The Embryo

  • S. Natesh
  • M. A. Rau

Abstract

The discovery of syngamy by Strasburger in 1884 is an important landmark in the history of angiosperm embryology. Investigations on the embryo, however, had been initiated much before this event, soon after the observation of the pollen tube by Amici in 1824. Amici contended that the embryo developed from the germinal vesicle present in the embryo sac, and the pollen tube merely provided some kind of stimulus for its development. This view was strongly challenged by Schleiden (1836), who argued that the tip of the pollen tube itself, once inside the embryo sac, got transformed into an embryo. The subject soon developed into a major controversy and several botanists joined the fray, arraying themselves into two groups, some endorsing Amici’s contention, and others defending Schleiden’s opinion. The controversy raged for nearly two decades and it was not until Hofmeister conclusively demonstrated, in a series of publications from 1847 to 1861, that the embryo originated from a cell present in the embryo sac prior to the arrival of the pollen tube, thus vindicating Amici’s view, that the controversy came to an end [see Maheshwari (1950, 1963) for references].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpi A, Tognoni F, D’Amato F (1975) Growth regulator levels in embryo and suspensor of Phaseolus coccineus at two stages of development. Pianta 127:153–162Google Scholar
  2. Alpi A, Lorenzi R, Cionini PG, Bennici A, D’Amato F (1979) Identification of gibberellin A1 in the embryo suspensor of Phaseolus coccineus. Pianta 147:225–228Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez MR, King DO (1969) Peroxidase localization, activity and isozyme patterns in the developing seedling of Vanda (Orchidaceae). Am J Bot 56:180–186Google Scholar
  4. Alvarez MR, Sagawa Y (1965) A histochemical study of embryo development in Vanda. Caryologia 18:251–261Google Scholar
  5. Amici GB (1824) Observations microscopiques sur diverses espèces de plantes. Ann Sci Nat Bot 2:41–70; 211–248Google Scholar
  6. Arditti J (1979) Aspects of the physiology of orchids. In: Woolhouse HW (ed) Adv Bot Res 7:422–655Google Scholar
  7. Arekal GD, Ramaswamy SN (1973) Embryology of Burmannia pusilla (Wall, ex Miers) Thw. and its taxonomic status. Beitr Biol Pflanz 49:35–46Google Scholar
  8. Arekal GD, Ramaswamy SN (1980) Embryology of Eriocaulon hookerianum Stapf. and the systematic position oriocaulaceae. Bot Not 133:295–309Google Scholar
  9. Arekal GD, Shivamurthy GR (1976) “Seed” germination in Balanophora abbreviata. Phytomorphology 26:135–138Google Scholar
  10. Ashley T (1972) Zygote shrinkage and subsequent development in some Hibiscus hybrids. Pianta 108:303–317Google Scholar
  11. Avanzi S, Brunori A, D’Amato F (1969) Sequential development of meristems in the embryo of Triticum durum. A DNA autoradiographic and cytophotometric analysis. Dev Biol 20:368–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Avery GS Jr (1930) Comparative anatomy and morphology of embryos and seedlings of maize, oats, and wheat. Bot Gaz 89:1–39Google Scholar
  13. Barkworth ME (1982) Embryological characters and the taxonomy of the Stipeae (Gramineae). Taxon 31:233–243Google Scholar
  14. Battaglia E (1945) Fenomeni citologici nuovi nella embriogenesi („semigamia”) e nella microsporogenesi (Doppionucleo de restituzione) di Rudbeckia laciniata L. (nota preventiva). Nuovo G Bot Ital (Nuova Ser) 52:34–38Google Scholar
  15. Battaglia E (1955) Unusual cytological features in the apomictic Rudbeckia sullivantii Boynton et Beadle. Caryologia 8:1–32Google Scholar
  16. Battaglia E (1963) Apomixis. In: Maheshwari P (ed) Recent advances in the embryology of angiosperms. Intl Soc Plant Morphologists, Univ Delhi, Delhi, pp 221–264Google Scholar
  17. Battaglia E (1981) Embryological questions: 3. Semigamy, hemigamy, and gynandroembryony. Ann Bot (Roma) 39:173–175Google Scholar
  18. Batygina TB (1969) On the possibility of a new type of embryogenesis in angiosperms. Rev Cytol Biol Vég 32:335–341Google Scholar
  19. Baum BR (1968) On some relationships between Avena sativa and A. fatua (Gramineae) as studied from Canadian material. Can J Bot 46:1013–1024Google Scholar
  20. Baum BR (1978) The status of Hordeum brachyantherum in Eastern Canada, with discussions. Can J Bot 56:107–109Google Scholar
  21. Begum M (1968) Embryological studies on Eriocaulon quinquangulare Linn. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 67:148–156Google Scholar
  22. Behl HM, Tiagi B (1978) The haustorial embryonal suspensor and endosperm in Fabaceae (Phaseoleae and Vicieae). In: Malik CP, Srivastava AK, Bhattacharya NC, Singh R (eds) Physiology of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Kalyani, Ludhiana, pp 527–531Google Scholar
  23. Berg RY (1954) Development and dispersal of the seed of Pedicularis silvatica. Nytt Mag Bot (Oslo) 2:1–60Google Scholar
  24. Bernard C, Ernst A (1911) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Saprophyten Javas. 6. Embryologie von Thismia clandestina und T. verstegii. Ann Jard Bot Buitenz 24:70–77Google Scholar
  25. Bhalla PL, Singh MB, Malik CP (1979) Physiology of sexual reproduction VI. Embryogenesis in Tropaeolum majus L. Enzyme changes. Acta Bot Indica 7:72–86Google Scholar
  26. Biradar NV (1968) Studies on palms: Embryology of Phoenix pusilla Gaertn., P. acaulis Buch, and P.reclinata Jacq. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 67:165–173Google Scholar
  27. Biradar NV, Mahabale TS (1968) Studies on palms: Embryology of Phoenix robusta Hook. Proc Indian Acad Sci 68B:1–8Google Scholar
  28. Brady T (1973) Feulgen cytophotometric determination of the DNA content of the embryo proper and suspensor cells of Phaseolus coccineus. Cell Differ 2:65–75Google Scholar
  29. Brown WV (1960) The morphology of the grass embryo. Phytomorphology 10:215–223Google Scholar
