontboté L, Amstutz GC, Samaniego A (1981) Zur faziellen Stellung und zum diagenetischen Kristallisationsprozeß von Erzmineralien in schichtgebundenen Zn-Pb-Lagerstätten (am Beispiel von San Vicente im zentralen Ostperu). Proc 7 Geowiss Lateinamerika Koll Heidelberg 1980. Zentralbl Geol Paläontol Teil 1:465–477Google Scholar
  18. Gardner LR (1973) Chemical models for sulfate reduction in closed anaerobic marine environments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 37: 53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hollister VF (1977) Potential for the occurrence of sedimentary sulphur deposits in northeastern British Columbia. CIM Bull 70 (777): 106–108Google Scholar
  20. Ivanov MV (1968) Microbiological processes in the genesis of native sulfur deposits. Israel program for scientific translations. Cat No 1850, US Dept Commerce, 298 p. (English translation from Russian)Google Scholar
  21. Levin P, Amstutz GC (1976) Kristallisation und Bewegung in Erzrhythmiten am Beispiel triassisch-jurassischer Lagerstätten in Ostperu. Münster Forsch Geol Paläontol 38/39:111–128Google Scholar
  22. Roufaiel GSS, Samuel MD (1975) Iron-lead-zinc sulphide mineralization and related native sulphur in Miocene sediments at Ranga, Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Neues Jahrb Geol Paläontol Monatsh 1975: 682–692Google Scholar
  23. Said R (1962) The geology of Egypt. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 377 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Soliman SM, Hassan M (1969) Contributions to the geology and geochemistry of lead-zinc and sulfur deposits of Gebel El-Rusas, Anz and Ranga localities, Eastern Desert, Egypt. 6th Arab sci congr (Damaskus), part 4B: 591–660Google Scholar
  25. Thode HG, Wanless RK, Wallough R (1954) The origin of native sulfur deposits from isotope fractionation studies. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 5: 286–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. M. El Aref
    • 1
  1. 1.Geology DepartmentCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations