Advertisement

Response to Maximal Ergometric Load of Different Types and Relation of Cardiorespiratory Parameters to Specific Performance in Young Swimmers

  • J. Novák
  • T. Jurimae
  • V. Bunc
  • E. V. Macková
  • M. Čermák
  • T. Paul
Conference paper

Abstract

In competitive swimming, 77% of disciplines last about 2 min at the longest. According to Astrand’s design [5], the relative contribution in percent of total energy yield is covered from 65%–70% by anaerobic processes and from 30%–35% aerobically in 100 m races, while in 200 m races both processes are approximately equally important. Other authors [6,25] presume that anaerobic sources participate to a higher extent. Therefore, it is important for competitive swimmers to develop both aerobic and anaerobic power to reach maximal performance in 100 m and 200 m races. It seems to be expedient to distinguish functional predispositions for these two components for appropriate orientation of the training process. Moreover, in freestylers it is possible to choose the race length according to these characteristics. The aims of this study were (a) to distinguish differences in cardiorespiratory and metabolic response to two kinds of ergometric load: first, load corresponding to the duration of swimming races and second, a stepwise increased load to vita maxima conditions, and (b) to compare obtained data with specific performance level of the swimmers.

Keywords

Maximal Aerobic Power Anaerobic Power Competitive Swimmer Male Swimmer Cardiorespiratory Parameter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Apor P, Szabo-Wahlstab S, Miklos M (1973) Zusammenhänge zwischen einigen aeroben und anaeroben Parametern bei Spitzensportlern. In: Hansen G, Mellerowicz H (eds) 3.Internationales Seminar fur Ergometrie 1970. Ergon, Berlin, pp 17–23Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andrew GM, Becklade MR, Guleria JS, Dates DV (1972) Heart and lung functions in swimmers and nonathlets during growth. J Appl Physiol 32: 245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Armstrong N, Davies B (1981) An ergometric analysis of age group swimmers. Br J Sports Med 15: 20–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Åstrand P-O, Engström L, Eriksson DO, Karlberg P, Nylander I, Saltin B, Thoren C (1963) Girl swimmers. Acta Paed Scand [Suppl] 147: 1–74Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Åstrand P-O, Rodahl K (1970) Textbook of work physiology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bonner HN (1980) Energy systems used during swimming. Swimming Technique 17 /3: 10–11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burke ER, Falssatti VL, Kennedy JF, Harris OC, Potton GS (1982) The swimming flume. Application for research and training. Swimming World 23: 34–35Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cunningham DI, Eynon RB (1973) The working capacity of young competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports 5: 227–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dietrich L (1967) Ergebnisse von spiroergometrischen Langsschnittuntersuchungen an trainierten Kindern und Jugendlichen im Schwimmen. In: Mellerowicz H, Hansen G (eds) 2. Internationales Seminar fur Ergometrie. Inst. f. Leistungsmedizin, Berlin, pp 221–226Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Di Prampero PE, Pendergast DE, Wilson DW, Rennie DN (1978) Blood lactic acid concentrations in high velocity swimmers. In: Eriksson B, Furberg D (eds) Swimming medicine IV. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 249–261Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fox EL (1975) Differences in metabolic alteration with sprint versus endurance interval training program. In: Howald H, Poortmans JR (eds) Metabolic adaptation to prolonged physical exercise. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 119–126Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Foulkner JA (1966) Physiology of swimming. Res Q 37: 41–54Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holmér I (1972) Oxygen uptake during swimming in man. J Appl Physiol 33: 502–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jirka Z (1978) The development of basic functional parameters in boy and girl swimmers at age 12–15 years (in Czech). Acta Univ Palacki Olom 60: 125–150Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lavoie JM, Leger LA, Montpetit RR, Chabot S (1982) Backward extrapolation of VO2 from the O2 recovery curve after a voluntary maximal 400m swim. In: Biomechanics and medicine in swimming, Amsterdam, p 27 (abstract)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Magel JR, Foglia GP, McArdle ND, Gutin B, Pechar GS, Katch FI (1974) Specificity of swim training on maximum oxygen uptake. J Appl Physiol 38: 151–155Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nomura T (1979) Maximal oxygen uptake of age group swimmers. Swimming Technique 15: 105–109Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Novák J (1982) Longitudinal development of the state of health in young swimmers. In: Semiginovsky B, Tuček S (eds) Metabolic and functional changes during exercise. Charles University Press, pp 305–311Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Novák J, Rouš J (1979) Health problems of swimming (in Czech). In: Health problems in water sports. Sportpropag, Prague, pp 61–78Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schönholzer G, Bieler G, Howald G (1973) Ergometrische Methoden zur Messung der aeroben und der anaeroben Kapazitat. In: Hansen G, Mellerowicz H (eds) 3.Internationales Seminar fur Ergometrie 1970. Ergon, Berlin, pp 17–23Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Švarc V, Novák J (1975) The changes in acid balance during interval swimming training in trained and untrained men. In: Howald H, Poortmans JR (eds) Metabolic adaptation to prolonged physical exercise. Birkhauser, Basel, pp 73–77Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Seliger V, Bartůněk Z (1976) Mean values of various indices of physical fitness in the investigation of Czechoslovak population aged 12–55 years. ČSTV, PragueGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Šprynarová Š, Juřina K (1967) Aerobic capacity and performance level of Czechoslovak internationals in swimming (in Czech). Teor Praxe Tel Vych 15: 412–419Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Šprynarová Š, Pařizková J, Juřinová I (1978) Development of the functional capacity and body composition of boy and girl swimmers aged 12–15 years. Med Sport 11: 32–38Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stejskal P, Jirka Z (1983) Metabolic response to the training and competition load in swimmers (in Czech). Teor Praxe Těl Vých 31: 276–281Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Trefene RJ, Craven C, Hobbs K (1976) Differences in sprint and endurance swimming plasma lactate and heart rate response in controlled swims. Swimming Technique 16 /2: 34–36Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vaccaro P, Clarke DH, Morris AC (1980) Physiological characteristics of young well trained swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol 44: 61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wahlund H (1948) Determination of physical working capacity. Acta Med Scand 132 [Suppl 215]: 1–228Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Novák
  • T. Jurimae
  • V. Bunc
  • E. V. Macková
  • M. Čermák
  • T. Paul

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations