The History of Flora and Vegetation During the Quaternary

  • Burkhard Frenzel
Part of the Progress in Botany/Fortschritte der Botanik book series (BOTANY, volume 46)


The basis for valid paleoecological investigations is a profound know ledge of the evolution of climate. Moreover, paleoclimatological studies enable us — perhaps — to draw conclusions as to the future development of climate, provided the reasons for and the possible periodicity of changes in climate during the past are understood. So paleoclimatology has become an intensively investigated discipline. Of course it should be known whether the solar irradiance is variable or not (WILLSON et al. 1981, KERR 1982), and tectonic uplifting or down- warping may play an important role in the evaluation of possible climatic influences on the biosphere. So it is worthwhile to note that according to VOZOVIK (1976) the mean elevation of the watersheds in the Central Caucasus Mts. increased from late Pliocene times (Lower Akchagyl: 2000 m), and from the very beginning of the Pleistocene (Upper Akchagyl, 2700 m) to the Middle Pleistocene (end of the Apsheron, 3500 m), to 4400 m in recent times. The same topic has been analyzed by ALESHINSKAYA et al. (1976 a,b) in regard of the Tien Shan Mts., in connection with changes in synchronous paleoecological conditions. Other important boundary conditions are the surface areas of the inland ice-masses (for the last glaciation see DENTON and HUGHES 1981; for the whole of the Pleistocene, the continental shelf areas included: GROSVALt) 1983), as well as the changes in the CO2-content of the global atmosphere in an interglacial-glacial-interglacial cycle.


Glacial Period Vegetation History Steppe Vegetation Glacier Advance Pollen Influx 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burkhard Frenzel
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanisches Institut (210) der UniversitätStuttgart 70 (Hohenheim)Germany

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