Metabolism and Toxicity of Metals
Uptake, distribution, and excretion of different metals and metal compounds and their toxic effects are highly variable. Most research has focused on a limited number of essential metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) and nonessential metals (Pb, Hg, Cd, and As). For these metals metabolism and toxicity in humans and animals are now fairly well established. A number of extensive and comprehensive reviews dealing with these metals are available. Discussion today concentrates not so much on the types of toxic effects that these metals may induce, but rather under which circumstances and at what exposure levels these effects occur. There are, however, several other metals (e.g., Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, Al, Sn, V, and Sb) which may produce severe toxic effects in humans under certain conditions. More research is needed to evaluate the kind of health hazards that may be involved in connection with these less studied metals.
KeywordsZinc Nickel Toxicity Dust Welding
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- (1).CEC. 1978. Criteria (Dose/Effect Relationships) for Cadmium. Report of a Working Group of Experts prepared for the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Social Affairs, Health and Safety Directorate. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- (2).Foulkes, E.C., ed. 1982. Biological Roles of Metallothionein. Proceedings of a USA-Japan Workshop, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 22–27, 1981. Amsterdam: Elsevier /North Holland.Google Scholar
- (3).Friberg, L.; Nordberg, G.F.; and Vouk, V.B., eds. 1979. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. Amsterdam: Elsevier /North Holland.Google Scholar
- (4).Friberg, L.; Piscator, M.; Nordberg, G.F.; and Kjellstrom, T. 1974. Cadmium in the Environment, 2nd ed. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- (5).MEDLINE. 1981. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
- (6).Needleman, H.L., ed. 1980. Low Level Lead Exposure: The Clinical Implications of Current Research. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
- (7).Underwood, E.J. 1977. Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- (8).Waldron, H.A., ed. 1980. Metal in the Environment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- (9).WHO. 1976. Environmental Health Criteria 1. Mercury. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- (10).WHO. 1977. Environmental Health Criteria 3. Lead. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- (11).WHO. 1981. Environmental Health Criteria 17. Manganese. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- (12).WHO. 1982. Environmental Health Criteria 18. Arsenic. Geneva: WHOGoogle Scholar