Skip to main content

Expression of Cellular Oncogenes

  • Chapter

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY,volume 112)

Abstract

Acutely oncogenic retroviruses induce a broad spectrum of malignant tumors (for review see Graf and Beug 1978; Teich et al. 1982). They all contain genomic sequences that are responsible for the induction of neoplastic transformation in vivo and in vitro. These sequences, termed viral oncogenes (v-onc), originated from the normal cellular genome (Bishop and Varmus 1982). Cellular homologs (c-one) of 20 different retroviral oncogenes have now been identified in a variety of species throughout the vertebrate phylum (Table 1) (Stehelin et al. 1976; Bishop and Varmus 1982; Bishop 1983), and in some instances even in invertebrates (Shilo and Weinberg 1982). Another category of c-one genes has been detected in the DNA of malignant cells by virtue of these genes’ ability to induce neoplastic transformation when “transfected” into a mouse fibroblastic cell line in vitro (for review see Cooper 1982). In several cases, however, it has been shown that such sequences are in fact the cellular homologs of v-onc genes (Der et al. 1982; Parada et al. 1982; Santos et al. 1982; McCoy et al. 1983; Shimizu et al. 1983c).

Keywords

  • Rous Sarcoma Virus
  • Avian Myeloblastosis Virus
  • Cellular Oncogene
  • Avian Sarcoma Virus
  • Murine Sarcoma Virus

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature survey for reviews was seminated 1.9.83: Tables complemented 1.3.84

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-69677-0_4
  • Chapter length: 43 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-69677-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Abelson HT, Rabstein LS (1970) Lymphosarcoma: Virus-induced thymic-independent disease in mice. Cancer Res 30:2208–2212

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Abrams HD, Rohrschneider LR, Eisenman RN (1982) Nuclear location of the putative transforming protein of avian myelocytomatosis virus. Cell 29:427–439

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Adams J, Gerondakis S, Webb E, Corcoran LM, Cory S (1983) Cellular myc gene is altered by chromosome translocation to immunoglobulin locus in murine plasmacytomas and is rearranged similarly in human Burkitt lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:1982–1986

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Adams JM, Gerondakis S, Webb E, Mitchell J, Bernard O, Cory S (1982) Transcriptionally active DNA region that rearranges frequently in murine lymphoid tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6966–6970

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Alitalo K, Schwab M, Lin CL, Varmus HE, Bishop JM (1983) Homogenously staining chromosomal regions contain amplified copies of an abundantly expressed cellular oncogene (c-myc) in malignant neuroendocrine cells from a human colon carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:1707–1711

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Andersen PR, Devare SG, Tronick SR, Ellis RW, Aaronson SA, Scolnick EM (1981) Generation of BALB/MuSV and Ha-MuSV by type C virus transduction of homologous transforming genes from different species. Cell 26:129–134

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson SJ, Furth M, Wolff L, Ruscetti SK, Sherr CJ (1982) Monoclonal antibodies to the transformation-specific glycoprotein encoded by the feline retroviral oncogene v-fms. J Virol 44:696–702

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson SM, Hayward WS, Neel BG, Hanafusa H (1980) Avian erythroblastosis virus produces two mRNA’s. J Virol 36:676–683

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Banerji J, Olson L, Schaffner W (1983) A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Cell 33:729–744

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barbacid M, Beemon K, Devare SG (1980a) Origin and functional properties of the major gene product of the Snyder-Theilen strain of feline sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5158–5162

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barbacid M, Lauver AV, Devare SG (1980b) Biochemical and immunological characterization of polyproteins encoded for by the McDonough, Gardner-Amstein, and Snyder-Theilen strains of feline sarcoma virus. J Virol 33:196–207

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barbacid M, Breitman ML, Lauver AV, Long LK, Vogt PK (1981) The transformation-specific protein of avian (Fujinami and PRC-II) and feline (Snyder-Theilen and Gardner-Amstein) sarcoma viruses are immunologically related. Virology 110:411–419

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barker PE, Ruddle FH, Verma IM (1983) Chromosomal assignment of human proto-oncogenes: c-fos is located on human chromosome 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (in press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnekow A, Schartt M, Anders F, Bauer H (1982) Identification of a fish protein associated with a kinase activity and related to the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein. Cancer Res 42:2429–2433

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bishop JM (1981) Retrovims oncogenes. In: Brown DD (ed) Developmental biology using purified genes. Academic, New York, pp 515–524

    Google Scholar 

  • Bishop JM (1983) Cellular oncogenes and retroviruses. Ann Rev Biochem 52:301–354

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bishop JM, Varmus HE (1982) Functions and origins of retroviral transforming genes. In: Weiss R et al. (eds) Molecular biology of tumor viruses, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp 999–1108

    Google Scholar 

  • Blair DG, Oskarsson TG, Wood WL, McClements PJ, Fischinger G, Vande Woude G (1981) Activation of the transforming potential of a normal cell sequence: a molecular model for oncogenesis. Science 212:941–943

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Boyle WJ, Kipsick JS, Reddy EP, Baluda MA (1983) Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:2834–2838

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brugge JS, Erikson RL (1977) Identification of a transformation-specific antigen induced by an avian sarcoma virus. Nature 269:346–348

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brugge JS, Collett MS, Siddiqui A, Marczynska M, Deinhardt F, Erikson RL (1979) Detection of the viral sarcoma gene products in cells infected with various strains of avian sarcoma virus and of a related protein in uninfected chicken cells. J Virol 29:1196–1203

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bunte T, Greiser-Wilke I, Donner P, Moelling K (1982) Association of gap-myc proteins from avian myelocytomatosis virus wild-type and mutants with chromatin. The EMBO J 8:919–927

    Google Scholar 

  • Capon DJ, Seeburg PH, McGrath JP, Hayflick JS, Edman U, Levinson AD, Goeddel DV (1983) Activation of ki-ras-2 gene in human colon and lung carcinomas by two different point mutations. Nature 304:507–513

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chang EH, Furth ME, Scolnick EM, Lowy DR (1982 a) Tumorigenic transformation of mammalian cells induced by a normal human gene homologous to the oncogene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus. Nature 297:479–483

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chang EH, Gonda MA, Ellis RW, Scolnick EM, Lowy DR (1982 b) Human genome contains four genes homologous to transforming genes of Harvey and Kirsten murine sarcoma viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:4848–4852

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chattopadhyay SK, Chang EH, Lander ML, Ellis RW, Scolnick EM, Lowy DR (1982) Amplification and rearrangement of onc genes in mammalian species. Nature 296:361–363

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chen ISY, Mak TW, O’Rear JJ, Temin HM (1982) Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T DNA and isolation of a novel variant of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T by molecular cloning. J Virol 40:800–811

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen ISY, Wilhelmsen KC, Temin HM (1983) Structure and expression of c-rel, the cellular homolog to the oncogene of Reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T. J Virol 45:104–113

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chen JH (1980) Expression of endogenous avian myeloblastosis vims information in different chicken cells. J Virol 36:162–170

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chen JH, Hayward WS, Moscovici C (1981) Size and genetic content of virus-specific RNA in myeloblasts transformed by avian myeloblastosis virus (AMY). Virology 110:128–136

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coffin JM, Varmus HE, Bishop FM, Essex M, Hardy WD, Martin GS, Rosenberg NE, Scolnick EM, Weinberg RA, Vogt PK (1981) Proposal for naming host cell-derived inserts in retrovirus genomes. J Virol 40:953–957

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Colby W, Chen E, Smith D, Levinson A (1983) Identification and nucleitide sequence of a human locus homologous to v-myc oncogene of avian myelocytomatosis virus MC29. Nature 301:722–725

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collett MS, Erikson RL (1978) Protein kinase activity associated with the avian sarcoma virus src gene product. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:2021–2024

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collett MS, Brugge JS, Erikson RL (1978) Characterization of a normal avian cell protein related to the avian sarcoma virus transforming gene product. Cell 15:1363–1369

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collett MS, Erikson E, Purchio AF, Brugge JS, Erikson RL (1979) A normal cell protein similar in structure and function to the avian sarcoma virus transforming gene product. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:3159–3163

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collins S, Groudine M (1982) Amplification of endogenous myc-related DNA sequences in a human myeloid leukaemia cell line. Nature 298:679–681

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collins SJ, Groudine MT (1983) Rearrangement and amplification of c-abl sequences in the human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4813–4817

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cook WD (1982) Rapid thymomas induced by Abelson murine leukemia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:2917–2921

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper JA, Hunter T (1983) Regulation of cell growth and transformation by tyrosin-specific protein kinases: The search for important cellular substrate proteins. In: Vogt, Koprowski (eds) Current Topics in Immunology and Microbiology, Vol. 107 Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper GM (1982) Cellular transforming genes. Science 218:801–806

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper GM, Neiman PE (1980) Transforming genes of neoplasms induced by avian lymphoid leukosis viruses. Nature 287:656–659

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper GM, Okenquist S, Silverman L (1980) Transforming activity of DNA of chemically transformed and normal cells. Nature 289:418–421

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cotton PC, Brugge JS (1983) Neural tissues express high levels of the cellular src gene product pp60c-src. Mol Cell Biol 3:1157–1162

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Courtneidge SA, Levinson AD, Bishop JM (1980) The protein encoded by the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus (pp60src) and a homologous protein in normal cells (pp60proto-src) are associated with the plasma membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:3783–3787

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Crews S, Barth R, Hood L, Prehn J, Calame K (1982) Mouse c-myc oncogne is located on chromosome 15 and translocated to chromosome 12 in plasmacytomas. Science 218:1319–1321

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Curran T, Teich NM (1982) Candidate product of the FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus oncogene: characterization of a 55,000 dalton phosphoprotein. J Virol 42:114–122

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Curran T, Peters G, Van Beveren C, Teich NM, Verma IM (1982) The FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus: identification and molecular cloning of biologically active proviral DNA. J Virol 44:674–682

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Curran T, Miller AD, Zokas FL, Verma IM (1984) Viral and cellular fos gene products are located in the nucleus. Cell 36:259–268

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dalla-Favera R, Gelmann EP, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F (1981) A human onc gene homologous to the transforming gene (v-sis) of simian sarcoma virus. Nature 292:31–35

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dalla-Favera R, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC (1982 a) onc gene amplification in promyelocytic leukaemia cell line HL-60 and primary leukaemic cells of the same patient. Nature 299:61–63

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dalla-Favera R, Bregni M, Erikson J, Patterson D, Gallo RC, Croce CM (1982b) Human c-myc onc gene is located on the region of chromosome 8 that is translocated in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:7824–7827

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dalla-Favera R, Franchini G, Martinotti S, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC, Croce CM (1982c) Chromosomal assignment of the human homologues of feline sarcoma virus and avian myeloblastosis virus onc genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:4714–4717

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dalla-Favera R, Gallo RC, Gialongo A, Cruce CM (1982d) Chromosomal localization of human homolog (c-sis) of the simian sarcoma virus onc gene. Science 218:686–688

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeFeo D, Gonda MA, Young HA, Chang EH, Lowy DR, Scolnick EM, Ellis RW (1981) Analysis of two divergent rat genomic clones homologous to the transforming gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3328–3332

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • de Klein A, van Kessel AG, Grosveld G, Bartram CR, Hagemeijer A, Bootsma D, Spurr NK, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Stephenson JR (1982) A cellular oncogene is translocated to the Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myelocytic leukaemia. Nature 300:765–767

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeLarco JE, Todaro GJ (1978) Growth factors from murine sarcoma virus-transformed cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:4001–4005

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • De Martinville B, Giacalone J, Shih C, Weinberg RA, Francke U (1983) Oncogene from human EJ bladder carcinoma is located on the short arm of chromosome 11. Science 219:498–501

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Der CJ, Cooper GM (1982) Altered gene products are associated with activation of cellular rask genes in human lung and colon carcinomas. Cell 32:201–208

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Der CJ, Krontiris TG, Cooper GM (1982) Transforming genes of human bladder and lung carcinoma cell lines are homologous to the ras genes of Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3637–3640

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Devare SG, Reddy EP, Law JD, Robbins KC, Aaronson SA (1983) Nucleotide sequence of simian sarcoma virus genome : demonstration that its acquired cellular sequences encode the transforming gene product of p28sis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:731–735

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dhar R, Ellis RW, Shih TY, Oroszlan S, Shapiro B, Maizel J, Lowy D, Scolnick E (1982) Nucleotide sequence of the p21 transforming protein of Harvey murine sarcoma virus. Science 217:934–937

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Donner L, Fedele LA, Garon CF, Anderson SJ, Sherr CJ (1982 a) McDonough feline sarcoma virus: characterization of the molecularly cloned provirus and its feline oncogene (v-fms). J Virol 41:489–500

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Donner P, Greiser-Wilke I, Moelling K (1982 b) Nuclear localization and DNA binding of the transforming gene product of avian myelocytomatosis virus. Nature 296:262–266

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Doolittle RF, Hunkapiller MW, Hood LE, Devare SG, Robbins KC, Aaronson SA, Antoniades HN (1983) Simian sarcoma virus onc gene, v-sis, is derived from gene (or genes) encoding a platelet-derived growth factor. Science 221:275–277

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Downward J, Yarden Y, Mayes E, Scrace G, Totty N, Stockwell P, Ullrich A, Schlessinger J, Waterfield MD (1984) Close similarity of epidermal growth factor and v-erb-B oncogene protein sequences. Nature 307:521–527

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ellis RW, DeFeo D, Shih TY, Gonda MA, Young HA, Tsuchida N, Lowy DR, Scolnick EM (1981) The p21 src genes of Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma viruses originate from diverent members of a family of normal vertebrate genes. Nature 292:506–511

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ellis RW, DeFeo D, Furth ME, Scolnick EM (1982) Mouse cells contain two distinct ras gene mRNA species that can be translated into a p21 onc protein. Mol Cell Biol 2:1339–1345

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Erikson J, Ar-Rushdi A, Drwinga HL, Nowell PC, Croce CM (1983) Transcriptional activation of translocated c-myc oncogene in Burkitt lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:820–824

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eva A, Robbins KC, Andersen PR, Srinivasan A, Tronick SR, Premkumar R, Ellmore NW, Galen AT, Lautenberger JA, Papas TS, Westin EH, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC, Aaronson SA (1982) Cellular genes analogous to retoviral onc genes are transcribed in human tumour cells. Nature 295:116–119

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Farber E, Cameron R (1980) The sequential analysis of cancer development. Adv Cancer Res 31:125–226

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Feldman R, Wang E, Hanafusa H (1983) Cytoplasmic localization of the transforming protein of Fujinama sarcoma virus: salt-sensitive association with subcellular components. J Virol 45:782–791

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Finkel MP, Biskis BO (1968) Experimental induction of osteosarcomas. Prog Exp Tumor Res 10:72–111

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Finkel MP, Bistis BO, Jinkins PB (1966) Virus induction of osteosarcomas in mice. Science 151:698–701

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Finkel MP, Reilly CA Jr, Biskis BO (1975) Viral etiology of bone cancer. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 10:28–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Franchini G, Even J, Sherr CJ, Wong-Staal F (1981) onc sequences (v-fes) of Synder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus are derived from noncontiguous regions of a cat cellular gene (c-fes). Nature 290:154–157

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frankel AE, Fischinger PJ (1976) Nucleotide sequences in mouse DNA and RNA specific for Moloney sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73:3705–3709

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frankel AE, Gilbert JH, Porsiz KG, Scolnick EM, Aaronson SA (1979) Nature and distribution of feline sarcoma virus nucleotide sequences. J Virol 30:821–827

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frykberg L, Palmieri S, Beug H, Graf T, Hayman MJ, Vennstrom B (1983) Transforming capacities of avian erythroblastosis virus mutants deleted in the erbA or erbB oncogenes. Cell 32:227–238

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fung TYK, Lewis WG, Crittenden LB, Kung HJ (1983) Activation of cellular oncogene c-erb by LTR insertion: molecular basis for induction of erythroblastosis by avian leukosis virus. Cell 33:357–368

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garber EA, Kruger JG, Hanafusa H, Goldberg AR (1983) Only membrane-associated RSV src proteins have amino-terminally bound lipid. Nature 302:161–163

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner MB, Arnstein P, Rongey RW, Estes JD, Sarma PS, Rickard CF, Huebner RJ (1970) Experimental transmission of feline fibrosarcomas to cats and dogs. Nature 226:807–809

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gattoni S, Kirschmeier P, Weinstein IB, Escobedo J, Diana D (1982) Cellular Moloney murine sarcoma (c-mos) sequences are hypermethylated and transcriptionally silent in normal and transformed rodent cells. Mol Cell Biol 2:42–51

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gazdar AF, Chopra HC, Sarma PS (1972) Properties of a murine sarcoma virus isolated from a tumor arising in an NZW/NZB F1 hybrid mouse. I. Isolation and pathology of tumors induced in rodents. Int J Cancer 9:219–233

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gillies SD, Morrison SL, Oi VJ, Tonegawa S (1983) A tissue specific transcription enhancer is located in the major intron of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Cell 33:717–728

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goff SP, Gilboa E, Witte ON, Baltimore D (1980) Structure of the Abelson murine leukemia virus genome and the homologous cellular gene: studies with cloned viral DNA. Cell 22:777–785

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goff SP, D’Eustachio P, Ruddle FH, Baltimore D (1982) Chromosomal assignment of the endogenous protooncogene c-abl. Science 218:1317–1319

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gonda TJ, Sheiness DK, Fanshier L, Bishop JM, Moscovici C, Moscovici MG (1981) The genome and the intracellular RNAs of avian myeloblastosis virus. Cell 23:279–290

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gonda TJ, Sheiness DK, Bishop JM (1982 a) Transcripts from the cellular homolog of retroviral oncogenes: distribution among chicken tissues. Mol Cell Biol 2:617–624

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gonda MA, Young HA, Elser JE, Rasheed S, Talmadge CB, Nagashima K, Li C-C, Gilden RV (1982 b) Molecular cloning, genomic analysis, and biological properties of rat leukemia virus and the onc sequences of Rasheed rat sarcoma virus. J Virol 44:520–529

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Goubin G, Goldman DS, Luce J, Neiman PE, Cooper GM (1983) Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA. Nature 302:114–119

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goyette M, Petropoulos CJ, Shank PR, Fausto N (1983) Expression of a cellular oncogene during liver regeneration. Science 219:510–512

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Graf T, Beug H (1978) Avian leukemia viruses: interaction with their target cells in vivo and in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 516:269–299

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Graf T, Oker-Blom N, Todorov TG, Beug H (1979) Transforming capacities and defectiveness of avian leukemia viruses OKIO and E26. Virology 94:431–436

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Graf T, von Kirchbach A, Beug H (1981) Characterization of the hematopoietic target cells of AEV, MC29 and AMV avian leukemia viruses. Exp Cell Res 131:331–343

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Groffen J, Heisterkamp N, Grosveld F, Van de Van W, and Stephenson JR (1982) Isolation of human oncogene sequences (v-fes homolog) from a cosmid library. Science 216:1136–1138

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hall A, Marshall CJ, Spurr NK, Weiss RA (1983) Identification of transforming gene in two human saracoma cell lines as a new member of the ras gene family located on chromosome 1. Nature 303:396–400

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hampe A, Laprerotte I, Galibert F, Fidele LA, Sherr CJ (1982) Nucleotide sequences of feline retroviral oncogenes (v-fes) provide evidence for a family of tyrosine specific protein kinase genes. Cell 30:775–785

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hann SR, Abrams HD, Rohrschneider LR, Eisenman RN (1983) Proteins encoded by v-myc and c-myc oncogenes : Identification and localization in acute leukemia virus transformants and bursal lymphoma cell lines. Cell 34:789–798

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy WJ (1980) The biology and virology of the feline sarcoma viruses. In: Hardy, WD Jr et al (eds) Feline leukemia virus. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 79–118

    Google Scholar 

  • Harper ME, Franchini G, Love J, Simon MI, Gallo RC and Wong-Stall F (1983) Chromosomal sublocalization of human c-myb and c-fes cellular onc genes. Nature 304:169–171

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harris LJ, Lang RB, Maren KE (1982) Non-immunoglobulin-associated DNA rearrangements in mouse plasmacytomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:4175–4179

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harvey JJ (1964) An unidentified virus which causes the rapid production of tumours in mice. Nature 204:1104–1105

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hayman MJ, Ramsay GM, Savin K, Kitchener G, Graf T, Beug H (1983) Identification and characterization of the avian erythroblastosis virus erbB gene product as a membrane glycoprotein. Cell 32:579–588

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hayward WS, Neel BG, Astrin SM (1981) Activation of a cellular onc gene by promoter insertion in ALV-induced lymphoid leukosis. Nature 290:475–480

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Stephenson JR, Spurr NK, Goodfellow PN, Solomon E, Carritt B, Bodmer WF (1982) Chromosomal localization of human cellular homologues of two viral oncogenes. Nature 299:747–749

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Stephenson JR (1983 a) Isolation of v-fms and its cellular homolog. Virology 126:248–258

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Stephenson JR (1983 b) The human v-abl cellular homologue. J Mol Appl Genet 2:57–68

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman-Falk H, Einat P, Shilo B-Z, Hoffmann FM (1983) Drosophila melanogaster DNA clones homologous to vertebrate oncogenes: evidence for a common ancestor to the src and abl cellular genes. Cell 32:589–598

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter T, Sefton BM (1980) Transforming gene product of Rous sarcoma virus phosphorylates tyrosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:1311–1315

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jansen HW, Rückert B, Lurz R, Bister K (1983) Two unrelated cell-derived sequences in the genome of avian leukemia and carcinoma inducing retrovirus MH2. EMBO J 2:1969–1975

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jansson M, Philipson L, Vennstrom B (1983) Isolation and characterization of multiple human genes homologous to the oncogenes of avian erythroblastosis virus. EMBO J 2:561–565

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jolly DJ, Esty AC, Subramani S, Friedmann T, Verma IM (1983) Elements in long terminal repeat of murine retroviruses enhance stable transformation by thymidine kinase gene. Nucleic Acids Res 11:1855–1872

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jones M, Bosselmann RA, Houtin VJF, Berub A, Fan H, Verma IM (1980) Identification and molecular cloning of Moloney mouse sarcoma virus-specific sequences from uninfected mouse cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:2651–2655

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kawai S, Yoshida M, Segawa K, Sugiyama H, Ishizaki R, Toyoshima K (1980) Characterization of Y73, an avian sarcoma virus: A unique transforming gene and its product, a phosphopolyprotein with protein kinase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:6199–6203

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kirsten WH, Mayer LA (1967) Morphologic responses to a murine erythroblastosis virus. J Natl Cancer Inst 39:311–335

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kitamura N, Kitamura A, Toyoshima K, Hirayama Y, Yoshida M (1982) Avian sarcoma virus Y73 genome and structural similarity of its transforming gene product to that of Rous sarcoma virus. Nature 297:205–208

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klein G (1981) The role of gene dosage and genetic transpositions in carcinogenesis. Nature 294:313–318

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klein G (1983) Specific chromosomal translocations and the genesis of B-cell-derived tumors in mice and men. Cell 32:311–315

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klempnauer K-H, Gonda TJ, Bishop JM (1982) Nucleotide sequence of the retroviral leukemia gene v-myb and its cellular progenior c-myb: the architecture of a transduced oncogene. Cell 31:453–463

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klempnauer K-H, Ramsay G, Bishop JM, Moscovici G, Moscovici C, McGrath J, Levinson AD (1983) The product of the retroviral transforming gene v-myb is a truncated version of the protein encoded by the cellular oncogene c-myb. Cell 33:345–355

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kohl NE, Kanda N, Schreck RR, Bruns G, Latt SA, Gilbert F, Alt FW (1983) Transposition and amplification of oncogene-related sequences in human neuroblastomas. Cell 35:359–367

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Krontiris TG, Cooper GM (1981) Transforming activity of human tumor DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:1181–1184

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Land H, Parada LF, Weinberg RA (1983) Tumorigenic conversion of primary embryo fibroblasts requires at least two cooperating oncogenes. Nature 304:596–602

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Langbeheim H, Shih TY, Scolnick EM (1980) Identification of a normal vertebrate cell protein related to the p21 src of Harvey murine sarcoma virus. Virology 106:292–300

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee CK, Chan EW, Reilly CA Jr, Pahnke VA, Rockus G, Finkel MP (1979) In vitro properties of FBR murine osteosarcoma virus (40650). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 162:214–220

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Levinson AD, Courtneidge SA, Bishop JM (1981) Structural and functional domains of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein (pp60src). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:1624–1628

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Levy JA, Hartley JW, Rowe WP, Huebner RJ (1973) Studies of FBJ osteosarcoma virus in tissue culture: I. Biologic characteristics of the “C”-type viruses. J Natl Cancer Inst 51:525–539

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Marcu KB, Harris LJ, Stanton LW, Erikson J, Watt R, Croce CM (1983) Transcriptionally active c-myc oncogene is contained within NIARD, a DNA sequence associated with chromosome translocations in B-cell neoplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:519–523

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathey-Prevot B, Hanafusa H, Kawai S (1982) A cellular protein is immunologically crossreactive with and functionally homologous to the Fujinami sarcoma virus transforming protein. Cell 28:897–906

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McBride OW, Swan DC, Santos E, Barbacid M, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA (1982) Localization of the normal allele of T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene to chromosome 11. Nature 300:773–774

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCoy MS, Toole JJ, Cunningham JM, Chang EH, Lowy DR, Weinberg RA (1983) Characterization of a human colon/lung carcinoma oncogene. Nature 302:79–81

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McDonough SK, Larsen S, Brodey RS, Stock ND, Hardy WD Jr (1971) A transmissible feline fibrosarcoma of viral origin. Cancer Res 31:953–956

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McGrath JP, Capon DJ, Smith DH, Chen EY, Seeburg PH, Goeddel DV, Levinson AD (1983) Structure and organization of the human ki-ras proto-oncogene and related processed pseudogene. Nature 304:501–506

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller AD, Curran T, Verma IM (1984) C-fos protein can induce cellular transformation: A novel mechanism of activation of a cellular oncogene. Cell 36:51–60

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mitelman F, Levan G (1981) Clustering of aberrations to specific chromosomes in human neoplasma: IV. A survey of 1,871 cases. Hereditas 95:79–139

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moloney JB (1966) A virus-induced rhabdomyosarcoma of mice. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 22:139–142

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Müller R (1983) Differential expression of cellular oncogenes during murine development and in teratocarcinoma cell lines. Cold Spring Harbor Conf Cell Prolif 10:451–468

    Google Scholar 

  • Müller R, Slamon DJ, Tremblay JM, Cline MJ, Verma IM (1982) Differential expression of cellular oncogenes during pre- and postnatal development of the mouse. Nature 299:640–644

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Müller R, Verma IM, Adamson ED (1983a) Expression of c-onc genes: c-fos transcripts accumulate to high levels during development of mouse placenta, yolk sac and amnion. EMBO J 2:679–684

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Müller R, Tremblay JM, Adamson ED, Verma IM (1983 b) Tissue and cell type-specific expression of two human c-onc genes. Nature 304:454–456

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Müller R, Slamon DJ, Adamson ED, Tremblay JM, Müller DM, Cline MJ, Verma IM (1983c) Expression of c-onc genes c-ras Ki and c-fms during mouse development. Mol Cell Biol 3:1062–1069

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Murray MJ, Cunningham JM, Parada LF, Dantry F, Lebowitz P, Weinberg RA (1983) The HL60 transforming sequences: a ras oncogene coexisting with altered myc gene in hematopoietic tumors. Cell 33:749–757

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mushinski JF, Potter M, Bauer SR, Reddy EP (1983) DNA rearrangement and altered RNA expression of c-myb oncogene in mouse plasmacytoid lymphosarcomas. Science 220:795–798

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Naharro G, Tronick SR, Rasheed S, Gardner MB, Aaronson SA, Robbins KC (1983) Molecular cloning of integrated Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma virus : Genetic structure of its cell-derived sequence differs from that of other tyrosine kinase-coding onc genes. J Virol 47:611–619

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Naharro G, Robbins KC, Reddy EP (1984) Gene product of v-fgr onc: Hybrid protein containing a portion of actin and a tyrosine-specific protein kinase. Science 223:63–66

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Neel BG, Jhanwar SC, Chaganti RSK, Hayward WS (1982) Two human c-onc genes are located on the long arm of chromosome 8. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:7842–7846

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Neuberger MS (1983) Expression and regulation of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene transfected into lymphoid cells. EMBO J 2:1373–1378

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Noori-Daloii MR, Swift RA, Kung H-J, Crittenden LB, Witter RL (1981) Specific integration of REV proviruses in avian bursal lymphomas. Nature 294:574–576

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oppermann H, Levinson AD, Varmus HE, Levintow L, Bishop JM (1979) Uninfected vertebrate cells contain a protein that is closely related to the product of the avian sarcoma virus transforming gene (src). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:1804–1808

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oskarsson M, McClements W, Blair DG, Maizel JV, Vande Woude F (1980) Properties of a normal. mouse cell DNA sequence (sarc) homologous to the src sequence of Moloney sarcoma virus. Science 207:1222–1224

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Papkoff J, Lai MH-T, Hunter T, Verma IM (1981) Analysis of the transforming gene product of Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Cell 27:109–119

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Parada LF, Tabin CJ, Shih C, Weinberg RA (1982) Human EJ bladder carcinoma oncogene is homologue of Harvey sarcoma virus ras gene. Nature 297:474–478

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Parker RC, Varmus HE, Bishop JM (1981) Cellular homolog (c-src) of the transforming gene of Rous sarcoma virus: isolation, mapping, and transcriptional analysis of c-src and flanking regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:5842–5846

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Payne GS, Bishop JM, Varmus HE (1982) Multiple arrangements of viral DNA and an activated host oncogene in bursal lymphomas. Nature 295:209–214

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perbal B, Baluda MA (1982) Avian myeloblastosis virus transforming gene is related to unique chicken DNA regions separated by at least one intervening sequence. J Virol 41:250–257

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Perry RP (1983) Consequences of myc invasion of immunoglobulin loci: facts and speculation. Cell 33:647–649

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peters RL, Rabstein LS, Van Vleck R, Kelloff GJ, Huebner RJ (1974) Naturally occurring sarcoma virus of the BALB/cCr mouse. J Natl Cancer Inst 53:1725–1729

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ponticelli AS, Whitlock CA, Rosenberg N, Witte ON (1982) In vivo tyrosine phosphorylations of the Abelson virus transforming protein are absent in its normal cellular homolog. Cell 29:953–960

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Prakash K, McBride OW, Swan DC, Devare SG, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA (1982) Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of a human locus related to the transforming gene of Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:5210–5214

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Privalsky ML, Bishop JM (1982) Proteins specified by avian erythroblastosis virus: coding region localization and identification of a previously undetected erb-B polypeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3958–3962

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pulciani S, Santos E, Lauver AV, Long LK, Aaronson SA, Barbacid M (1982) Oncogenes in solid human tumours. Nature 300:539–542

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Purchio AF, Erikson E, Brugge JS, Erikson RL (1978) Identification of a polypeptide encoded by the avian sarcoma virus src gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:1567–1571

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Queen C, Baltimore D (1983) Immunoglobulin gene transcription is activated by downstream sequence elements. Cell 33:741–748

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rapp UR, Goldsborough MD, Mark GE, Bonner TI, Groffen J, Reynolds FH Jr, Stephenson JR (1983 a) Structure and biological activity of v-raf, a unique oncogene transduced by a retrovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4218–4222

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rapp UR, Reynolds FH Jr, Stephenson JR (1983b) New mammalian transforming retrovirus: Demonstration of a polyprotein gene product. J Virol 45:914–924

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rasheed S, Gardner MB, Huebner RJ (1978) In vitro isolation of stable rat sarcoma viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:2972–2976

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Radke K, Beug H, Kornfeld S, Graf T (1982) Transformation of both erythroid and myeloid cells by E26, an avian leukemia virus that contains the myb gene. Cell 31:643–653

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rechavi G, Givol D, Canaani E (1982) Activation of a cellular oncogene by DNA rearrangement: possible involvement of an IS-like element. Nature 300:607–611

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reddy EP, Reynolds RK, Santos E, Barbacid M (1982) A point mutation is responsible for the acquisition of transforming properties by the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene. Nature 300:149–152

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reynolds FH, Van de Ven WJM, Stephenson JR (1980) Abelson murine leukemia virus transformation-defective mutants with impaired P120-associated protein kinase activity. J Virol 36:374–386

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Robbins KC, Devare SG, Reddy EP, Aaronson SA (1982) In vivo identification of the transforming gene product of simian sarcoma virus. Science 218:1131–1133

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rohrschneider LR (1979) Immunofluorescence on avian sarcoma virus-transformed cells: Localization of the src gene product. Cell 16:11–24

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rohrschneider LR (1980) Adhesion plaques of Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells contain the src gene product. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:3514–3518

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rohrschneider LR, Gentry LE (1983) Subcellular location of retroviral transforming proteins define multiple mechanism of transformation. Adv Cancer Res

    Google Scholar 

  • Roussel M, Saule S, Lagrou C, Rommens C, Beug H, Graf T, Stehelin D (1979) Three new types of viral oncogene of cellular origin specific for haematopoietic cell transformation. Nature 281:452–455

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ruley HE (1983) Adenovirus early region 1A enables viral and cellular transforming genes to transform primary cells in culture. Nature 304:602–606

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sakaguchi AY, Haylor SL, Shows TB, Toole JJ, McCoy M, Weinberg RA (1983) Human c-K-ras proto-oncogene on chromosome 12. Science 219:1081–1083

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Santos E, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA, Pulciani S, Barbacid M (1982) T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene is an activated form of the normal human homologue of BALB- and Harvey-MSV transforming genes. Nature 298:343–347

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schwab M, Alitalo K, Varmus HE, Bishop JM, George D (1983) A cellular oncogene (c-Ki-ras) is amplified, overexpressed and located within keryotypic abnormalities in mouse adrenocortical tumor cells. Nature 303:497–501

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scolnick EM, Papageorge AG, Shih TY (1979) Guanine nucleotide-binding activity as an assay for src protein of rat-derived murine sarcoma viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5355–5359

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scolnick EM, Weeks MD, Shih TY, Ruscetti SK, Dexter TM (1981) Markedly elevated levels of an endogenous sarc protein in a hematopoietic precursor cell line. Mol Cell Biol 1:66–74

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sefton BM, Hunter T, Raschke WC (1981a) Evidence that the Abelson virus protein functions in vivo as a protein kinase that phosphorylates tyrosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:1552–1556

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sefton BM, Hunter T, Ball EH, Singer SJ (1981 b) Vinculin: a cytoskeletal target of the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus. Cell 24:165–174

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sefton BM, Trowbridge IS, Cooper JA, Scolnick EM (1982) The transforming proteins of Rous sarcoma virus, Harvey sarcoma virus and Abelson virus contain tightly bound lipid. Cell 31:465–474

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sheiness D, Bishop JM (1979) DNA and RNA from uninfected vertebrate cells contain nucleotide sequences related to the putative transforming gene of avian myelocytomatosis virus. J Virol 31:514–521

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sheiness DK, Hughes SH, Varmus HE, Stubblefied E, Bishop JM (1980) The vertebrate homolog of the putative transforming gene of avian myelocytomatosis virus: characteristics of the DNA locus and its RNA transcript. Virology 105:415–424

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shen-Ong GLC, Keath EJ, Piccoli SP, Cole MD (1982) Novel myc oncogene RNA from abortive immunoglobulin gene recombination in mouse plasmacytomas. Cell 31:443–452

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shibuya M, Hanafusa H (1982) Nucleotide sequence of Fujinami sarcoma virus: evolutionary relationship of its transforming protein with transforming genes of other sarcoma viruses. Cell 30:787–795

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shibuya M, Hanafusa T, Hanafusa H, Stephenson JR (1980) Homology exists among the transforming sequences of avian and feline sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:6536–6540

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shibuya M, Hanafusa H, Balduzzi PC (1982) Cellular sequences related to three new onc genes of avian sarcoma virus (fps, yes and ros) and their expression in normal and transformed cells. J Virol 42:143–152

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shi C, Ben-Zion S, Goldfarb MP, Dannenberg A, Weinberg RA (1979) Passage of phenotypes of chemically transformed cells via transfection of DNA and chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5714–5718

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shih TY, Weeks MO, Young HA, Scolnick EM (1979) Identification of a sarcoma virus-encoded phosphoprotein in nonproducer cells transformed by Kirsten and Harvey murine sarcoma virus. Virology 96:64–79

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shih TY, Papageorge AG, Stokes PE, Weeks MO, Scolnick EM (1980) Guanine nucleotide-binding and autophosphorylating activities associated with the p21src protein of Harvex murine sarcoma virus. Nature 287:686–691

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shilo BZ, Weinberg RA (1981) DNA sequences homologous to vertebrate oncogenes are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:6789–6792

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shimizu K, Birnbaum D, Ruley MA, Fasano O, Suard Y, Edlund L, Taparpowsky E, Goldfarb M, Wigler M (1983 a) Structure of c-K-ras gene of human lung carcinoma cell line calu-1. Nature 304:497–50

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Perucho M, Wigler M (1983 b) Isolation and preliminary characterization of the transforming gene of a human neuroblastoma cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:383–387

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Suard Y, Perucho M, Li Y, Kamata T, Feramisco J, Stavnezer E, Fogh J, Wigler MH (1983 c) Three human transforming genes are related to the viral ras oncogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:2112–2116

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder SP, Theilen GH (1969) Transmissible feline fibrosarcoma. Nature 221:1074–1075

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Souza LM, Strommer JN, Hillyard RL, Komaromy MC, Baluda MA (1980) Cellular sequences are present in the presumptive avian myeloblastosis virus genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5177–5181

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Spector DH, Baker B, Varmus HE, Bishop JM (1978 a) Characteristics of cellular RNA related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus. Cell 13:381–386

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Spector DH, Smith K, Padgett T, McCombe P, Roulland-Dussoix C, Moscovici C, Varmus HE, Bishop JE (1978 b) Uninfected avian cells contain RNA related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma viruses. Cell 13:371–379

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stanton LW, Watt R, Marcu KB (1983) Translocation, breakage and truncated transcripts of c-myc oncogene in murine plasmocytomas. Nature 303:401–406

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stavnezer E, Gerhard DS, Binari RC, Balazs I (1981) Generation of transforming viruses in cultures of chicken fibroblasts infected with an avian leukosis virus. J Virol 39:920–934

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stehelin D, Varmus HE, Bishop JM, Vogt PK (1976) DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA. Nature 260:170–173

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tabin CJ, Bradley SM, Bargmann I, Weinberg RA, Papageorge AG, Scolnick EM, Dhar R, Lowy DR, Chang EH (1982) Mechanism of activation of a human oncogene. Nature 300:143–149

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Takeya T, Hanafusa H (1983) Structure and sequence of the cellular gene homologous to the RSC src gene and the mechanism for generating the transforming virus. Cell 32:881–890

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Takeya T, Hanafusa H, Junghans RP, Ju G, Skalka AM (1981) Comparison between the viral transforming gene (src) of recovered avian sarcoma virus and its cellular homolog. Mol Cell Biol 1:1024–1037

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taparowsky E, Suard Y, Fasano O, Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Wigler M (1982) Activation of the T24 bladder carcinoma transforming gene is linked to a single amino acid change. Nature 300:762–765

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taub R, Kirsch I, Morton C, Lenoir C, Swan D, Tronick S, Aaronson S, Leder P (1982) Translocation of the c-myc gene into the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in human Burkitt lymphoma and murine plasmacytoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:7837–7841

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Teich NM, Wyke J, Mak T, Bernstein A, Hardy W (1982) Pathogenesis of retrovirus-induced disease. In : Weiss R et al (ed) RNA tumor viruses, molecular biology of tumor viruses, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp 785

    Google Scholar 

  • Theilen GH, Zeigel RF, Twiehaus MJ (1966) Biological studies with RE virus (strain T) that induces reticuloendotheliosis in turkeys, chickens and Japanese quail. J Natl Cancer Inst 37:731–743

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Theilen GH, Gould D, Fowler M, Dungworth DI (1971) C-type virus in tumor tissue of a woolly monkey (Lagothrix spp) with fibrosarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 47:881–889

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Twardzik DR, Todaro GJ, Marquardt H, Reynolds FH Jr, Stephenson JR (1982) Transformation induced by Abelson murine leukemia virus involves production of a polypeptide growth factor. Science 216:894–897

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van Beveren C, van Straaten F, Galleshaw JA, Verma IM (1981) Nucleotide sequence of the genome of a murine sarcoma virus. Cell 27:97–108

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van Beveren C, van Straaten F, Curran T, Müller R, Verma IM (1983) Nucleotide sequence analysis of FBJ-MuSV provirus and c-fos (mouse) gene reveals that viral and cellular fos gene products have different carboxy termini. Cell 32:1241–1255

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • van Straaten F, Müller R, Curran T, Van Beveren C, Verma IM (1983) Nucleotide sequence of a human c-onc gene: deduced amino acid sequence of human c-fos protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:3183–3187

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vennström B, Bishop JM (1982) Isolation and characterization of chicken DNA homologous to the two putative oncogenes of avian erythroblastosis virus. Cell 28:135–143

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wang JYJ, Baltimore D (1983) Cellular RNA homologous to the Abelson murine leukemia virus transforming gene: Expression and relationship to the viral sequence. Mol Cell Biol 3:773–779

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang L-H, Feldman R, Shibuya M, Hanafusa H, Notter MFD, Balduzzi PC (1981) Genetic structure, transforming sequences, and gene product of avian sarcoma virus URI. J Virol 40:258–267

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang L-H, Hanafusa H, Notter MFD, Balduzzi PC (1982) Genetic structure and transforming sequence of avian sarcoma virus UR2. J Virol 41:833–841

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ward JM, Young DM (1976) Histogenesis and morphology of periosteal sarcomas induced by FBJ virus in NIH Swiss mice. Cancer Res 36:3985–3992

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waterfield MD, Scrace GT, Whittle N, Stroobant P, Johnsson A, Wasteson A, Westermark B, Heldin C-H, Huang JS, Dual TF (1983) Platelet-derived growth factor is structurally related to the putative transforming protein p28sis of simian sarcoma virus. Nature 304:35–39

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Watt R, Stanton LW, Marcu KB, Gallo RC, Croces CM, Ravena G (1983) Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA of human c-myc oncogene. Nature 303:725–728

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Westin EH, Gallo RC, Arya SK, Eva A, Souza LM, Baldua MA, Aaronson SA, Wong-Staal F (1982 a) Differential expression of the amv gene in human hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:2194–2198

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Westin EH, Wong-Staal F, Gelmann EP, Dalla-Favera R, Papas TS, Lautenberger JA, Eva A, Reddy EP, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA, Gallo RC (1982 b) Expression of cellular homologues of retroviral onc genes in human hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:2490–2494

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Willingham MC, Jay G, Pastan I (1979) Localization of the ASV src gene product to the plasma membrane of transformed cells by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Cell 18:125–134

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Williamham MC, Pastan I, Shih TY, Scolnick EM (1980) Localization of the src gene product of the Harvey strain of MSV to the plasma membrane of transformed cells by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Cell 19:1005–1014

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Witte ON, Rosenberg, Paskind M, Sheilds A, Baltimore D (1978) Identification of an Abelson murine leukemia virus-encoded protein present in transformed fibroblast and lymphoid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:2488–2492

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Witte ON, Rosenberg N, Baltimore D (1979 a) Preparation of syngeneic tumor regressor serum reactive with the unique determinants of the Abelson murine leukemia virus-encoded P120 protein at the cell surface. J Virol 31:776–784

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Witte ON, Rosenberg N, Baltimore D (1979 b) A normal cell protein cross-reactive to the major Abelson murine leukemia virus gene product. Nature 281:396–398

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Witte ON, Dasgupta A, Baltimore D (1980 a) Abelson murine leukemia virus protein is phosphory- lated in vitro to form phosphotyrosine. Nature 283:826–831

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Witte ON, Goff S, Rosenberg N, Baltimore D (1980 b) A transformation-defective mutant of Abelson murine leukemia virus lacks protein kinase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:4993–4997

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wong TC, Lai MMC (1981) Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus contains a new class of oncogene of turkey origin. Virology 111:289–293

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yoshida M, Kawai S, Toyoshima K (1980) Uninfected avian cells contain structurally unrelated progenitors of viral sarcoma genes. Nature 287:653–654

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yoshida M, Kawai S, Toyoshima K (1981) Genome structure of avian sarcoma virus Y73 and unique sequence coding for polyprotein p90. J Virol 38:430–437

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Young HA, Shih TY, Scolnick EM, Rasheed S, Gardner MB (1979) Different rat-derived transforming retroviruses code for an immunologically related intracellular phosphoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:3523–3527

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Young HA, Rasheed S, Souder R, Benton CV, Henderson LE (1981) Rat sarcoma virus: Further analysis of individual viral isolates and the gene product. J Virol 38:286–293

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yuasa Y, Srivastava SK, Dunn CY, Rhimm JS, Reddy EP, Aaronson SA (1983) Acquisition of transforming properties by alternative point mutations within c-bas/has human protooncogene. Nature 303:775–779

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1984 Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Müller, R., Verma, I.M. (1984). Expression of Cellular Oncogenes. In: Vogt, P.K., Koprowski, H. (eds) Retroviruses 3. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol 112. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69677-0_4

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69677-0_4

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-69679-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-69677-0

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive