The Karl Fischer titration is widely used all over the world, and it is carried out in many different ways and with very differing apparatus and equipment. Automatic titrators are preferred, capable of performing a titration to completion without manual intervention. These titrators have been especially developed to meet the requirements of the KF reaction — a delayed endpoint adjustment and the exlusion of atmospheric moisture. Multiple-purpose instruments like potentiographs are also suitable for KF titrations in certain circumstances. For manual titrations, combinations of more sim- ple equipment are still widely used. Many standards like ISO 760  and ASTM E 203  describe the application of proven titration equipment. This section includes a few examples of titration apparatus, from simple glass burettes to microprocessor-controlled automatic equipment. All types of equipment can not be covered.
KeywordsDelivery Rate Atmospheric Moisture Water Determination Karl Fischer Titration Titration Vessel
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