Ecological Differentiation Among Clones: The Frozen Niche Variation Model

  • R. C. Vrijenhoek
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)

Abstract

Sex and its evolutionary significance have received considerable attention from theoretical biologists in recent years (see Ghiselin 1974, Williams 1975, Maynard Smith 1978, Stanley 1979, Bell 1982, Shields 1982). Sexual reproduction is a highly coordinated and potentially costly process that results in the production of genetic diversity among the progeny of an individual. Since the rate of adaptive evolution is believed to be a function of this diversity, the recombination of genes in sexual lineages provides an obvious long-term benefit in a changing environment (Fisher 1930, Muller 1932). However, asexuality provides an immediate “twofold” numerical advantage due to all-female reproduction (Williams 1975, Maynard Smith 1978). Despite this apparent short-term benefit of asexual reproduction, sexuality clearly predominates in all groups of plants and animals. How is the “monopoly of sex” maintained in the presence of this cost? Perhaps an answer to this question requires studies of the rare exceptions, the asexual populations, and the peculiar genetic and ecological conditions under which they sometimes prosper. A surprising result of such studies recently has challenged a common assumption of most theoretical considerations of sex — that asexual populations lack genetic diversity. Natural populations of asexual organisms are often composed of several genetically (and sometimes ecologically) distinct clones (Solbrig 1971, Vrijenhoek 1978, 1979a, Mitter et al.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angus RA (1980) Geographical dispersal and clonal diversity in unisexual fish populations. Am Nat 115:531–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angus RA, Schultz RJ (1979) Clonal diversity in the unisexual fish Poeciliopsis monacha-lucida: a tissue graft analysis. Evolution 33:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annest JL, Templeton AR (1978) Genetic recombination and clonal selection in Drosophila mercatorum. Genetics 89:193–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell G (1982) The masterpiece of nature: the evolution and genetics of sexuality. Univ Cal Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  5. Bulger AJ, Schultz RJ (1979) Heterosis and interclonal variation in thermal tolerance in unisexual fish. Evolution 33:848–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bulger AJ, Schultz RJ (1982) Origins of thermal adaptation in northern vs. southern populations of a unisexual hybrid fish. Evolution 36:1041–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cimino MC (1972a) Meiosis in triploid all-female fish (Poeciliopsis, Poeciliidae). Science 175: 1484–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cimino MC (1972b) Egg production, polyploidization and evolution in a diploid all-female fish of the genus Poeciliopsis. Evolution 26:294–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eisenbrey AB, Moore WS (1981) Evolution of histocompatibility diversity in an asexual vertebrate, Poeciliopsis 2 monacha-lucida (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Evolution 35:1180–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fisher RA (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghiselin M (1974) The economy of nature and the evolution of sex. Univ California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  12. Glesener RR, Tilman D (1978) Sexuality and the components of environmental uncertainty: clues from geographic parthenogenesis in terrestrial animals. Am Nat 112:659–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hebert PDN, Crease TJ (1980) Clonal coexistence in Daphnia pulex (Leydig): another planktonic paradox. Science 207:1363–1365Google Scholar
  14. Jaenike J, Ausubel S, Grimald DA (1982) On the evolution of clonal diversity in parthenogenetic earthworms. Pedobiologia 23:304–310Google Scholar
  15. Leslie JF (1982) Linkage analysis of seventeen loci in poeciliid fish (genus: Poeciliopsis). J Hered 73:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Leslie JF, Vrijenhoek RC (1977) Genetic analysis of natural populations of Poeciliopsis monacha. J Heredity 68:301–306Google Scholar
  17. Leslie JF, Vrijenhoek RC (1978) Genetic dissection of clonally inherited genomes of Poeciliopsis: I. Linkage analysis and preliminary assessment of deleterious gene loads. Genetics 90:801–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Leslie JF, Vrijenhoek RC (1980) Consideration of Muller’s ratchet mechanism through studies of genetic linkage and genomic compatibilities in clonally reproducing Poeciliopsis. Evolution 34:1105–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lowe-McConnell RH (1975) Fish communities in tropical freshwater: their distribution, ecology and evolution. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Maslin TP (1968) Taxonomic problems in parthenogenetic vertebrates. Syst Zool 17:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maynard Smith J (1978) The evolution of sex. Cambridge Univ Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. McKay FE (1971) Behavioral aspects of population dynamics in unisexual-bisexual Poeciliopsis (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Ecology 52:778–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miller RR (1960) Four new species of viviparous fishes, genus Poeciliopsis from northwestern Mexico. Occ Pap Mus Zool Univ Mich 433:1–9Google Scholar
  24. Mitter C, Futuyma DJ, Schneider JC, Hare JD (1979) Genetic variation and host-plant relations in a parthenogenetic moth. Evolution 34:777–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moore WS (1975) Stability of small unisexual-bisexual populations of Poeciliopsis (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Ecology 56:791–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moore WS (1976) Components of fitness in the unisexual fish Poeciliopsis monacha-occidentalis. Evolution 30:564–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moore WS (1977a) A histocompatibility analysis of inheritance in the unisexual fish Poeciliopsis 2 monacha-lucida. Copeia 1977:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moore WS (1977b) An evaluation of narrow hybrid zones in vertebrates. Q Rev Biol 52:263–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moore WS, McKay FE (1971) Coexistence in unisexual-bisexual complexes of Poeciliopsis (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Ecology 52:791–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Muller HJ (1932) Some genetic aspects of sex. Am Nat 66:118–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Muller HJ (1964) The relation of recombination to mutational advance. Mut Res 1:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Parker ED Jr (1979) Ecological implications of clonal diversity in parthenogenetic morphospecies. Am Zool 19:753–762Google Scholar
  33. Parker ED Jr, Seiander RK, Hudson RO, Lester LJ (1977) Genetic diversity in colonizing parthenogenetic cockroaches. Evolution 31:836–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roughgarden J (1972) Evolution of niche width. Am Nat 106:683–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schultz RJ (1966) Hybridization experiments with an all-female fish of the genus Poeciliopsis. Biol Bull 130:415–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schultz RJ (1967) Gynogenesis and triploidy in the viviparous fish Poeciliopsis. Science 157: 1564–1567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schultz RJ (1969) Hybridization, unisexuality, and polyploidy in the teleost Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae) and other vertebrates. Am Nat 103:605–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schultz RJ (1971) Special adaptive problems associated unisexual fish. Am Zool 11:351–360Google Scholar
  39. Schultz RJ (1973) Unisexual fish: laboratory synthesis of a “species.” Science 179:180–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schultz RJ (1977) Evolution and ecology of unisexual fishes. In: Hecht MK, Steere WC, Wallace B (eds) Evolutionary biology, vol X. Plenum Press, New York, pp 277–331Google Scholar
  41. Schultz RJ (1982) Competition and adaptation among diploid and polyploid clones of unisexual fish. In: Dingle H, Hegmann JP (eds) Evolution and genetics of life histories. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 104–119Google Scholar
  42. Shields WM (1982) Philopatry, inbreeding, and the evolution of sex. State Univ, New York Press, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  43. Solbrig OT (1971) The population biology of dandelions. Am Sci 59:686–694Google Scholar
  44. Spinella DG, Vrijenhoek RC (1982) Genetic dissection of clonally inherited genomes of Poeciliopsis: II. Investigation of a silent carboxylesterase allele. Genetics 100:279–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Stanley SM (1979) Macroevolution: pattern and process. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  46. Suomalainen E (1950) Parthenogenesis in animals. Adv Genet 3:547–558Google Scholar
  47. Thibault RE (1974) The ecology of unisexual and bisexual fishes of the genus Poeciliopsis: a study in niche relationships. PhD Thesis, Univ Conn, StorrsGoogle Scholar
  48. Tomlinson J (1966) The advantage of hermaphroditism and parthenogenesis. J Theor Biol 11: 54–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vepsalainen K, Jaivinen O (1979) Apomictic parthenogenesis and pattern of the environment. Am Zool 19:739–752Google Scholar
  50. Vrijenhoek RC (1972) Genetic relationships of unisexual hybrid fishes to their progenitors using lactate dehydrogenase isozymes as gene markers (Poeciliopsis, Poeciliidae). Am Nat 106:754 to 766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vrijenhoek RC (1978) Coexistence of clones in a heterogeneous environment. Science 199:549 to 552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vrijenhoek RC (1979a) Factors affecting clonal diversity and coexistence. Am Zool 19:787–797Google Scholar
  53. Vrijenhoek RC (1979b) Genetics of a sexually reproducing fish in a highly fluctuating environment. Am Nat 113:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vrijenhoek RC (1984) The evolution of clonal diversity in Poeciliopsis. In: Turner BJ (ed) Evolutionary genetics of fishes. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 399–429Google Scholar
  55. Vrijenhoek RC, Schultz RJ (1974) Evolution of a trihybrid unisexual fish (Poeciliopsis; Poeciliidae). Evolution 28:306–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vrijenhoek RC, Angus RA, Schultz RJ (1977) Variation and heterozygosity in sexually vs. clonally reproducing populations of Poeciliopsis. Evolution 31:767–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vrijenhoek RC, Angus RA, Schultz RJ (1978) Variation and clonal structure in a unisexual fish. Am Nat 112:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Williams GC (1975) Sex and evolution. Univ Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  59. Wright JW, Lowe CH (1968) Weeds, polyploids, parthenogenesis, and the geographical and ecological distribution of all-female species of Cnemidophorus. Copeia 1968:128–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wright S (1977) Evolution and the genetics of populations, vol III. Univ Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  61. Zaret TM, Rand AS (1971) Competition in tropical stream fishes: support for the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology 52:336–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Vrijenhoek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations