Insecticides and Microbial Environments

  • S. K. Gupta


By and large, insects have been the most successful of living forms, the class Insecta having more species than all other classes of animals combined. Even now, every year, insects account for a major loss to our food and property and are a serious health hazard, as vectors of many diseases. Hence, it is little wonder that insecticides (pesticides used to control insects) are the largest class of pesticides manufactured and used throughout the world, in an array of forms, to control the insects and thereby the destruction caused by them. The U.S. Federal Environmental pesticide Control Act defines a pesticide as “Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed or any other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria or other micro-organism which the Administrator declares to be a pest, except viruses, bacteria or other micro-organism on or in living man or other animals …” Thus, the term pesticide-insecticide includes all chemicals intended for use in agriculture or horticulture except fertilizers and chemicals used to control pests of any kind except veterinary products and drugs for internal parasites or pests of man and animals. The use of insecticides has made an enormous contribution to agriculture and public health. They have brought tremendous benefits through increased food and fiber production, control of vectors of human and livestock diseases, and protection of structures from insect damage.


Wind Erosion Euphotic Zone Estuarine Environment Organophosphorus Insecticide Microbial Environment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahrens R, Rheinheimer G (1967) Über einige sternbildende Bakterien aus der Ostsee. Kiel Meeresforsch 23: 123–136Google Scholar
  2. Alderman DJ (1976) Fungal diseases of marine animals. In: Jones EGB (ed) Recent advances in aquatic micology. Elek Science, London, pp 223 –260Google Scholar
  3. Alexander M (1964) Biochemical ecology of soil microorganisms. Annu Rev Microbiol 18: 217–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison FE (1968) Soil aggregation — some facts and fallacies as seen by a microbiologist. Soil Sci 106: 136–143Google Scholar
  5. Anderson JD, Cox CS (1967) Microbial survival. In: Gregory PH, Monteith JL (eds) Airborne microbes. 17th Symp Soc Gen Microbiol. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 203–226Google Scholar
  6. Bainbridge A, Legg BJ (1976) Release of barley-mildew conidia from shaken leaves. Trans Br Mycol Soc 66: 495–498Google Scholar
  7. Bansemir K, Rheinheiner G (1970) Bakterielle Sulfatreduktion und Schwefeloxidation. In: Chemische, mikrobiologische und planktologische Untersuchungen in der Schlei im Hinblick auf deren Abwasserbelastung. Kiel Meeresforsch 26: 170–173Google Scholar
  8. Berman T, Rodhe W (1971) Distribution and migration of Peridinium in lake Kinneret. Mitt Int Ver Limnol 19: 266–276Google Scholar
  9. Bocock KL (1964) Changes in the amounts of dry matter, nitrogen, carbon and energy in decomposing woodland leaf litter in relation to the activities of the soil fauna. J Ecol 52: 273–284Google Scholar
  10. Bocock KL, Gilbert OJW, Capstick CK, Twinn DC, Waid JS, Woodman MJ (1960) Changes in leaf litter when placed on the surface of soils with contrasting humus types. I Losses in dry weight of oak and ash leaf litter. J Soil Sci 11: 1–19Google Scholar
  11. Bray JR, Gorham E (1964) Litter production in forests of the world. Adv Ecol Res 2: 101–157Google Scholar
  12. Brock TD (1966) Principles of microbial ecology. Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  13. Brock TD (1969) Microbial growth under extreme conditions. In: Meadow, PM, Pirt S J (eds) Microbial growth. Cambridge Univ Press, London, p 15Google Scholar
  14. Brooks GT(1974) Chlorinated insecticides, vols I, II. CRC Press, Cleveland, OhioGoogle Scholar
  15. Bruce J, Morris EO (1973) Psychrophilic yeasts isolated from marine fish. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol Serol 39: 331–339Google Scholar
  16. Burford JR (1976) Effect of the application of cow slury to grassland on the composition of the soil atmosphere. J Sci Food Agric 17: 115–126Google Scholar
  17. Burges A (1958) Microorganisms in the soil. Hutchinson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Cameron WM, Pritchard DW (1963) Estuaries. In: Hill MN (ed) The sea, vol II. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 306–323Google Scholar
  19. Casida JE (ed) (1973) Pyrethrum. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen JM, Pinkerton C (1966) Widespread translocation of pesticides by air transport and rain-out. Adv Chem Ser 60: 163–176Google Scholar
  21. Collins VG (1960) The distribution and ecology of Gramnegative organisms other than Enterobacteriaceae in lakes. J Appl Bacteriol 23: 510–514Google Scholar
  22. Colwell RR (1972) Bacteria, yeasts, viruses and related microorganisms of the Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Sci 13: 569–570Google Scholar
  23. Cooke WB (1961) Pollution effects on the fungus population of a stream. Ecology 42: 1–18Google Scholar
  24. Corbett JR (1974) The biochemical mode of action of pesticides. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Craven RE, Brown BE (1970) Physicochemical conditions of Boomer Lake, Payne county, Oklahoma. Proc Okla Acad Sci 49: 23–29Google Scholar
  26. Crosby DG (1976) Natural pest control agents. Chem Soc, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. Curtis EJC (1969) Sewage fungus, its nature and effects. Water Res 3: 189–311Google Scholar
  28. Dale NG (1974) Bacteria in intertidal sediments: factors related to their distribution. Limnol Oceanogr 19: 509–518Google Scholar
  29. Darbyshire JF (1975) Soil protozoa-animalcules of the subterranean microenvironments. In: Walker N (ed) Soil microbiology. Butterworth, London, p 147Google Scholar
  30. Davis CC (1972) Plankton succession in a Newfoundland Lake. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol 57: 367–395Google Scholar
  31. Decker GC, Weinman CJ, Bann JM (1950) A preliminary report on the rate of insecticide residue loss from treated plants. J Econ Entomol 43: 919–927Google Scholar
  32. Dickinson CH, Preece T (eds) (1976) Microbiology of aerial plant surfaces. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Diem HG (1974) Micro-organisms of the leaf surface: estimation of the mycoflora of the barley phyllosphere. J Gen Microbiol 80: 77–83Google Scholar
  34. Dommergues Y (1962) Contribution à l’étude de la dynamique microbienne des sols en zone semiaride et en zone tropical sèche. Ann Agron 13: 262–324Google Scholar
  35. Drebes G (1966) Ein parasitischer Phycomycet (Lagenidiales) in Coscinodiscus. Helgol Wiss Meeresunters 13: 426–435Google Scholar
  36. Eddy BP (1960) The use and meaning of the term ‘Psychrophilic’. J Appl Bacteriol 23: 189–190Google Scholar
  37. Edmondson WT (1972) Nutrients and phytoplankton in Lake Washington. Am Soc Limnol Oceanogr Spec Symp 1: 172–193Google Scholar
  38. Edwards CA (1974) Persistent pesticides in the environment, 2nd edn. CRC Monosci Ser. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Ehlers WM, Farmer WJ, Spencer WF, Letey J (1969) Lindane diffusion in soil: II Water Content, bulk density and temperature effects. Proc Soil Sci Soc Am 33: 505–508Google Scholar
  40. Ehresmann DW, Hatch MT (1975) Effect of relative humidity on the survival of unicellular algae. Appl Microbiol 29: 352–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Epstein E, Grant WJ (1968) Chlorinated insecticides in runoff as affected by crop rotation. Proc Soil Sci Soc Am 32: 423–426Google Scholar
  42. Eto M (1974) Organophosphorus pesticides: Organic and biological chemistry. CRC Press, Cleveland, OhioGoogle Scholar
  43. Evans PR (1974) Global transport of pesticides by birds. Chem Ind (NY) 197–199Google Scholar
  44. Fjerdingstad E (1964) Pollution of streams estimated by benthomic phytomicro-organisms. I. A saprobic system based on communities of organisms and ecological factors. Int Rev Hydrobiol 49: 63–131Google Scholar
  45. Fjerdingstad E (1971) Microbial criteria of environment qualities. Annu Rev Microbiology 25: 563–582Google Scholar
  46. Fogg GE (1965) Algal cultures and phytoplankton ecology. Univ Wisconsin Press, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  47. Fogg GE (1966) The extracellular products of algae. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 4: 195–212Google Scholar
  48. Fogg VH, Hague R, Schmedding D (1972) Vaporization and Environmental contamination by DDT. Chemosphere 1: 61Google Scholar
  49. Freed VH, Hague R, Schmedding D (1972) Vaporization and environmental contamination by DDT Chemosphere 1: 61Google Scholar
  50. Ganf GG, Viner AB (1973) Ecological stability in a shallow equatorial lake (Lake George, Uganda ). Proc R Soc London Ser B 184: 321–346Google Scholar
  51. Garrett SD (1951) Ecological groups of soil fungi; a survey of substrate relationship. New Phytol 50: 149–166Google Scholar
  52. Genovese S, Rigano C, Cava M La (1962) Ulteriori osservazioni sulla presenza dell’ “Acqua Rossa” nel lago di Faro. Atti Soc Peloritana Sci Fis Mat Nat 8: 503–510Google Scholar
  53. Gerakis PA, Sficas AG (1974) The presence and cycling of pesticides in the ecosphere. Residue Rev 52: 69–87Google Scholar
  54. Gerloff GC (1963) Comparative mineral nutrition of plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 14: 107–123Google Scholar
  55. Gilbert OJW, Bocock KL (1960) Changes in the leaf litter when placed on the surface of soils with contrasting humus types. II. Changes in the nitrogen content of oak and ash leaf litter. J Soil Sci 11: 10–19Google Scholar
  56. Golterman HL (1969) Methods for chemical analysis of fresh waters. IBP Handbook no 8. Blackwell Sci Publ, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  57. Golterman HL (1975) Physiological limnology. Elsevier Sci Publ, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Goulder R (1974) The seasonal and spatial distribution of some benthic ciliated protozoa in Esthwaite water. Freshwater Biol 4: 127–147Google Scholar
  59. Gray TRG, Williams ST (1971) Microbial productivity in soil. In: Hughes De, Rose AH (eds) Microbes and biological productivity. 21st Symp Soc Gen Microbiol. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 255–286Google Scholar
  60. Green MB, Hartley GS, West TF (1977) Chemicals for crop protection and pest control. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Greenwood DJ (1961) The effect of oxygen concentration on the decomposition of organic materials in soil. Plant Soil 24: 360–376Google Scholar
  62. Greenwood DJ, Berry G (1962) Aerobic respiration in soil crumbas. Nature (London) 195: 161–163Google Scholar
  63. Gregory PH (1973) Microbiology of the atmosphere. Leonard Hill, AylesburgGoogle Scholar
  64. Griffin DM (1972) Ecology of soil fungi. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Hawkes HA (1976) Determinants in fresh water ecosystems and morn-modifiable factors inducing change in hydro-bioconoses. In: Amavis R, Smeets J (eds) Principles and methods for determining ecological criteria on hydrobiocenoses. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 45–73Google Scholar
  66. Healey FP (1973) Inorganic nutrient uptake and deficiency in algae. Crit Rev Microbiol 3: 69–113Google Scholar
  67. Heath GW, Arnold MK (1966) Studies in leaf-litter breakdown. II. Breakdown rate of “sun” and “shade” leaves. Pedobiologia 6: 238–243Google Scholar
  68. Hirst JM (1953) Changes in atmospheric spore content: diurnal periodicity and the effects of weather. Trans Br Mycol Soc 36: 375–393Google Scholar
  69. Hudson HJ (1968) The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. New Phytol 67: 837–874Google Scholar