  30. Brown WV (1965) The grass embryo: A rebuttal. Phytomorphology 15:274–284Google Scholar
  31. Brunori A (1967) Relationship between DNA synthesis and water content during ripening of Vicia faba seed. Caryologia 20:333–338Google Scholar
  32. Brunori A, D’Amato F (1967) The DNA content of nuclei in the embryo of dry seeds of Pinus pinea and Lactuca sativa. Caryologia 20:153–161Google Scholar
  33. Campbell DH (1897) A morphological study of Najas and Zannichellia. Proc Calif Acad Sci 1:1–67Google Scholar
  34. Carniel K (1967) Über die Embryobildung an der Gattung Paeonia. Oesterr Bot Z 114:4–19Google Scholar
  35. Cass DD, Karas I (1974) Ultrastructural organization of the egg of Plumbago zeylanica. Protoplasma 81:49–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cassera JD (1935) Origin and development of the female gametophyte, endosperm, and embryo in Orobanche uniflora. Bull Torrey Bot Club 62:455–466Google Scholar
  37. Cave MS, Anolt HJ, Stanton AC (1961) Embryogeny of the Californian peonies, with reference to their systematic position. Am J Bot 20:358–364Google Scholar
  38. Chaudhari HK (1978) Use of semigamy in the production of cotton hybrids. Bull Torrey Bot Club 105:98–103Google Scholar
  39. Cionini PG, Bennici A, Alpi A, D’Amato F (1976) Suspensor, gibberellin, and in vitro development of Phaseolus coccineus embryos. Planta 131:115–117Google Scholar
  40. Clutter M, Sussex IM (1968) Macromolecular synthesis during plant embryogeny. Cellular rates of RNA synthesis in diploid and polytene cells in bean embryo (Abstr). J Cell Biol 39:26 aGoogle Scholar
  41. Clutter M, Brady T, Walbot V, Sussex IM (1974) Macromolecular synthesis in diploid and polytene cells in bean embryo. J Cell Biol 63:1097–1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cocucci A, Jensen WA (1969) Orchid embryology: Megagametophyte of Epidendrum scutella following fertilization. Am J Bot 56:629–640Google Scholar
  43. Coe GE (1953) Cytology of reproduction in Cooperiapenduculata. Am J Bot 40:335–343Google Scholar
  44. Copeland HF (1933) The development of seeds in certain Ericales. Am J Bot 20:513–517Google Scholar
  45. Copeland HF (1947) Observations on the structure and classification of the Pyroleae. Madroño 9:65–102Google Scholar
  46. Corsi G (1972) The suspensor of Eruca sativa Miller (Cruciferae) during embryogenesis in vitro. Giorn Bot Ital 106:41–54Google Scholar
  47. Coulter JM, Chamberlain CJ (1912) Morphology of angiosperms. 2nd edn. Chicago Univ Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  48. Crété P (1963) Embryo. In: Maheshwari P (ed) Recent advances in the embryology of angiosperms. Intl Soc Plant Morphologists, Univ Delhi, Delhi, pp 171–220Google Scholar
  49. Cronquist A (1968) The evolution and clasification of flowering plants. Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  50. D’Alascio-Deschamps R (1973) Modification ultrastructurales liées à la féundation chez le Lin. Memoires Coll Morphologie. Bull Soc Bot Fr, pp 137–146Google Scholar
  51. Dastur RH (1922) Notes on the development of the ovule, embryo sac, and embryo of Hydnora africana Thunb. Trans RS South Africa 10:27–31Google Scholar
  52. Davis GL (1966) Systematic embryology of the angiosperms. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Deschamps R (1968) L’ embryon du Lin, Linum usitatissimum L., étude au microscope électronique. Rev Cytol Biol Vég 31:357–360Google Scholar
  54. Deschamps R (1969) Premiers stades du développement de l’embryon et de l’albumen du Lin: Etude au microscope électronique. Rev Cytol Biol Vég 32:379–390Google Scholar
  55. Doyel BE, Goss LM (1941) Some details of the structure of Sarcodes. Madroño 6:1–7Google Scholar
  56. Eames AJ (1961) Morphology of the angiosperms. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Ekambaram T, Panje RR (1935) Contributions to our knowledge of Balanophora. 2. Life history of B. dioica. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 1:522–543Google Scholar
  58. Erdelská O (1969) Untersuchung der ersten Entwicklungsphasen von Embryo und Endosperm der Art Jasione montana L. an lebendem Material. Planta 84:43–17Google Scholar
  59. Erdelská O (1983) Microcinematographical investigation of the female gametophyte, fertilization, and early embryo and endosperm development. In: Symposium on “Fertilization and embryogenesis in ovulated plants”. High Tatra Račkova dalina, Czechoslovakia, pp 49–54Google Scholar
  60. Erdelská O, Klasová A (1978) La région micropylaire du sac embryonnaire de Jasione montana L. avant et après la fécondation. Actual Bot Bull Soc Bot Fr 125:249–252Google Scholar
  61. Ernst A, Bernard C (1912) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Saprophyten Javas. 12. Entwicklungsgeschichte des Embryosackes, des Embryos und des Endosperms von Burmannia coelestis. Ann Jard Bot Buitenz (2) 11:234–257Google Scholar
  62. Ernst A, Schmid E (1913) Über Blüte und Frucht von Rafflesia. Morphologische-biologische Beobachtungen und entwicklungsgeschichtliche-zytologische Untersuchungen. Ann Jard Bot Buitenz (2) 12:1–58Google Scholar
  63. Farooq M (1965) Studies in the Lentibulariaceae. 3. The embryology of Utricularia uliginosa. Phytomorphology 15:123–131Google Scholar
  64. Farooq M, Bilquis S (1966) Studies in Lentibulariaceae 7. The embryology in Utricularia scandens Benj. Beitr Biol Pflanz 42:127–131Google Scholar
  65. Fisher DB, Jensen WA (1972) Nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA synthesis in cotton embryos: A correlated light and electron microscope autoradiographic study. Histochemie 32:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fleischer E (1874) Beiträge zur Embryologie der Monokotylen und Dikotylen. Flora 57:369–375, 384–394, 401–411, 417–448Google Scholar
  67. Forman M, Jensen WA (1965) Respiration and embryogenesis in cotton. Plant Physiol (Bethesda) 40:765–769Google Scholar
  68. Foster AS (1949) Practical plant anatomy. Van Nostrand, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Francke HL (1934) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Mykorrhiza von Monotropa hypopitys L. Flora 129:1–52Google Scholar
  70. Galston AW, Davies PJ (1969) Hormonal regulation in higher plants. Science 163:1288–1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gartner PJ, Nagl W (1980) Acid phosphatase activity in plastids (plastolysomes) of senescing embryo suspensor cells. Planta 149:341–349Google Scholar
  72. Gerlach-Cruse D (1970) Experimentelle Auslösung von Semigamie bei Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Biol Zentralbl 89:435–456Google Scholar
  73. Govindappa DA (1955) Embryological studies on Xyris paueiflora. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 42:47–57Google Scholar
  74. Graves AH (1908) The morphology of Ruppia maritima. Trans Conn Acad Arts Sci 10:59–170Google Scholar
  75. Guignard JL (1961a) Embryogénie des Palmiers. Développement de l’embryon chez le Chamaerops humilis L. CR Acad Sci Paris 253:1834–1836Google Scholar
  76. Guignard JL (1975b) Embryogénie et classification embryogenique. Bull Soc Bot Fr 122:281–294Google Scholar
  77. Guignard JL (1975) Du cotylédon des monocotylédons. Phytomorphology 25:193–200Google Scholar
  78. Guignard JL, Mestre JC (1969) L’origine du cotylédon et du cône végétatif chez les monocotylédons. Bull Soc Bot Fr 116:207–214Google Scholar
  79. Guignard JL, Mestre JC (1970) L’embryon des Graminées. Phytomorphology 20:190–197Google Scholar
  80. Guignard L (1882) Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur des Légumineuses. Diss Univ ParisGoogle Scholar
  81. Guignard L (1899) Sur les anthérozoides et la double copulation sexuelle chez les végétaux angiosperms. Rev Gen Bot 12:5–166Google Scholar
  82. Gunning BES, Pate JS (1969) “Transfer cells”. Plant cells with wall-ingrowths, specialized in relation to short distance transport of solutes: Their occurrence, structure, and development. Protoplasma 68:107–133Google Scholar
  83. Gunning BES, Pate JS (1974) Transfer cells. In: Robards AW (ed) Dynamic aspects of plant ultrastructure. McGraw-Hill, London, pp 441–180Google Scholar
  84. Guttenberg H von (1957) Embryologische und histogenetische Untersuchungen an Monokotyledonen. Bot Stud H 7. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  85. Guzowska I (1964) Reinvestigation of embryo sac development, fertilization, and early embryogeny in Cytinus hypocistis. Acta Soc Bot Polon 33:157–166Google Scholar
  86. Haccius B (1952) Die Embryoentwicklung bei Ottelia alismoides und das Problem des terminalen Monokotylenkeimblatts. Planta 40:443–160Google Scholar
  87. Haccius B (1953) Histogenetische Untersuchungen an Wurzelhaube und Kotyledonarscheide geophiler Keimpflanzen (Podophyllum und Eranthis). Planta 41:439–458Google Scholar
  88. Haccius B, Philip VJ (1979) Embryo development in Cocos nucifera L.: A critical contribution to a general understanding of palm embryogenesis. Plant Syst Evol 132:91–106Google Scholar
  89. Hagemann R (1976) Plastid distribution and plastid competition in higher plants and the induction of plastom mutations by nitroso-urea-compounds. In: Bucher Th, Neuper W, Siebald W, Werner S (eds) Genetics and biogenesis of chloroplasts and mitochondria. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 331–338Google Scholar
  90. Hagemann R (1981) Unequal plastid distribution during the development of male gametophyte of angiosperms. Acta Soc Bot Pol 50:321–327Google Scholar
  91. Hanstein J (1870) Die Entwicklung des Keimes der Monocotylen und der Dikotylen. Bot Abhandl (Bonn) 1:1–112Google Scholar
  92. Hare CL (1950) The structure and development of Eriocaulon septangulare With. J Linn Soc Bot 53:422–148Google Scholar
  93. Hu CY, Rogalski F, Ward C (1979) Factors maintaining Ilex rudimentary embryos in the quiescent state and the ultrastructural changes during activation. Bot Gaz 140:272–279Google Scholar
  94. Jaffe LF (1968) Localization in the developing Fucus egg and the general role of localizing currents. In: Abercrombie M, Brachet J, King TJ (eds) Advances in morphogenesis. Academic Press, New York, pp 295–328Google Scholar
  95. Jensen WA (1964) Cell development during plant embryogenesis. In “Meristems and differentiation”. Brookhaven Symp Biol 16:179–202Google Scholar
  96. Jensen WA (1968 a) Cotton embryogenesis: The tube-containing endoplasmic reticulum. J Ultrastruct Res 22:296–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jensen WA (1968 b) Cotton embryogenesis: Polysome formation in the zygote. J Cell Biol 36:403–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Jensen WA (1968 c) Cotton embryogenesis: The zygote. Planta 79:346–366Google Scholar
  99. Jensen WA (1974) Reproduction in flowering plants. In: Robards AW (ed) Dynamic aspects of plant ultrastructure. McGraw-Hill, London, pp 481–503Google Scholar
  100. Johansen DA (1950) Plant Embryology. Waltham, MassachusettesGoogle Scholar
  101. Johri BM, Tiagi B (1952) Floral morphology and seed formation in Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Phytomorphology 2:162–180Google Scholar
  102. Jones PA (1977) Nuclear DNA content of embryonic radicles and cultured stationary phase root tips of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Am J Bot 64:455–460Google Scholar
  103. Juel HO (1903) Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Samens von Cynomorium. Beih Bot Zbl 13:194–202Google Scholar
  104. Juliano JB (1935) Anatomy and morphology of the Bunga, Aeginetia indica. Philipp J Sci 56:405–151Google Scholar
  105. Kadej F, Kadej A (1981) Ultrastructural organization of the tomato embryo sac at the time of fertilization. Acta Soc Bot Pol 50:139–142Google Scholar
  106. Kadry AER (1955) The development of endosperm and embryo in Cistanche tinctoria (Forssk.) G. Beck. Bot Not 108:231–243Google Scholar
  107. Kanta K (1962) Morphology and embryology of Piper nigrum. Phytomorphology 12:207–221Google Scholar
  108. Kapil RN, Bhatnagar AK (1981) Ultrastructure and biology of the female gametophyte in flowering plants. Intl Rev Cytol 70:291–341Google Scholar
  109. Kaushik SB (1938) Pollen development and seed formation in Utricularia coerulea. Beih Bot Zbl 58A:365–378Google Scholar
  110. Kaushik SB, Raju MVS (1955) Variations in the development of proembryo in Utricularia coerulea L. Curr Sci (Bangalore) 25:296–297Google Scholar
  111. Khan R (1970) Lentibulariaceae. In: Comparative embryology of angiosperms. Bull Indian Natl Sci Acad 41:290–297Google Scholar
  112. Kościńska M (1980) Embryo and endosperm in Rudbeckia bicolor Nutt. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 22:71–80Google Scholar
  113. Kulkarni KM, Mahabale TS (1974) Studies on palms: Embryology of Livistona chinensis R Br. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 80:1–17Google Scholar
  114. Kumar U, Rangaswamy NS (1977) Regulation of seed germination and polarity in seedling development in Orobanche aegyptiaca by growth substances. Biol Plant (Prague) 19:353–359Google Scholar
  115. Kumazava M (1967) An experimental study on the seedling of Utricularia pilosa Makino. Phytomorphology 17:494–498Google Scholar
  116. Lakshmanan KK (1972) The monocot embryo. In: Varghese TM, Grover RK (eds) Vistas in plant sciences, vol 2. Intl Bio Sci, Hissar, pp 61–110Google Scholar
  117. Lakshmanan KK (1977) Studies on the development of Commelina benghalensis L. 1. Zygote to globular proembryo. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 86:167–174Google Scholar
  118. Lakshmanan KK (1978) Studies on the development of Commelina benghalensis 3. Cotyledon. Phytomorphology 28:253–261Google Scholar
  119. Lammeren AAM van (1981) Early events during embryogenesis in Zea mays L. Acta Soc Bot Pol 50:289–290Google Scholar
  120. Lorenzi R, Bennici A, Cionini PG, Alpi A, D’Amato F (1978) Embryo suspensor relations in Phaseolus coccineus: Cytokinins during seed development. Planta 143:59–62Google Scholar
  121. Luttge U, Schnepf E (1976) Elimination processes by glands. Organic substances. In: Lüttge U, Pitman MG (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology. New Ser, vol II B. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 224–277Google Scholar
  122. Mahabale TS, Biradar NV (1968) Studies on palms: Embryology of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 67:1–17Google Scholar
  123. Maheshwari P (1950) An introduction to the embryology of angiosperms. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Maheshwari P (ed) (1963) Recent advances in the embryology of angiosperms. Intl Soc Plant Morphologists, Univ Delhi, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  125. Maheshwari P, Singh B (1943) Studies in the family Alismaceae 5. The embryology of Machaerocarpus californicus (Torr.) Small. Proc Natl Inst Sci India Part B 9:311–322Google Scholar
  126. Malik CP, Singh MB (1979) Embryo suspensor in angiosperms: Structural and functional aspects. In: Malik CP (ed) Current advances in plant reproductive biology. Kalyani, Ludhiana, pp 257–292Google Scholar
  127. Malik CP, Singh MB, Thapar N (1977) Physiology of sexual reproduction 4. Histochemical characteristic of suspensor of Brassica campestris. Phytomorphology 27:384–389Google Scholar
  128. Malik CP, Singh MB, Bhalla PL (1980) Embryo suspensor no more a botanical enigma. In: Nagaraj M, Malik CP (eds) Current trends in botanical research. Kalyani, New Delhi, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  129. Marinos NG (1970) Embryogenesis of the pea (Pisum sativum) 2. An unusual type of plastid in the suspensor cells. Protoplasma 71:227–233Google Scholar
  130. Masand P, Kapil RN (1966) Nutrition of the embryo sac and embryo — A morphological approach. Phytomorphology 16:158–175Google Scholar
  131. Matthiessen A (1962) A contribution to the embryology of Paeonia. Acta Horti Bergiani 20:57–61Google Scholar
  132. Mayer AM, Poljakoff-Mayber A (1963) The germination of seeds. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  133. Mayer B, Stubbe W (1974) Das Zahlenverhältnis von mütterlichen und väterlichen Piastiden in den Zygoten von Oenothera erythrosepala Borbas (syn. O. lamarckiana). Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 87:29–38Google Scholar
  134. Melchior H (1964) A Engler’s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Bd 2, Borntraeger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  135. Mestre JC (1967) La signification phylogénétique de l’embryogénie. Rev Gen Bot 74:273–324Google Scholar
  136. Metzlaff M, Borner T, Hagemann R (1981) Variations of chloroplast DNAs in the genus Pelargonium and their biparental inheritance. Theor Appl Genet 60:37–41Google Scholar
  137. Miah AJ, Brunori A (1970) Chromosomal aberrations induced in meristematic regions of the embryos in X-irradiated dry seeds of Vicia faba. Radiat Bot 10:87–94Google Scholar
  138. Mizushima U, Murakami K, Hozyo Y (1955) Influence of anomalous environmental conditions upon embryogenesis in the rice plant Oryza sativa L. Histochemical observation of normal embryogenesis. Tôhuku J Agric Res 6:1–19Google Scholar
  139. Mogensen HL (1972) Fine structure and composition of the egg apparatus before and after fertilization in Quercus gambelii: The functional ovule. Am J Bot 59:931–941Google Scholar
  140. Mogensen HL, Suthar HK (1979) Ultrastructure of the egg apparatus of Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) before and after fertilization. Bot Gaz 140:168–179Google Scholar
  141. Mohan Ram HY, Dore Swamy R (1966) Growth and flowering of Utricularia inflexa Forsk. var. inflexa Taylor in axenie cultures. Naturwissenschaften 53:387–388Google Scholar
  142. Moscov IV (1964) On the development of the embryo in some species of Paeonia (in Russian). Bot Zh 49:887–894Google Scholar
  143. Mukkada A J (1962) Some observations on the embryology of Dicraea stylosa (Wight). In: Plant embryology — A Symposium. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, pp 139–145Google Scholar
  144. Murgai P (1959) The development of the embryo in Paeonia. Phytomorphology 9:275–277Google Scholar
  145. Murgai P (1962) Embryology of Paeonia with a discussion on its systematic position. In: Plant embryology — A symposium. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, pp 215–223Google Scholar
  146. Nagl W (1962) Über Endopolyploidie, Restitutionskernbildung und Kernstrukturen in Suspensor von Angiospermen und einer Gymnosperme. Oesterr Bot Z 109:431–494Google Scholar
  147. Nagl W (1973) The angiosperm suspensor and the mammalian trophoblast: Organs with similar cell structure and function. Memoires Coll Morphologie. Bull Soc Bot Fr, pp 289–301Google Scholar
  148. Nagl W (1974) The Phaseolus suspensor and its polytene chromosomes. Z Pflanzenphysiol 73:1–14Google Scholar
  149. Nagl W (1976 a) Early embryogenesis in Tropaeolum majus L.: Ultrastructure of the embryo-suspensor. Biochem Physiol Pflanz (BPP) 170:253–260Google Scholar
  150. Nagl W (1976 b) Ultrastructure of the polytene nuclei in the embryo-suspensor of the bean, Phaseolus coccineus: Toothing of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Nature and Life (Kyungpook) J Biol Sci 6:11–17Google Scholar
  151. Nagl W (1977) Plastolysomes — Plastids involved in the autolysis of the embryo-suspensor in Phaseolus. Z Pflanzenphysiol 85:45–51Google Scholar
  152. Nagl W, Kuhner S (1976) Early embryogenesis in Tropaeolum majus L.: Diversification of plastids. Planta 133:15–19Google Scholar
  153. Nawaschin SG (1898) Resultate einer Revision der Befruchtungsvorgänge bei Lilium mortagon und Fritillaria tenella. Bull Acad Imp Sci St. Petersburg 9:377–382Google Scholar
  154. Newcomb W (1973) The development of the embryo sac of sunflower Helianthus annuus after fertilization. Can J Bot 51:879–890Google Scholar
  155. Newcomb W, Fowke LC (1974) Stellaria media embryogenesis: The development and ultrastructure of the suspensor. Can J Bot 52:607–614Google Scholar
  156. Nijalingappa BHM (1975) Embryological studies in Haloragis micrantha. Phytomorphology 25:146–155Google Scholar
  157. Nikiticheva ZI (1981) Embryological features of some Piperales. Acta Soc Bot Pol 50:329–332Google Scholar
  158. Nikiticheva ZI, Tereokhin ES (1975) The structure of the embryo and the postseminal development of some parasite angiosperms. (Abstr). XII Intl Bot Congr, Leningrad, p 228Google Scholar
  159. Norstog K (1969) Morphology of the coleoptile and scutellum in relation to tissue culture responses. Phytomorphology 19:235–241Google Scholar
  160. Norstog K (1972) Early development of the barley embryo: Fine structure. Am J Bot 59:123–132Google Scholar
  161. Oehler E (1927) Entwicklungsgeschichtlich-zytologische Untersuchungen an einigen saprophytischen Gentianaceen. Planta 3:641–733Google Scholar
  162. Olsen S, Olsen ID (1980) The seed of Boschniakia hookeri (Orobanchaceae). Bot Tidskr 75:159–172Google Scholar
  163. Olson AR (1980) Seed morphology of Monotropa uniflora L. (Ericaceae). Am J Bot 67:968–974Google Scholar
  164. Olson AR, Cass DD (1981) Changes in megagametophyte structure in Papaver nudicaule following in vitro placental pollination. Am J Bot 68:1338–1341Google Scholar
  165. Pate JS, Gunning BES (1972) Transfer cells. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 23:173–196Google Scholar
  166. Periasamy K (1977) A new approach to the classification of angiosperm embryos. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 86:1–13Google Scholar
  167. Philip VJ, Haccius B (1976) Embryogenesis in Bambusa arundinacea Willd. and structure of the mature embryo. Beitr Biol Pflanz 52:83–100Google Scholar
  168. Poddubnaya-Arnoldi VA (1967) Comparative embryology of the Orchidaceae. Phytomorphology 17:312–320Google Scholar
  169. Poddubnaya-Arnoldi VA (ed) (1976) Cytoembryology of angiosperms, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  170. Pollock EG, Jensen WA (1964) Cell development during early embryogenesis in Capsella and Gossypium. Am J Bot 51:915–921Google Scholar
  171. Ponzi R, Pizzolongo P (1972) The ultrastructure of suspensor cells of Ipomoea purpurea Roth. J Submicrosc Cytol 4:199–204Google Scholar
  172. Ponzi R, Pizzolongo P (1973) Ultrastructure of plastids in the suspensor cells of Ipomoea purpurea Roth. J Submicrosc Cytol 5:257–263Google Scholar
  173. Possingham JV (1980) Plastid replication and development in the life cycle of higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:113–129Google Scholar
  174. Pritchard HN (1964) A cytochemical study of embryo development in Stellaria media. Am J Bot 51:472–179Google Scholar
  175. Pritchard HN, Bergstresser KA (1969) The cytochemistry of some enzymatic activities in Stellaria media embryos. Experientia (Basel) 25:1116–1117Google Scholar
  176. Przybyllock T, Nagl W (1977) Auxin concentration in the embryo and suspensors of Tropaeolum majus, as determined by mass fragmentation (single ion detection). Z Pflanzenphysiol 84:463–465Google Scholar
  177. Pyykkö M (1968) Embryological and anatomical studies on Finnish species of the Pyrolaceae. Ann Bot Fenn 5:153–165Google Scholar
  178. Quatrano RS (1974) Developmental biology: Development in marine organisms. In: Mariocal R (ed)Experimental marine biology. Academic Press, New York, pp 303–346Google Scholar
  179. Quatrano RS (1978) Development of cell polarity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 29:487–510Google Scholar
  180. Raghavan V (1976) Experimental embryogenesis in vascular plants. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  181. Ramaswamy SN (1970) Burmanniaceae. In: Comparative embryology of angiosperms. Bull Indian Natl Sci Acad 41:375–379Google Scholar
