The Role of Spherical Electromagnetic Waves as Information Carriers

  • John S. Nicolis
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 25)


Consider an elemental dipole consisting of two charges of opposite-signs -e, e separated by a time-varying distance l(t). The dipole is “elemental” if lmax ≪ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the imposed current. We intend to first calculate the energy radiated from this dipole in vacuo and then study the process in a dispersive and lossy medium. To do this, we first have to calculate, at a point R, θ, φ (Fig.3.1), the intensities of the produced electric and magnetic fields or, in more detail, the six components Er, Eθ, Eφ, Hr, Hθ, Hφ (in spherical coordinates). The source is characterized by coordinates r′(x′,y′,z′), t′ and the observation point by r(x,y,z), t, where
$$ R = \sqrt {{{{\left( {x - x'} \right)}^2} + {{\left( {y - y'} \right)}^2} + {{\left( {z - z'} \right)}^2}}} $$
$$ t' = t - \frac{R}{c} $$
, c being the velocity of light. The dipole moment equals
$$ P\left( {t'} \right) = el\left( {t'} \right) = el\left( {t - \frac{R}{c}} \right) $$


Normal Mode Evanescent Wave Spherical Wave Wave Guide Poynting Vector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 3.1
    J.A. Wheeler, R. Feynman: Rev. Mod. Phys. 17, 157 (1945)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 3.2
    L. Brekhovskikh: Waves in Layered Media (Academic, New York 1960)Google Scholar
  3. 3.3
    D. Gabor: “Light and Information”, in Progress in Optics 1, 503 (North Holland, Amsterdam 1961)Google Scholar
  4. 3.4
    D. Gabor: Philos. Mag. 41, 1161 (1950)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 3.5
    G.T. di Francia: Opt. Acta 2, 5 (1955)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • John S. Nicolis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

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