  70. Hughes GC (1975) Studies of fungi in ocean and estuaries since 1961. I Lignicolous, Caulicolous and Folicolous species. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 13:69–180Google Scholar
  71. Hunter SH, Provasoli L (1964) Nutrition of algae. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 15: 37–56Google Scholar
  72. Hutchinson GE (1957) A treatise on limnology, vol I. Geography, physics and chemistry. Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Hutchinson GE (1967) A treatise on limnology, vol II. Introduction to lake biology and the limnolankton. Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Hynes HBN (1960) The biology of polluted waters. Liverpool Univ Press, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  75. Hynes HBN ( 1970 ) The ecology of running waters. Liverpool Univ Press, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  76. Ingold CT (1953) Dispersal in fungi. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  77. Ingold CT (1965) Spore liberation. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  78. Ingold CT (1966) Spore release. In: Ainsworth GC, Sussman AS (eds) The fungi, vol II. Academic Press, London New York, p 679Google Scholar
  79. Ingold CT (1971) Fungus spores: their liberation and dispersal. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  80. Iturriaga R, Hoppe HG (1977) Observation of heterotrophic activity on photoassimilated organic matter. Mar Biol 40: 101–108Google Scholar
  81. Johnson TW, Sparrow FK (1961) Fungi in oceans and estuaries. Cramer, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  82. Jones EBG (1976) Recent advances in aquatic mycology. Elek Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. Jones JG (1971) Studies on freshwater bacteria: factors which influence the population and its activity. J Ecol 59: 593–613Google Scholar
  84. Jones JG (1972) Studies on freshwater bacteria: association with algae and alkaline phosphatase activity. J Ecol 60: 59–75Google Scholar
  85. Jones JG (1973) Studies on freshwater bacteria: the effect of enclosure in large experimental tubes. J Appl Bacteriol 36: 445–456Google Scholar
  86. Jones K (1974) Nitrogen fixation in a salt marsh. J Ecol 62:553–565Google Scholar
  87. Jorgensen CB (1966) Biology of suspension feeding. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  88. Kaushik NK, Hynes HBN (1968) Experimental study on the role of autumn-shed leaves in aquatic environments. J Ecol 56: 229–243Google Scholar
  89. Kenaga EE (1972) Guidelines for environmental study of pesticides: Determination of bioconcentration potential. Residue Rev 44: 73–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kiigemagi U, Terriere LC (1971) Losses of organophosphorus insecticides during application to the soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 6: 336–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Klein L (1962) River pollution. 2. Causes and effects. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  92. Kohlmeyer J (1972) Parasitic Haloguignardia occanica (Ascomycetes) and hyperparasitic Sphaceloma cedidii sp. nov. (Deuteromycetes) in drifft Sargassum in North Carolina. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 88: 255–259Google Scholar
  93. Kohlmeyer J (1974) Higher fungi as parasites and symbionts of algae. Veroeff Inst Meeresforsch Bremerhaven Suppl 5: 339–356Google Scholar
  94. Koops HP, Harms H, Wehrman H (1976) Isolation of a moderate halophilic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosococcus mobilis nov. sp. Arch Microbiol 107: 277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kouyeas V (1964) An approach to the study of moisture relations of soil fungi. Plant Soil 20: 351–363Google Scholar
  96. Kusnezow SI (1959) Die Rolle der Mikroorganismen im Stoffkreislauf der Seen. VEB Dtsch Verlag Wiss, Berlin, 301 pGoogle Scholar
  97. Last FT (1955) Seasonal incidence of sporobolomyces on cereal leaves. Trans Br Mycol Soc 38: 221–239Google Scholar
  98. Last FT, Warren RC (1972) Non-Parasitic microbes colonizing green leaves: their form and functions. Endeavour 31: 143–150Google Scholar
  99. Latter PM, Cragg JD (1967) The decomposition of Juncus squarrosus leaves and microbiological changes in the profile of Juncus moor. J Ecol 55: 465–482Google Scholar
  100. Lenz J (1977) Plankton populations. In: Rheinheimer G (ed) Microbial ecology of a brackish water environment. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 79–89Google Scholar
  101. Lewin RA (1962) Physiology and biochemistry of algae. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Lichtenstein EP, Schulz KR (1970) Volatilization of insecticides from various substrates. J Agric Food Chem 18: 814–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lueschow LA, Helm JM, Winter DR, Karl GW (1970) Trophic nature of selected Wisconsin Lakes. Wisconsin Acad Sci Arts Lett 58: 237–264Google Scholar
  104. Lynch JM, Harper SHT (1974) Fungal growth rate and the formation of ethylene in soil. J. Gen Microbiol 85: 91–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Macan TT, Maudsley R (1966) The temperature of moorland fishpond. Hydrobiologia 27: 1–22Google Scholar
  106. Madelin MF, Linton AH (1971) Microbiology of air. In: Hawker LE, Linton AH (eds) Microorganisms: Function form and environment. Edward Arnold, London, pp 529–537Google Scholar
  107. Mason CF (1981) Biology of freshwater pollution, Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  108. Matsumura F (1974) Microbial degradation of pesticides. In: Khan MAQ, Bederka JP (eds) Survival in toxic environments. Academic Press, London New York, pp 129–154Google Scholar
  109. McColl RHS (1972) Chemistry and trophic status of seven New Zealand lakes. NZ J Mar Freshwater Res 6: 399–447Google Scholar
  110. McLaren AD (1960) Enzyme activity in structurally restricted systems. Enzymologia 21: 356–364Google Scholar
  111. McLaren AD, Skujin JJ (1963) Nitrification by Nitrobacter agilis on surfaces and in soil with respect to hydrogen ion concentration. Can J Microbiol 9: 729–731Google Scholar
  112. McLeod RA (1965) The question of existence of specific marine bacteria. Bacteriol Rev 29: 9–23Google Scholar
  113. Menzer RF, Fontanilla EL, Ditman LP (1970) Degradation of disulfoton and phorate in soil influenced by environmental factors and soil type. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 5: 1–9Google Scholar
  114. Moriarty F (1975) Organochlorine insecticides. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Moss B (1969) Vertical heterogeneity in the water column of Abbott’s pond. I. The distribution of temperature and dissolved oxygen. J Ecol 57: 381–396Google Scholar
  116. Moss B (1972) The influence of environmental factors on the distribution of freshwater algae: an experimental study. I. Introduction and the influence of calcium concentration. J Ecol 60: 917–932Google Scholar
  117. Moss B (1973) Diversity in fresh-water plankton. Am Mdl Nat 90: 341–355Google Scholar
  118. Moss B, Moss J (1969) Aspects of the limnology of an endorheic African lake (L Chilwa, Malawi). Ecology 50: 109–118Google Scholar
  119. Nicholas DJD (1963) Inorganic nutrient nutrition of microorganisms. In: Steward FC (ed) Plant physiology, vol III. Academic Press, London New York, pp 363–447Google Scholar
  120. Nicholson HP (1967) Pesticide pollution control. Science 158: 871–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Norkrans B (1966) On the occurrence of yeasts in an estuary off the Swedish west coast. Sven Bot Tidskr 60: 463–482Google Scholar
  122. O’Brien RD (1967) Insecticides, action and metabolism. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  123. O’Connell, Andrews CW (1976) Physical and chemical conditions in long pond St John’s Newfoundland: A pond receiving both rural and urban runoff. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol 61: 63–87Google Scholar
  124. Odum EP (1971) Fundamentals of ecology, 3rd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  125. Odum HT, Copeland BJ, McMahan EA (1969) Coastal ecological systems of the United States. Rep Fed Water Pollut Control Administration (Mimeographed )Google Scholar
  126. Okafor N (1966) Ecology of micro-organisms on chitin buried in soil. In Gen Microbiol 44: 311–327Google Scholar
  127. O’Kelley JC (1968) Mineral nutrition of algae. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 19: 89–112Google Scholar
  128. Overbeck J (J974) Microbiology and biochemistry. Mitt Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 20:198–228Google Scholar
  129. Ovington JD (1962) Quantitative ecology and the woodland ecosystem concept. Adv Ecol Res 1: 103–197Google Scholar
  130. Parsons Y, Takahashi M (1973) Biological oceanographic processes. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 186Google Scholar
  131. Peterle TJ (1969) DDT in antarctic snow. Nature (London) 224: 620Google Scholar
  132. Powlson DS (1975) Effects of biocidal treatments on soil organisms. In: Walker N (ed) Soil microbiology. Butterworths, London, pp 193–224Google Scholar
  133. Preece T, Dickinson CH (1971) Ecology of leafsurface micro-organisms. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  134. Pritchard DW (1967) What is an estuary: physical viewpoint. In: Lauff GH (ed) Estuaries. Am Assoc Adv Sci Publ No 83, Washington, DC, pp 3–5Google Scholar
  135. Raney WA (1965) Physical factors of the soil as they affect micro-organisms. In: Baker KF, Synder WC (eds) Ecology of soil-borne plant pathogens. Univ California Press, Berkeley, pp 115–118Google Scholar
  136. Rangaswami G, Sadasivam KV (1964) Studies on the occurrence of Azobactor in some soil types. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 12: 43–49Google Scholar
  137. Reid GK, Wood RD (1976) Ecology of inland water and estuaries. Van Nostrand, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  138. Remane A, Schlieper C (1971) Biology of brackish water. Die Binnengewässer, vol 25. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  139. Reynolds CS (1976) Succession and vertical distribution of phytoplankton in response to thermal stratification in a lowland mere with special reference to nutrient availability. J Ecol 64: 529–551Google Scholar
  140. Rheinheim er G (1974) Aquatic microbiology. Wiley Interscience, LondonGoogle Scholar
  141. Rheinheimer G (1975) Mikrobiologie der Gewässer, 2nd edn. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  142. Rose CW(1966) Agricultural physics. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  143. Rosenberg NJ (1974) Microclimate: the biological environment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  144. Rovira AD (1965) Interactions between plant roots and soil micro-organisms. Annu Rev Microbiol 19: 241–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Rovira AD (1972) Studies on the interactions between plant roots and micro-organisms. In: Baker KF, Snyder WC (eds) Ecology of soil-borne plant pathogens. Univ California Press, Berkeley, pp 170–184Google Scholar
  146. Ruinen J (1956) Occurrence of Bejerinckia in the “Phyllosphere”. Nature (London) 177: 220–221Google Scholar
  147. Ruinen J (1961) The phyllosphere. I. An ecologically neglected milieu. Plant Soil 15: 81–109Google Scholar
  148. Russell EW (1968) The agricultural environment of soil bacteria. In: Gray TRG, Parkinson D (eds) The ecology of soil bacteris. Liverpool Univ Press, Liverpool, pp 77–89Google Scholar
  149. Sakamoto M (1966a) The chlorophyll amount in the euphotic zone in some Japanese lakes and its significance in the photosynthetic production of phytoplankton communities. Bot Mag 79: 77–88Google Scholar
  150. Sakamoto M (1966b) Primary production by phytoplankton community in some Japanese Lakes and its dependence on lake depth. Arch Hydrobiol 62: 1–28Google Scholar
  151. Seiber JN, Woodrow JE, Shafik TM, Enos HF (1975) Determination of pesticides and their transformation products in air. In: Haque R, Freed VH (eds) Environmental dynamics of pesticides. Plenum Press, New York, pp 17–44Google Scholar
  152. Shannon EE, Brezonik PL (1972) Relationships between lake trophic status and nitrogen and phosphorus loading rates. Environ Sci Technol 6: 719–725Google Scholar
  153. Shenoi MM, Ramalingam A (1975) Circadian periodicities of some spore components of air at Mysore. Arogya J Health Sci 1: 154–156Google Scholar
  154. Shields LM, Durrell LW(1964) Algae in relation to soil fertility. Bot Rev 30: 92–128Google Scholar
  155. Singh RN (1955) Limnological relations of Indian inland waters with special reference to waterblooms. Verh Int Ver Limnol 12: 831–836Google Scholar
  156. Skinner FA (1975) Anaerobic bacteria and their activities in soil. In: Walker N (ed) Soil microbiology. Butterworths, London, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  157. Smith AJ, London J, Stanier RY (1967) Biochemical basis of obligate autotrophy in blue-green algae and thiobacilli. J Bacteriol 94: 972–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Sodergren A (1972) Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in airborne fall out. Nature (London) 236: 395–397Google Scholar
  159. Soeder C, Stengel E (1974) Physio-chemical factors affecting metabolism and growth rates. In: Stewart WDP (ed) Algal physiology and biochemistry. Blackwell Sci Publ, Oxford, pp 714–740Google Scholar
  160. Spencer CW, Farmer WJ, Cliath MM (1973) Pesticide volatilization. Residue Rev 49: 1–47Google Scholar
  161. Spencer WF (1975) Movement of DDT and its derivatives into the atmosphere. Residue Rev 59: 91–117Google Scholar
  162. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1972) Volatility of DDT and related compounds. J Agric Food Chem 20: 645–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Stanly CW, Barney JE, Helton MR, Yobs AR (1971) Measurement of atmospheric levels of pesticides. Environ Sci Technol 5: 430–435Google Scholar
  164. Starkey RL (1958) Interrelation between micro-organisms and plant roots in the rhizosphere. Bacteriol Rev 22: 154–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Stengel E (1970) Zustandsänderungen verschiedener Eisen Verbindungen in Nährlösungen für Algen. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 38: 151–169Google Scholar
  166. Stewart WDP (1965) Nitrogen turnover in marine and brackish habitats. I. Nitrogen. Ann Bot (London) 29: 229–239Google Scholar
  167. Stotzky G (1975) Microbial metabolism in soil. Proc 1st Intersect Congr IAMS 2: 249–261Google Scholar
  168. Stotzky G, Goos RD (1965) Effect of high CO2 and Low O2 tensions on the soil microbiota. Can J Microbiol 11: 853–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Stotzky G, Goos RD, Timonin MJ (1962) Microbial changes in soil as a result of storage. Plant Soil 16: 1–18Google Scholar
  170. Storm KM (1930) Limnological observations on Norwegian lakes. Arch Hydrobiol 21: 97–124Google Scholar
  171. Talling JF (1962) Freshwater algae. In: Lewin RA (ed) Physiology and biochemistry of algae. Academic Press, London New York, pp 743–757Google Scholar
  172. Talling JF (1971) The underwater light climate as a controlling factors in the production ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. Mitt Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 19: 214–243Google Scholar
  173. Talling JF, Talling IB (1965) The chemical composition of African lake waters. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol 50: 421–463Google Scholar
  174. Travleev AP (1960) The role of forest litter in heat insulation. Pochvovedenie 10: 92–95Google Scholar
  175. Uden N van (1967) Occurrence and origin of yeasts in estuaries. In: Lauff GH (ed) Estuaries. AAAS Washington Publ 83: 306–310Google Scholar
  176. Valentine JP, Bingham SW (1974) Influence of several algae on 2,4-D residues in water. Weed Sci 22: 358–363Google Scholar
  177. Vallentyne JR (1974) The algal Bowl: Lakes and man. Dept of Environ Fisheries and Marine Service, Ottawa, Canada, Miscellaneous Spec Publ 22Google Scholar
  178. Viner AB (1976) The sediments of lake George (Uganda). III. The uptake of phosphate. Arch Hydrobiol 76: 393–410Google Scholar
  179. Vollenweider RA (1961) Photometric studies in inland waters. Relations existing in the special extinction of light in water. Mem Ist Ital Idrobiol 13: 87–113Google Scholar
  180. Vollenweider RA (1965) Materiale ed idee per una idrochimica delle a acque insubriche. Mem Ist Ital Idrobiol 19: 213–286Google Scholar
  181. Vollenweider RA (1968) The scientific basis of lake and stream eutrophication, with particular reference to phosphorus and nitrogen as eutrophication factors. Tech Tep OECD, Paris DAS/DSI/68 27: 1–182Google Scholar
  182. Vollenweider RA (1969) A manual on methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments. IBP Handbook, no 12. Blackwell Sci Publ, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  183. Warcup JH (1957) Studies on the occurrence and activity of fungal in a wheat field soil. Trans Br Mycol Soc 40: 237–262Google Scholar
  184. Watson SW (1965) Characteristics of a marine nitrifying bacterium, Nitrosocystis occeanus sp. nov. Limnol Oceanogr 10: 274–289Google Scholar
  185. Watson SW, Waterbury JB (1971) Characteristics of two marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria Nitrospina gracilis nov. gen., nov sp. and Nitrococcus mobilis nov. Arch Mikrobiol 77: 203–230Google Scholar
  186. Webb JL (1966) Enzyme and metabolic inhibitors, vol III. Academic Press, London New York, p 1028Google Scholar
  187. Wheatley GA (1973) Pesticides in the atmosphere. In: Edwards CA (ed) Environmental pollution by pesticides. Plenum Press, London New York, pp 365–408Google Scholar
  188. Wilkins WH, Harris GCM (1947) The ecology of larger fungi. V. An investigation into the influence of rainfall and temperature on seasonal production of fungi in a beech wood and a pine wood. Ann Appl Biol 33: 179–188Google Scholar
  189. Williams PJ LeB, Yentsch CS (1976) An Examination of photosynthetic production, excertion of photosynthetic products, and heterotrophic utilization of dissolved organic compounds with reference to results from a coastal subtropical sea. Mar Biol 35: 31–40Google Scholar
  190. Williams ST, Mayfield CI (1971) Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil. III. The behaviour of neutrophilic streptomycetes in acid soils. Soil Biol Biochem 3: 197–208Google Scholar
  191. Williams ST, Parkinson D (1964) Studies of fungi in a podzol. I. Nature and fluctuations of the fungus flora of the mineral horizons. J Soil Sci 15: 331–341Google Scholar
  192. Willoughby IG (1976) Freshwater biology. Hutchinson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  193. Wood EJF (1965) Marine microbial ecology. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  194. Woodwell GM, Graig PP, HojJohnson MA (1971) DDT in the biosphere: Where does it go? Science 174: 1101–1107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Woollett LL, Hendrick LR (1970) Ecology of yeasts in polluted water. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol Serol 36: 427–435Google Scholar
  196. Yentsch CS, Ryther JH (1959) Relative significance of the net phytoplankton and nannoplankton in the waters of Vineyyard Sound. J Cons Perm Int Explor Mer 24: 231–238Google Scholar
  197. Young DR, McDermott DJ, Heesen TC (1976) Aerial fallout of DDT in southern California. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 604–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Zafar AR (1959) Taxonomy of lakes. Hydrobiologia 13: 287–299Google Scholar
  199. ZoBell CE (1963) Domain of the marine microbiologist. In: Oppenheimer CH (ed) Symposium on marine microbiology. Thomas, Springfield, 111, pp 3–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Gupta

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations