Effects of Acid Stress on Fish Gills
It is well known that the progressive acidification of the lakes in Canada as well as United States and Scandinavia, has reduced drammatically the fish production in these natural areas. This phenomenon, due to acid rain, could lead to very low pH values ranging between 4.5 and 4.0. Similar decrease in pH (4.7) has been found in several rivers of Nova Scotia, once teeming with salmon, and in other remote areas of Muskoka (Ontario). Moreover, water acidification may occur even in spring, when a large amount of acid water reaches the lakes after the melting of the snow. The pH then drops to 5.5, which is particularly harmful to small fish.
KeywordsHydrolysis Phosphorus Hexane Chloroform Aldehyde
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