  182. Ramaswamy SN, Arekal GD (1981) Embryology of Eriocaulon setaceum. Plant Syst Evol 138:175–188Google Scholar
  183. Ramaswamy SN, Arekal GD (1982) Embryology of Eriocaulon xeranthemum Mart. (Eriocaulaceae). Acta Bot Neer l31:41–54Google Scholar
  184. Ramaswamy SN, Swamy BGL, Govindappa DA (1981) From zygote to seedling in Eriocaulon robustobrownianum Ruhl. (Eriocaulaceae). Beitr Biol Pflanz 55:179–188Google Scholar
  185. Ramji MV (1975) Histology of growth with regard to embryos and apical meristems in some angiosperms 1. Embryogeny of Stellaria media. Phytomorphology 25:131–145Google Scholar
  186. Ramji MV (1976) The histology of growth with regard to apical meristems in some angiosperms 2. Differentiation of apical meristems in Stellaria media. Phytomorphology 26:124–135Google Scholar
  187. Rangan TS, Rangaswamy NS (1968) Morphogenetic investigations on parasitic angiosperms 1. Cistanche tubulosa Wight (Family Orobanchaceae). Can J Bot 46:263–266Google Scholar
  188. Rangaswamy NS (1967) Morphogenesis of seed germination in angiosperms. Phytomorphology 17:477–487Google Scholar
  189. Rao CV (1955a) Embryo development in areca nut. Nature 175:432–433Google Scholar
  190. Rao CV (1955b) Embryological studies in Palmae I-III (Abstr). Proc 42nd Indian Sci Congr Pt 3:230–232Google Scholar
  191. Rao CV (1956) Embryological studies in Palmae IV-VI (Abstr). Proc 43 rd Indian Sci Congr Pt 3:225–227Google Scholar
  192. Rao CV (1959 a) Contributions to the embryology of Palmae I. Sabaleae. Proc Natl Inst India Part B 25:143–169Google Scholar
  193. Rao CV (1959 b) Contributions to the embryology of Palmae II. Ceroxylineae. J Indian Bot Soc 38:46–75Google Scholar
  194. Rau MA (1950) Development of the embryo in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. J Indian Bot Soc 29:210–213Google Scholar
  195. Rau MA (1954) The development of the embryo in Cyamopsis, Desmodium, and Lespedeza with a discussion of the position of the Papilionaceae in the system of embryogenic classification. Phytomorphology 14:418–430Google Scholar
  196. Rau MA (1955) Embryological studies in the Leguminosae. J Mysore Univ Sect B 14:63–75Google Scholar
  197. Reeder JR (1957) The embryo in grass systematics. Am J Bot 44:756–768Google Scholar
  198. Reeder JR (1962) The bambusoid embryo: A reappraisal. Am J Bot 49:639–641Google Scholar
  199. Robertson BL (1976) Embryology of Jubaeopsis caffra Becc. III. Endosperm and embryogeny. JS Afr Bot 42:285–299Google Scholar
  200. Rondet P (1958) Répartition et signification des acides ribonucléiques au cours de l’embryogenèse chez Lens culinaris L. CR Acad Sci Paris 246:2396–2399Google Scholar
  201. Rondet P (1961) Répartition et signification des acides ribonucléiques au cours 1’ embryogenèse chez Myosurus minimus L. CR Acad Sci Paris 253:1725–1727Google Scholar
  202. Rondet P (1962) L’organogenése au cours de l’embryogenèse chez l’Alyssum maritimum Lamk. CR Acad Sci Paris 255:2278–2280Google Scholar
  203. Russel SD (1980) Participation of male cytoplasm during gamete fusion in an angiosperm, Plumbago zeylanica. Science 2010:200–201Google Scholar
  204. Satina S, Rietsema J (1959) Seed development. In: Avery AG, Satina S, Rietsema J (eds) Blakeslee: The genus Datura. Ronald, New York, pp 181–195Google Scholar
  205. Schleiden M J (1836) Einige Blicke auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des vegetalischen Organismus bei den Phanerogamen. Arch Biol Naturgeschichte III 1:289–320Google Scholar
  206. Schnarf K (1929) Embryologie der Angiospermen. Borntraeger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  207. Schnarf K (1931) Vergleichende Embryology der Angiospermen. Borntraeger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  208. Schnepf E (1974) Gland cells. In: Robards AW (ed) Dynamic aspects of plant ultrastructure. McGraw-Hill, London, pp 331–357Google Scholar
  209. Schnepf E, Nagl W (1970) Über einige Strukturbesonderheiten der Suspensorzellen von Phaseolus vulgaris. Protoplasma 69:133–143Google Scholar
  210. Schötz F (1954) Über Piastidenkonkurrenz bei Oenothera. Planta 43:182–240Google Scholar
  211. Schulz D (1975) The orchid embryo: A revision on the base of several electron microscopical preparation methods (Abstr). XII Intl Bot Congr, Leningrad, p 233Google Scholar
  212. Schulz P, Jensen WA (1969) Capsella embryogenesis: The suspensor and the basal cell. Protoplasma 67:139–163Google Scholar
  213. Schulz R, Jensen WA (1968 a)Capsella embryogenesis: The early embryo. J Ultrastruct Res 22:376–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Schulz R, Jensen WA (1968 b) Capsella embryogenesis: The egg, zygote, and young embryo. Am J Bot 55:541–552Google Scholar
  215. Sehgal CB, Gifford EM Jr (1979) Developmental and histochemical studies of the ovules of Nicotiana rustic L. Bot Gaz 140:180–188Google Scholar
  216. Selvaratnam EM (1952) Embryo of the coconut. Nature 169:714–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Shah CK, Bhat PN (1974) Cytophotometric analysis of ascorbic acid (AA), ribonucleic acid, and sulfhydryl proteins during embryogenesis in Coix lacryma-jobi L. Curr Sci (Bangalore) 43:573–575Google Scholar
  218. Shah CK, Pandey SN (1978) Histochemical studies during embryogenesis in Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.) Miquel. Phytomorphology 28:31–42Google Scholar
  219. Sheridan WF, Neuffer MG (1982) Maize developmental mutants: Embryos unable to form leaf primordia. J Hered 73:318–329Google Scholar
  220. Shirke NS, Mahabale TS (1973) Studies on palms: Embryology of Caryota urens L. In: Murthy YS, Johri BM, Mohan Ram HY, Varghese TM (eds) Advances in plant morphology. Sarita Prakashan Meerut, pp 218–232Google Scholar
  221. Simoncioli C (1974) Ultrastructural characteristics of Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC suspensor. Giorn Bot Ital 108:175–189Google Scholar
  222. Singh AP, Mogensen HL (1975) Fine structure of the zygote and early embryo in Quercus gambelii. Am J Bot 62:105–115Google Scholar
  223. Singh MB, Bhalla PL, Malik CP (1980) Activity of some hydro lytic enzymes in autolysis of the embryo suspensor in Tropaeolum majus L. Ann Bot 45:523–527Google Scholar
  224. Sivaramakrishna D (1978) Size relationships of apical cell and basal cell in 2-celled embryos in angiosperms. Can J Bot 56:1434–1439Google Scholar
  225. Solms-Laubach HG (1878) Über monocotyle Embryonen mit scheitelbürtigem Vegetationspunkt. Bot Zeit 36:65–74, 81–93Google Scholar
  226. Solntzeva MP (1978) Apomixis and hemigamy as one of its forms. Proc Indian Nat Sci Acad Part B 44:78–90Google Scholar
  227. Souèges R (1913) Recherches sur l’embryogénie des Renonculacées-Renonculées. Genre Ranunculus. Bull Soc Bot Fr 60:506–514, 542–549, 615–621Google Scholar
  228. Souèges R (1926) Embryogénie des Papavéracées. Développement du proembryon chez le Papaver rhoeas. CR Acad Sci Paris 183:902–904Google Scholar
  229. Souèges R (1934) L’ hypophyse et Y épiphyse; les problèmes d’histogenèse qui leur sont liés. Bull Soc Bot Fr 81:737–748, 769–778Google Scholar
  230. Stebbins GL (1974) Evolution of morphogenetic patterns. In: Basic mechanisms in plant morphogenesis. Brookhaven Symp Biol 25:227–243Google Scholar
  231. Stein OL, Quastler H (1963) The use of tritiated thymidine in the study of tissue activation during germination in Zea mays. Am J Bot 50:1006–1011Google Scholar
  232. Steindl F (1945) Beiträge zur Pollen- und Embryobildung bei Cynomorium coccineum. Arch Julius Klaus Stift 20:342–355Google Scholar
  233. Strasburger E (1879) Die Angiospermen und die Gymnospermen. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  234. Strasburger E (1884) Neue Untersuchungen über den Befruchtungsvorgang bei den Phanerogamen. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  235. Subramanyam K (1950) An embryological study of Levenhookia dubia Sond. Proc Natl Inst Sci India Part B 15:245–253Google Scholar
  236. Subramanyam K (1960) Nutritional mechanism of the seed 2. Nutritional mechanism of the embryo. J Madras Univ Sect B 30:45–56Google Scholar
  237. Sung ZR, Okimoto R (1981) Embryonic proteins in somatic embryos of carrot. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3683–3687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Sussex I, Clutter M, Walbot V, Brady T (1973) Biosynthetic activity of the suspensor of Phaseolus coccineus. Caryologia (Suppl) 25:261–272Google Scholar
  239. Swamy BGL (1942) Female gametophyte and embryogeny in Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 15:194–201Google Scholar
  240. Swamy BGL (1943) Embryology of Orchidaceae. Curr Sci (Bangalore) 12:13–17Google Scholar
  241. Swamy BGL (1949) Embryological studies in the Orchidaceae II. Embryogeny. Am Midi Nat 41:202–232Google Scholar
  242. Swamy BGL (1979) Embryogenesis in Cheirostylis flabellata. Phytomorphology 29:199–203Google Scholar
  243. Swamy BGL, Krishnamurthy KV (1975) Certain conceptual aspects of meristems. I. On hypophysis and quiescent centre. Phytomorphology 25:60–75Google Scholar
  244. Swamy BGL, Krishnamurthy KV (1977) Certain conceptual aspects of meristems. II. Epiphysis and shoot apex. Phytomorphology 27:1–8Google Scholar
  245. Swamy BGL, Lakshamanan KK (1962) The origin of epicotylary meristem and cotyledon in Halophila ovata Gaudich. Ann Bot 26:243–249Google Scholar
  246. Swamy BGL, Padmanabhan D (1962) A reconnaissance of angiosperm embryogenesis. J Indian Bot Soc 41:422–437Google Scholar
  247. Swift JG, O’Brien TP (1970) Vascularization of the scutellum of wheat. Austr J Bot 18:45–53Google Scholar
  248. Takao S (1976) Embryogénie study of Impatiens textorii. Phytomorphology 26:200–210Google Scholar
  249. Takhtajan A (1969) Flowering plants, origin, and dispersal. Oliver and Boyd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  250. Tateoka T (1964) Notes on some grasses. 16. Embryo structure of the genus Oryza in relation to the systematics. Am J Bot 51:539–543Google Scholar
  251. Tereokhin ES (1973) The embryology of Orobanchaceae. 2. On the embryology and ecology of Phacellanthus tubiflorus Sieb et Zucc. Bot Zh 58:1775–1788Google Scholar
  252. Tiagi B (1951) Studies in the family Orobanchaceae 3. A contribution to the embryology of Orobanche cernua Loeffl. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. Phytomorphology 1:158–169Google Scholar
  253. Tiagi B (1952) Studies in the family Orobanchaceae 2. A contribution to the embryology of Aeginetia indica Linn. Bull Torrey Bot Club 79:63–78Google Scholar
  254. Tiagi B (1963) Studies in the family Orobanchaceae. 4. Embryology of Boschniackia himalaica Hook. and B. tuberosa (Hook.) Jepson with remarks on the evolution of the family. Bot Not 116:81–93Google Scholar
  255. Tiagi B (1965) Studies in the family Orobanchaceae 6. Development of the seed in Conopholis americana (L. Fil) Wallr. Acta Bot Hung 11:253–261Google Scholar
  256. Tiagi B, Sankhla NS (1963) Studies in the family Orobanchaceae 5. Contribution to the embryology of Orobanche leucorum. Bot Mag Tokyo 76:81–88Google Scholar
  257. Tillich H J (1977) Vergleichend-morphologische Untersuchungen zur Identität der Gramineen-Primar-wurzel. Flora 166:415–21Google Scholar
  258. Tilney-Basset RAE, Birky CW Jr (1981) The mechanism of the mixed inheritance of chloroplast genes in Pelargonium. Evidence from gene frequency distributions among the progeny of crosses. Theor Appl Gen 60:43–53Google Scholar
  259. Tilton VS, Mogensen HL (1979) Ultrastructural aspects of the ovule of Agave parryi before fertilizaton. Phytomorphology 29:338–350Google Scholar
  260. Tohda H (1974) Development of the embryo of Pogonia (Orchidaceae). Sci Rep Tôhoku Univ Fourth Ser (Biol) 37:89–93Google Scholar
  261. Treub M (1879) Notes sur 1’ embryogénie de quelques Orchidées. Nat Verh Koninkl Akad Amsterdam 19:1–50Google Scholar
  262. Turcotte EL, Feaster CV (1967) Semigamy in Pima cotton. J Hered 58:55–57Google Scholar
  263. Turcotte EL, Feaster CV (1969) Semigametic production of haploids in Pima cotton. Crop Sci 9:653–655Google Scholar
  264. Turcotte EL, Feaster CV (1973) The origin of 2n and n sectors in chimeral Pima cotton plants. Crop Sci 13:111–113Google Scholar
  265. Turcotte EL, Feaster CV (1975) Inheritance of semigamy in American Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Agron Abstr, p 65Google Scholar
  266. Vallade J (1970) Développement embryonnaire chez un Petunia hybrida hört. CR Acad Sci Paris 270:1893–1896Google Scholar
  267. Vallade J (1980) Données cytologiques sur la proembryogenèse du Petunia; intérêt pour une interpretation morphogénétique du développement embryonnaire. Actual Bot Bull Soc Bot Fr 127:19–37Google Scholar
  268. Vallade J, Cornu A, Essad S, Alabouvette J (1978) Niveaux de DNA dans les noyaux zygotiques chez le Petunia hybrida hort. Actual Bot Bull Soc Bot Fr 125:253–258Google Scholar
  269. Van Went JL (1970) The ultrastructure of the fertilized embryo sac of Petunia. Acta Bot Neerl 19:468–480Google Scholar
  270. Veyret Y (1974) Development of the embryo and the young seedling stages of orchids. In: Withner CL (ed) The orchids. Wiley, New York, pp 223–265Google Scholar
  271. Vijayaraghavan MR (1964) Morphology and embryology of a vesselless dicotyledon — Sarcandra irvingbaileyi, and systematic position of the Chloranthaceae. Phytomorphology 14:429–441Google Scholar
  272. Villiers TA, Wareing PF (1960) Interaction of growth inhibitor and a natural germination stimulator in the dormancy of Fraxinus excelsior L. Nature 185:112–114Google Scholar
  273. Vorsobina LI, Solntzeva MP (1973) Fertilization and early embryogenesis in Zephyranthes Candida Herb, (in Russian). Proc Symp Polovoj Process i Chmriogenz, pp 41–42Google Scholar
  274. Walbot V, Brady T, Clutter M, Sussex I (1972) Macromolecular synthesis in plant embryos: Rates of RNA synthesis in Phaseolus coccineus embryos and suspensors. Dev Biol 29:104–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Wardlaw CW (1955) Embryogenesis in plants. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  276. Wardlaw CW (1968) Morphogenesis in plants: A contemporary study. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  277. Watanabe K (1936) Morphologisch-biologische Studien über die Gattung Mitrastemon. 4. J Jap Bot 12:848–858Google Scholar
  278. Willis JC (1973) A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. 8 th edn Revised by Airy Shaw HK, Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  279. Wilson KS, Clutter VM Jr (1952) The distribution of acid phosphatases during development of the fruit of Cocos nucifera. Am J Bot 39:57–58Google Scholar
  280. Wilson KS, Clutter VM Jr (1953) Acid phosphatase distribution patterns in the developing embryo of Cocos nucifera. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 69:170–174Google Scholar
  281. Woodard JW (1956) DNA in gametogenesis and embryogeny in Tradescantia. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 2:765–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Wunderlich R (1966) Zur Deutung der eigenartigen Embryoentwicklung von Paeonia. Oesterr Bot Z 113:395–407Google Scholar
  283. Yakovlev MS, Yoffe MD (1957) On some peculiar features in the embryogeny of Paeonia L. Phytomorphology 7:74–87Google Scholar
  284. Yakovlev MS, Zhukova GYA (1980) Chlorophyll in embryos of angiosperm seeds: A review. Bot Not 133:323–336Google Scholar
  285. Yamazaki T (1974) A system of Gamopetalae based on embryology. J Fac Sci Univ Tokyo Sect III Bot 11:263–281Google Scholar
  286. Yamazaki T (1982) Recognized types in early development of the embryo and phylogeny in the dicotyledons (in Japanese). Acta Phytotax Geobot 33:240–249Google Scholar
  287. Yeung EC (1980) Embryogeny of Phaseolus: The role of the suspensor. Z Pflanzenphysiol 96:17–28Google Scholar
  288. Yeung EC, Clutter ME (1978) Embryogeny of Phaseolus coccineus: Growth and microanatomy. Protoplasma 94:19–10Google Scholar
  289. Yeung EC, Clutter ME (1979) Embryogeny of Phaseolus coccineus: The ultrastructure and development of the suspensor. Can J Bot 57:120–136Google Scholar
  290. Yeung EC, Sussex IM (1979) Embryogeny of Phaseolus coccineus: The suspensor and the growth of the embryo proper in vitro. Z Pflanzenphysiol 91:423–433Google Scholar
  291. Yoo B, Jensen WA (1966) Changes in nucleic acid content and distribution during cotton embryogenesis. Exp Cell Res 42:447–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Yoshida O (1957) Embryologische Studien über die Ordnung Piperales. 1. Embryologie von Chloranthus japonicus. J. Coll Arts Sci Chiba Univ (Nat Sci) 2:172–178Google Scholar
  293. Yoshida O (1959 a) Embryologische Studien über die Ordnung Piperales. 2. Embryologie von Chloranthus serratus. J Coll Arts Sci Chiba Univ (Nat Sci) 2:295–303Google Scholar
  294. Yoshida O (1959b) Embryologische Studien über die Ordnung Piperales. 3. Embryologie von Sarcandra glabra. J Coll Arts Sci Chiba Univ (Nat Sci) 3:55–60Google Scholar
  295. Zhukova GYA, Savina GI (1978) Electron microscope study of early embryo in Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Schult. (Orchidaceae). Bot Zh 63:1241–1246Google Scholar
  296. Zinger NV, Poddubnaya-Arnoldi VA (1966) Application of histochemical techniques to the study of embryonic processes in certain orchids. Phytomorphology 16:111–124Google Scholar
  297. Zweifel R (1939) Zytologisch-embryologische Untersuchungen Balanophora abbreviata und B. indica. Vjschr Naturf Ges Zürich 84:245–306Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Natesh
  • M. A. Rau

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations