This chapter deals with all left ventricular (LVAD) or biventricular (BVAD) assist devices providing cardiac assistance by means of artificial ventricles, driven pneumatically or mechanically, and with nonpulsatile blood pumps and roller pumps. Most of the contributions concern clinical implantation. Ventricular assistance can be defined as unloading of one or both ventricles by taking over and shifting the blood volume.
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