The History of Flora and Vegetation During the Quaternary

  • Burkhard Frenzel
Part of the Progress in Botany/Fortschritte der Botanik book series (BOTANY, volume 46)

Abstract

The basis for valid paleoecological investigations is a profound know ledge of the evolution of climate. Moreover, paleoclimatological studies enable us — perhaps — to draw conclusions as to the future development of climate, provided the reasons for and the possible periodicity of changes in climate during the past are understood. So paleoclimatology has become an intensively investigated discipline. Of course it should be known whether the solar irradiance is variable or not (WILLSON et al. 1981, KERR 1982), and tectonic uplifting or down- warping may play an important role in the evaluation of possible climatic influences on the biosphere. So it is worthwhile to note that according to VOZOVIK (1976) the mean elevation of the watersheds in the Central Caucasus Mts. increased from late Pliocene times (Lower Akchagyl: 2000 m), and from the very beginning of the Pleistocene (Upper Akchagyl, 2700 m) to the Middle Pleistocene (end of the Apsheron, 3500 m), to 4400 m in recent times. The same topic has been analyzed by ALESHINSKAYA et al. (1976 a,b) in regard of the Tien Shan Mts., in connection with changes in synchronous paleoecological conditions. Other important boundary conditions are the surface areas of the inland ice-masses (for the last glaciation see DENTON and HUGHES 1981; for the whole of the Pleistocene, the continental shelf areas included: GROSVALt) 1983), as well as the changes in the CO2-content of the global atmosphere in an interglacial-glacial-interglacial cycle.

Keywords

Dust Europe Lignin Cyclone Charcoal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adam, D.P., West, G.J.: Science 219, 168–170 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agadzhanyan, A. K., Dobrodeev, O.P. (eds.): Problemy obschej fizicheskoy geografii i paleogeografii, Moskovsk. Universit., 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Alekseev, M.N., Tsejtlin, S.M. (eds.): Problemy geologii i istorii chetvertichnogo perioda (antropogena). Moskva: Nauka 1982.Google Scholar
  4. Aleshinskaya, Z.V., Bondarev, L. G., Chigarev, N.V., Shumova, G.M.: 198–210 in: see ref. Agadzhanyan and Dobrodeev 1976a.Google Scholar
  5. Aleshinskaya, Z.V., Kulikov, O.A., Motuzko, A.N Faustov, S.S., Shumova, G.M.: 211–225 in: see ref. Agadzhanyan and Dobrodeev 1976b.Google Scholar
  6. Avenarius, I.G., Muratova, M.V., Spasskaya, J.J.: 329–342 in: see ref. Agadzhanyan and Dobrodeev 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Balsam, W.L.: Science 217, 929–931 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnosky, C.W.: Quat. Res. 16, 221–239 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batzli, G.O., Jung, H.-J.G.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 483–499 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Batzli, G.O., Sobaski, St.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 501–510 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benson, L.V.: Quat. Res. 16, 390–403 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berglund, B.E., Hakansson, S., Lagerlund, E.: Boreas 5, 177–191 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Birchfield, G.E., Weertman, J., Lunde, A.: Quat. Res. 15, 126–142 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Birks, H.J.B.: Quat. Res. 16, 322–355 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolikhovs- Kaya, N.S.: 257–277 in: see ref. Agadzhanyan and Dobrodeev 1976.Google Scholar
  16. Bothner, M.H., Spiker, E.C.: Science 210, 423–425 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyarska, T.D., Muratova, M.V.: 323–328 in: see ref. Agadzhanyan and Dobrodeev 1976.Google Scholar
  18. Boyle, E.A., Keigwin, L.D.: Science 218, 784–787 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradbury, J.P., Leyden, B., Salgado-Labouriau, M., Lewis, W.M., Schubert, C., Binford, M.W., Frey, D.G., Whitehead, D.R., Weibezahn, F.H.: Science 214, 1299–1305 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brunner, CH.A.: Quat. Res. 17, 105–119 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bryan, K., Komro, F.G., Manabe, S., Spelman, M.J.: Science 215, 56–58 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carter, L.D.: Science 211, 381–383 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chaline, J.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 5–13 (1982).Google Scholar
  24. Chebotareva, N.S., Makarycheva, I.A.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 15–20 (1982).Google Scholar
  25. Chinn, T.J.H.: Arct. Alp. Res. 13, 33–45 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cole, K.: Science 217, 1142–1145 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cwynar, L. C., Ritchie, J.C.: Science 208, 1375–1377 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dalrymple, G.B., Burke, R.M., Birkeland, P.W.: Quat. Res. 17, 120–122 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dansgaard, W.: 237–245 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  30. Dansgaard, W., Clausen, H.B., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C.U., Johnsen, S.F., Kristinsdottir, P.M., Rech, N.: Science 218, 1273–1277 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Delcourt, P.A., Delcourt, H.R.: 123–165 in: Geobotany II, ed. L.R. Romans. New York: Plenum 1981.Google Scholar
  32. Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.J.: The Last great Ice Sheets, 484 pp. New York: Wiley 1981.Google Scholar
  33. Dodge, R.E., Fairbanks, R.G., Benninger, L.K., Maurasse, F.: Science 219, 1423–1425 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dreimanis, A.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 21–28 (1982).Google Scholar
  35. Drozdowski, E.: Quat. Stud. Poland 2, 13–20 (1980).Google Scholar
  36. Etkins, R., Epstein, E.S.: Science 215, 287–289 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fairbanks, R.G., Wiebe, P.H.: Science 209, 1524–1526 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Faure, H., Fontes, J.C., Hebrard, L., Monteillet, J., Pirazzoli, P.A.: Science 210, 421–423 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Flohn, H.: 3–17 in: see ref. Oeschger, I. Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  40. Follestad, B.A., Olsson, J.U.: Boreas 8, 307–312 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Frenzel, B.: 45–63 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980, 1980a; — Veröff. Joachim-Jungius Ges. Wiss. Hamburg 44, 9–46 (1980b); — 91–166 in: Urgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg, ed. H. J. Müller-Beck. Stuttgart: Theiss 1983. — Furrer, G., Gamper-Schol- Lenberger, B., Suter, J.: 91–107 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  42. Galon, R.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 37–48 (1982).Google Scholar
  43. Garnes, K., Bergersen, O.F.: Boreas 6, 135–147 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gerasimov, I.P., Velichko, A. A. (eds.)s Paleogeografiya Evropy za poslednie sto tysyach let, 155 pp. Moskva: Nauka 1982.Google Scholar
  45. Geyh, M.A., Jäkel, D.: Paleogeogr. Paleoclimat. Palaeoecol. 15, 205–208 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glaser, P.H.: Arct. Alp. Res. 13, 173–182 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gordon, J.E.: Arct. Alp. Res. 13, 47–62 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gornitz, V., Lebedeff, S., Hansen, J.: Science 215, 1611–1614 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Graham, R.W., Haynes, C.V., Johnson, D.L., Kay, M.: Science 23, 1115–1117 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gray, J., Boutray, B. de, Hillairemarcel, C., Lauriol, B.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 19–30 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Grovald, M.G.: Pokrovnye ledniki kontinentalnykh shelfov, 216 pp. Moskva: Nauka 1983.Google Scholar
  52. Hantke, R.: Eiszeitalter. Die jüngste Erdgeschichte der Schweiz und ihrer Nachbargebiete, I, Klima, Flora, Fauna, Mensch, Alt- und Mittel- Pleistozän, Vogesen, Schwarzwald, Schwäbische Alb, Adelegg, 468 pp. Thun: Ott 1978; — Eiszeitalter. Die jüngste Erdgeschichte der Schweiz und ihrer Nachbargebiete, II, Letzte Warmzeiten, Würm-Eiszeit, Eisabbau und Nacheiszeit der Alpen-NordScite vom Rhein- zum Rhone-System. 703 p. Thun: Ott 1980.Google Scholar
  53. Harkness, D.D.: Radiocarbon 23, 252–304 (1981).Google Scholar
  54. Hassan, F.A.: Science 212, 1142–1145 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hasselmann, K.: 259–260 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  56. Haynes, C.V.: Science 217, 629–633 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hermann, Y., Hopkins, D.M.: Science 209, 557–562 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heusser, C.J.: Quat. Res. 17, 71–92 (1982); — Science 219, 1429–1432 (1983).Google Scholar
  59. Heusser, C.J., Heusser, L.E.: Science 210, 1007–1009 (1980); — Heusser, C.J., Strecter, S.ST.: Science 210, 1345–1347 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hopkins, D.M., Smith, P.A.: Quat. Res. 15, 217–249 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Husen, D. van: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 49–55 (1982).Google Scholar
  62. L. Jankuhn, H.: Veröff. Joachim-Jungius Ges. Wiss. Hamburg 44, 115–139 (1980).Google Scholar
  63. Janzen, D.H., Martin, P.S.: Science 215, 19–27 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones, G.A., Ruddiman, W.F.: Quaternary Research 17, 148–172 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Keigwin, LL.: Science 217, 350–353 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kellogg, W.W.: 18–30 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  67. Kerr, R.A.: Science 209, 483–486 (1980); — Science 213, 427–428 (1981a); — Science 213, 1095–1096 (1981b); — Science 217, 917–919 (1982).Google Scholar
  68. Kind, N.V.: 213–226 in: see ref. Alekseev and Tsejtlin 1982.Google Scholar
  69. Klimanov, V.A., Elina, G.A.: DAN SSSR 252, 419–423 (1980).Google Scholar
  70. Kolishchuk, V.G.: Probl. Bot. 14 (2), 11–17 (1979).Google Scholar
  71. Kozhamkulova, B.S., Nurmambetov, E.I.: Bjull. Kom. po izuch. chetvert. per. 48, 31–38 (1978).Google Scholar
  72. Kozarski, ST.: Quat. Stud. Poland 2, 21–35 (1980).Google Scholar
  73. Kriger, N.I.: 5–8 in: Zakonomernosti formirovaniya prosadochnykh svoistv lyossovykh pord Srednej Azii i Yuzhnogo Kazakhstana, eds. N.I. Kriger, N.E. Kotelnikova, S.I. Lavrus- Hevich, V.V. Sevostyanov. Moskva: Nauka 1981.Google Scholar
  74. Krylov, A.YA., Shim-Kus, K.M., Emelyanov, E.M., Silin, YU.P., Tsovbun, YA.M.: 264–271 in: Opredelenie absolyutnogo vozrasta rudnykh mestorozhdenii i molodykh magmaticheskikh porod, eds. G.D. Afanasyev, A.P. Vinogradov, L.N. Ovchinnikov, E.K. Gerling, T.B. Pekarskaya. Moskva: Nauka (1976).Google Scholar
  75. Kukla, G., Gavin, J.: Science 214, 497–503 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kutzbach, J.E.: Science 214, 59–61 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lamb, H.H.: 149–174 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  78. Lanner, R.M., Devender, TH.R. van: Quat. Res. 15, 278–290 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. P. Legg, TH.E., Baker, R.G.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 319–333 (1980).Google Scholar
  80. Leopold, E.B., Nickmann, R., Hedges, J.I., Ertel, J.R.: Science 218, 1305–1307 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Linke, G.: Probleme der Küstenforschung im südlichen Nordseegebiet 14, 123–157 (1982).Google Scholar
  82. Long, A., Muller, A.B.: Radiocarbon 23, 191–217 (1981).Google Scholar
  83. Loubere, P.: Quat. Res. 17, 314–324 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lundqvist, J.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 57–59 (1982).Google Scholar
  85. Makowska, A.: Quat. Stud. Poland 2, 37–55 (1980).Google Scholar
  86. Maruszczak, H.: Quat. Stud. Poland 2, 57–76 (1980).Google Scholar
  87. Matthews, J.A.: Boreas 6, 1–24 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mayewski, P.A., Pregent, G.P., Jeschke, P.A., Ahmad, N.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 171–182 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McKendrick, J.D., Batzli, G.O., Everett, K.R., Swanson, J.C.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 565–578 (1980). –Google Scholar
  90. Mead, J. I.: Quat. Res. 15, 311–326 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mears, B.: Quat. Res. 15, 171–198 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. R. (1982). Messerli, B.: 64–90 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  93. Miller, U.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 69–77 (1982).Google Scholar
  94. Mitchell, J.M.: 31–42 in: Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  95. Miura, O., Yamanaka, M.: Ecol. Rev. 19, nr. 3, 167–174 (1980).Google Scholar
  96. Mojski, J.E.: Quat. Stud. Poland 2, 77–98 (1980).Google Scholar
  97. Namias, J., Cayan, D.R.: Science 214, 869–876 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Nardin, TH.R., Osborne, R.H., Bottjer, D.J., Scheidemann, R.C.: Science 213, 331–333 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nelson, A.R.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 265–286 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Oerlemans, J.: Quat. Res. 15, 77 - 85 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Oeschger, H.: 209–236 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  102. Oeschger, H., Messerli, B., Svilar, M. (eds.): Das Klima, Analysen und Modelle, Geschichte und Zukunft. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1980.Google Scholar
  103. Ohngemach, D., Straka, H.: Beiträge zur Vegetations- und Klimageschichte im Gebiet von Pueblo-Tlaxcala; Pollenanalysen im Mexiko-Projekt, 165 pp. Wiesbaden: Steiner 1983.Google Scholar
  104. Olausson, G.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 79–89 (1982).Google Scholar
  105. Ostrovskiy, A.B., Izmajlov, YA.A., Skryabina, N.G.: 151–157 in: Ekostratigrafiya i ekologicheskie sistemy geologicheskogo prosh- logo. Trudy XXII. sess. vsesoyuzn. paleontol. obshchestva, eds. D.L. Stepanov, L.J. Khozatskiy. Leningrad: Nauka 1980.Google Scholar
  106. Peterson, L.C., Lohmann, G.P.: Quat. Res. 17, 26–38 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pfister, CH.: 175–190 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerüi and SVILAR 1980.Google Scholar
  108. Piaget, A.: 108–133 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  109. Polach, H.A., McLean, R.F., Thom, B.G., Stoddart, D.R., Hopley, D., Wilkie, ST.: Radiocarbon 23, 1–13 (1981).Google Scholar
  110. Porter, ST.C.: Quat. Res. 16, 263–292 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. V. Rasmussen, L.A.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 91–96 (1982).Google Scholar
  112. Reiter, F.E.: 275–285 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  113. Robock, A., Hansen, J., Gornitz, V., Lebedeff, S., Moore, E., Etkins, R., Epstein, E.: Science 219, 996–998 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rognon, P.: Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoecol. 17, 339–342 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rzechowski, J.s Quat. Stud. Poland 2, 107–120 (1980).Google Scholar
  116. Schlüchter, CHR.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 97–102 (1982).Google Scholar
  117. Schneider, S.H., Kellogg, W.W., Ramanathan, V.: Science 210, 6–8 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schüepp, M.: 191–206 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  119. Schweger, CH. E., Janssens, J.A.P.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 309–317 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schweingrüber, F.H.: 246–256 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  121. Scott, L.: Quat. Res. 17, 339–370 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sergin, V.YA.: Science 209, 1477–1482 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Severskiy, E.V.: 73–85 in: Kriogennye yavleniya vysokogorej, ed. A.P. Gorbunov. Novosibirsk: Nauka 1978.Google Scholar
  124. Sevostyanov, V.V.: 62–68 in: Zakonomernosti formirovaniya prosadochnykh svoystv ljossovykh porod Sredney Azii i Yuzhnogo Kazakhstana, eds. N.I. Kriger, N.E. Kotelnikova, S.I. Lavrushevich, V.V. Sevostyanov. Moskva: Nauka 1981.Google Scholar
  125. Shukla, J., Mintz, Y.: Science 215, 1498–1501 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sjørring, ST.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 103–109 (1982).Google Scholar
  127. Spjeldnaes, N.: Science 214, 687–688 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Starkel, L.: Quat. Stud. Poland 1, 81–94 (1979); — ibid. 2, 121–135 (1980).Google Scholar
  129. Stauffer, B.: 286–296 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  130. Stepanov, V.P.: 300–322 in: see ref. Agadzhanyan and Dobrodeev 1976.Google Scholar
  131. Stuiver, M., Quay, P.D., Ostlund, H.G Science 219, 849–851 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Talbot, M.R.: Quat. Res. 16, 201–220 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Thompson, L.G., Mosley- Thompson, E.: Science 212, 812–815 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Thompson, ST.L., Schneider, ST.H.: Science 217, 1031–1033 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Thorson, R.M., Dixon, E. J., Smith, G.S., Batten, A.R.: Quat. Res. 16, 404–417 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Trofimov, A.K.: Byull. Kom. po izuch. chetvert. per. 48, 79–85 (1978).Google Scholar
  137. Tsukada, M.: Quat. Res. 19, 212–235 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Vandenberghe, J.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 111–118 (1982).Google Scholar
  139. Vasilyev, YU. M.: 172–180 in: see ref. Alekseev and Tsejtlin 1982a; — 200–204, ibid. 1982b; — 204–213, ibid. 1982c.Google Scholar
  140. Vogel, J.C., Visser, E.: Radiocarbon 23, 43–80 (1981).Google Scholar
  141. Voznyachuk, L.N., Shuliya, K.S.: 280–285 in: Opredelenie absolyutnogo vozrasta rudnykh mestorozhdeniy i molodykh magma- ticheskikh porod, eds. G.D. Afanasyev, G.D. Vinogradov, L.N. Ovchinnikov, E.K. Gerling, T.B. Pekarskaya. Moskva: Nauka 1976.Google Scholar
  142. Vozovik, Yu. I.: 234–244 in: see ref. Agadzhanyan and Dobrodeev 1976.Google Scholar
  143. Walker, D.A., Short, S.K., Andrews, J.T., Webber, P.J.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 153–172 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wanner, H.: 117–124 in: see ref. Oeschger, Messerli and Svilar 1980.Google Scholar
  145. Warner, B., Mathewes, R.W., Clague, J.J.: Science 218, 675–677 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Watts, R.G., Hayder, M.E.: Science 219, 387–388 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Watts, W.A., Bradbury, J.P.: Quat. Res. V7, 56–70 (1982); — Watts, W.A., Stuiver, M.: Science Stuiver, M. Science 210, 325–327 (1980).Google Scholar
  148. Weber, F.R., Hamilton, TH.D., Hopkins, D.M., Repenning, CH.A., Haas, H.: Quat. Res. 16, 167–180 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Welten, M.: Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen im Jüngeren Quartär des nördlichen Alpenvorlandes der Schweiz, Beiträge zur Geologischen Karte der Schweiz, N.F. 156, 174 pp. + 44 pp. Bern: Stömpfli 1982.Google Scholar
  150. White, R.G., Trudell, J.: Arct. Alp. Res. 12, 511–529 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Whitehead, D.R., Jackson, ST.T., Sheehan, M.C., Leyden, B.W.: Quat. Res. 17, 241–257 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Williams, N.E., Westgate, J.A., Williams, D.D., Morgan, A., Morgan, A.V.: Quat. Res. 16, 146–166 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Willson, R.C., Gulkis, S., Janssen, M., Hudson, H.S., Chapman, G.A.: Science 211, 700–702 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Woo, M.K.: Arct. Alp. Res. 2, 227 - 235 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Woodruff, F., Savin, S.M., Douglas, R.G.: Science 212, 665–668 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Worsley, TH.R., Herman, Y.: Science 210, 323–325 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Yurtsev, B.A.: Reliktovye stepnye komplesksy severo-vostochnoj Azii, 168 pp. Novosibirsk: Nauka 1981Google Scholar
  158. Zarrina, E.P.: Quat. Stud. Poland 3, 147–155 (1982).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burkhard Frenzel
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanisches Institut (210) der UniversitätStuttgart 70 (Hohenheim)Germany

Personalised recommendations