Advertisement

Factors Influencing the Consumption of Plant Products by Large Herbivores

  • N. Owen-Smith
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 42)

Abstract

Some 44 large herbivore species of 29 genera frequent African savanna ecosystems, of which 31 species from 24 genera can be regarded as typical savanna inhabitants (Table 1). These species are all ungulates (orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla), if this term is stretched a little to include also elephants (Proboscidea). The ostrich Struthio camelus should perhaps also be included here, but will not be considered Further. Primates are also excluded, since folivores are restricted to forest or montane grassland habitats. Here, the term savanna refers broadly to a mixed community of grassland and trees, ranging from the semi-arid Acacia-dominated savannas of the Kalahari and parts of Namibia, through to the more open forms of the broad-leaf central African woodlands. Excluded are virtually treeless grasslands and shrub steppes, and denser woodlands and forests where grasses are an insignificant component.

Keywords

Large Herbivore Crude Protein Content Cyanogenic Glycoside African Elephant Rumen Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Afolayan F A and M Fafunsho 1978. Seasonal variation in the protein content and the grazing of some tropical savanna grasses. East African Wildlife Journal 16, 97–104.Google Scholar
  2. Allden W G and Whittaker I A D Mc D 1970. Determinants of herbage intake by grazing sheep: interrelationships of factors influencing herbage intake and availability. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 21, 755–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annison E F and Lewis D 1959. Metabolism in the rumen. Methuen, London. 184 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Arman P and C R Field 1973. Digestion on the hippopotamus. East African Wildlife Journal 11, 9–18.Google Scholar
  5. Arman P and D Hopcraft 1975. Nutritional studies in East African herbivores. Digestibilities of dry matter, crude fibre, and crude protein in antelope, cattle and sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 33, 255–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arman P D, D Hopcraft and I McDonald 1975. Nutritional studies in East African herbivores. II. Losses of nitrogen in the faeces. British Journal of Nutrition 33, 265–276.Google Scholar
  7. Arnold G W and J L Hill 1972. Chemical factors affecting selection of food plants by ruminants. In: Harborne J B (ed) Phytochemical ecology. Academic Press, London, pp 72–101.Google Scholar
  8. Arnold G W and R A Mailer 1977. Effects of nutritional experience in early and adult life on the performance and dietary habits of sheep. Applied Animal Ethology 3, 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Backhaus D 1959. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die sehschärfe und das farbsehen einiger huftiere. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 16, 445–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bate-Smith E and T Swain 1967. New leuco-anthocyanins in grasses. Nature 213, 1033–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bell R H V 1969. The use of the herbaceous layer by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. PhD Thesis. University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  12. Bell R H V 1970. The use of the herb layer by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti. In: Watson A (ed) Animal populations in relation to their food resources. Symposium of the British Ecological Society, Aberdeen, pp 111–124.Google Scholar
  13. Bell R H V 1971. A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti. Scientific American 225, 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blankenship L H and S A Qvortrup 1974. Resource management on a Kenya ranch. Journal of the South African Wildlife Management Association 4, 185–190.Google Scholar
  15. Bonsma J C 1942. Useful bushveld trees and shrubs. Their value to the farmer. Farming, South Africa, April 1942.Google Scholar
  16. Braun H M 1973. Primary production in the Serengeti: Purpose, methods and some results of research. Annales de l’Universite d’Abidjan, Serie E(Ecologie) 6 (part 2), 171–188.Google Scholar
  17. Brynard A M and V de V Pienaar 1960. Annual report of the biologist, 1958/1959. Koedoe 3, 1–205.Google Scholar
  18. Campling R C 1970. Physical regulation of voluntary intake. In: Phillipson A F (ed) Physiology of digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. Oriel Press, Newcastle, pp 226–234.Google Scholar
  19. Casewell H, F Reed, S N Stephenson and P A Werner 1973. Photosynthetic pathways and selective herbivory. American Naturalist 107, 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Casewell H and F C Reed 1976. Plant-herbivore interactions. The indigestibility of C4 bundle sheath cells by grasshoppers. Oecologia 26, 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cates R G and D F Rhoades 1977. Patterns in the production of anti-herbivore chemical defences in plant communities. Biochemistry and Systematic Ecology 5, 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caughley G 1976. Plant-herbivore systems. In: May R M (ed) Theoretical ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 94–113.Google Scholar
  23. Chacon E and T H Stobbs 1976. Influence of progressive defoliation of a grass sward on the eating behaviour of cattle. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 27, 709–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clough G and A G Hassam 1970. A quantitative study of the daily activity of the warthog in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. East African Wildlife Journal 8, 19–24.Google Scholar
  25. Clutton-Brock T H 1974. Primate social organization and ecology. Nature 250, 539–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Conybeare A 1975. Notes on the feeding habits of kudu in the Kalahari sand area of Wankie National Park, Rhodesia. Arnoldia (Rhodesia) 7 (14), 1–7.Google Scholar
  27. Cooper-Driver G and F Swain 1976. Cyanogenic polymorphism in relation to herbivore predation. Nature 260, 604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crawford M A, J M Patterson and L Yardley 1968. Nitrogen utilization by the Cape buffalo and other large mammals. In: Crawford M A (ed) Comparative nutrition of wild animals. Symposium of the Zoological Society, London, No 21. Academic Press, London, pp 367–379.Google Scholar
  29. Cumming D H M 1975. A field study of the ecology and behaviour of warthog. Museum Memoir No 7, Trustees of the National Museums arid Monuments of Rhodesia, Salisbury.Google Scholar
  30. Dougall H W, V M Drysdale and P E Glover 1964. The chemical composition of Kenya browse and pasture herbage. East African Wildlife Journal 2, 86–121.Google Scholar
  31. Douglas-Hamilton I 1972. On the ecology and behaviour of the African elephant. PhD Thesis. University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  32. Downing B H 1972. A plant ecological survey of the Umfolozi Game Reserve, Zululand. PhD Thesis. University of Natal.Google Scholar
  33. Duncan P 1975. Topi and their food supply. PhD Thesis. University of Nairobi.Google Scholar
  34. Dunham K M 1980. The feeding behaviour of a tame impala. African Journal of Ecology 18, 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Du Toit P J, J G Louw and A J Malan 1940. A study of the mineral content and feeding value of natural pastures in the Union of South Africa. (Final report). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 14, 123–32STGoogle Scholar
  36. Ellis R P 1977. Distribution of the Kranz syndrome in the southern African Eragrostoideae and Panicoideae according to bundle sheath anatomy and cytology. Agroplantae 9, 73–110.Google Scholar
  37. Field C R 1970. A study of the feeding habits of the hippopotamus in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda with some management implications. Zoologica Africana 5, 71–86.Google Scholar
  38. Field C R 1975. Climate and the food habits of ungulates on Galana Ranch. East African Wildlife Journal 13, 203–220.Google Scholar
  39. Field C R 1976. Palatability factors and nutritive values of the food of buffalo in Uganda. East African Wildlife Journal 14, 181–202.Google Scholar
  40. Field C R and L H Blankenship 1973. Nutrition and reproduction of Grant’s and Thomson’s gazelles, Coke’s hartebeest and giraffe in Kenya. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (Supplement) 19, 287–301.Google Scholar
  41. Field C R and I C Ross 1976. The savanna ecology of Kidepo Valley National Park. II. Feeding ecology of elephant and giraffe. East African Wildlife Journal 14, 1–16.Google Scholar
  42. Finch V A 1972. Thermoregulation and heat balance of the East African eland and hartebeest. American Journal of Physiology 222, 1374–1379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fox L R and B J Macauley 1977. Insect grazing on Eucalyptus in response to variation in leaf tannins and nitrogen. Qecologia 29, 145–162.Google Scholar
  44. Freeland W J and D H Janzen 1974. Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds. American Naturalist 108, 269–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Giesecke D 1970. Comparative microbiology of the alimentary tract. In: Phillipson A F (ed) Physiology of digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. Oriel Press, Newcastle, pp 30b–318.Google Scholar
  46. Giesecke D and N O van Gylswyk 1975. A study of feeding types and certain rumen functions in six species of South African wild ruminants. Journal of Agricultural Science 85, 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glander K E 1977. Poison in a monkey’s Garden of Eden. Natural History 86, 34–41.Google Scholar
  48. Goddard J 1968. Food preferences of two black rhinoceros populations. East African Wildlife Journal 6, 1–18.Google Scholar
  49. Goddard J 1970. Food preferences of black rhinoceros in the Tsavo National Park. East African Wildlife Journal 8, 145–161.Google Scholar
  50. Gogan P J P 1973. Some aspects of nutrient utilization by Burchell’s zebra in the Serengeti/Mara region, East Africa. MSc Thesis. Texas A & M University.Google Scholar
  51. Goodman P S 1975. The relation between vegetation structure and its use by wild herbivores in a riverine habitat. MSc Thesis. University of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
  52. Grobler J H 1974. Aspects of the biology, population ecology and behaviour of the sable in the Rhodes Matopos National Park, Rhodesia. Arnoldia (Rhodesia) 7 (6), 1–36.Google Scholar
  53. Groenwald J W, D H Joubert and H Tolken 1967. The chemical composition of South African fodder plants. Proceedings of the South African Society of Animal Production 6, 117–128.Google Scholar
  54. Groto J and D J Minson 1977. The potential digestibility of leaf and stem fractions of grasses. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 89, 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grunow J 0, H T Groeneveld and S H C du Toit 1980. Above—ground dry matter dynamics of the grass layer of a South African tree savanna. Journal of Ecology 68, 877–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gwynne M D and R H V Bell 1968. Selection of vegetation components by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti National Park. Nature 220, 390–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hall-Martin A J and W D Basson 1975. Seasonal chemical composition of the diet of Transvaal lowveld giraffe. Journal of the South African Wildlife Management Association 5, 19–21.Google Scholar
  58. Harborne J B 1977. Introduction to ecological biochemistry. Academic Press, London. 243 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Hediger H 1940. Zum Begriff der biologischen Rangordnung. Revue suisse de zoologie 47.Google Scholar
  60. Hintz H F, H F Schryver and C E Stevens 1978. Digestion and absorption in the hindgut of non-ruminant herbivores. Journal of Animal Science 46, 1803–1807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hofmann R R 1973. The ruminant stomach. East African Monographs in Biology, vol 2. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  62. Hofmann R R and D R M Stewart 1972. Grazer or browser: a classification based on the stomach structure and feeding habits of East African ruminants. Mammalia 36, 226–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hopkins B 1968. Vegetation of the Olokemeji Forest Reserve, Nigeria. V. The vegetation on the savanna site with special reference to its seasonal changes. Journal of Ecology 56, 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hoppe P P 1977. Comparison of voluntary food and water consumption and digestion in Kirk’s dikdik and suni. East African Wildlife Journal 15, 41–48.Google Scholar
  65. Hoppe P P, S A Qvortrup and M H Woodford 1977a. Rumen fermentation and food selection in East African zebu cattle, wildebeest, Coke’s hartebeest and topi. Journal of Zoology, ( London ) 181, 1–9.Google Scholar
  66. Hoppe P P, S A Qvortrup and M H Woodford 1977b. Rumen fermentation and food selection in East African sheep, goats, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle and impala. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 89, 129–135.Google Scholar
  67. Hughes R E, C Milner and J Dale 1962. Selectivity in grazing. In: Crisp J (ed) Grazing in terrestrial and marine environments. Symposium of the British Ecological Society No 4. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 189–202.Google Scholar
  68. Hungate R E 1975. The rumen microbial ecosystem. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6, 39–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jarman M V and P J Jarman 1973. Daily activity of impala. East African Wildlife Journal 11, 75–92.Google Scholar
  70. Jarman P J 1974. The social organization of antelope in relation to their ecology— Behaviour 48, 215–267.Google Scholar
  71. Jones D A 1972. Cyanogenic glycosides and their functions. In: Harborne J B (ed) Phytochemical ecology. Academic Press, London, pp 103–124.Google Scholar
  72. Joubert S C J 1976. The population ecology of the roan antelope in the Kruger National Park. DSc Thesis. University of Pretoria.Google Scholar
  73. Kelly R D and B H Walker 1976. The effects of different forms of land-use on the ecology of a semi-arid region in eastern Rhodesia. Journal of Ecology 64, 503–576.Google Scholar
  74. Kerr M A, V J Wilson and H H Roth 1970. Studies in the agricultural utilization of semi-domesticated eland in Rhodesia. 2. Feeding habits and food preferences. Rhodesian Journal of Agricultural Research 8, 71–77.Google Scholar
  75. Kleynhans C J and W van Hoven 1976. Rumen protozoa of the giraffe with a description of two new species. East African Wildlife Journal 14, 203–214.Google Scholar
  76. Klingel H 1967. Soziale Organisation und Verhalten freilebender Steppenzebras. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 24, 580–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Koller B L, H F Hintz, J B Robertson and P J van Soest 1978. Comparative cell wall and dry matter digestion in the cecum of the pony and the rumen of the cow using in vitro and nylon bag techniques. Journal of Animal Science 47, 209–2157Google Scholar
  78. Kruegar W C, W A Laycock and D A Price 1974. Relationship of taste, smell, sight and touch to forage selection. Journal of Range Management 27, 258–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kurihara Y, T Takechi and F Shibuta 1978. Relationship between bacteria and ciliate protozoa in the rumen of sheep fed on a purified diet. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 90, 373–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Laredo M A and D J Minson 1973. The voluntary intake, digestibility, and retention time by sheep of leaf and stem fractions of five grasses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 24, 875–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Laws R M, I S C Parker, R C B Johnstone 1975. Elephants and their habitats. The ecology of elephants in North Bunyoro, Uganda. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  82. Ledger H P 1968. Body composition as a basis for a comparative study of some East African mammals. In: Crawford M A (ed) Comparative nutrition of wild animals. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 21, 289–310.Google Scholar
  83. Ledger H P 1977. The utilization of dietary energy by steers during periods of restricted food intake and subsequent realimentation. 2. The comparative energy requirements of penned and exercised steers for long- term maintenance at constant liveweight. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 88, 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ledger H P and A R Sayers 1977. The utilization of dietary energy by steer during periods of restricted food intake and subsequent realimentation. 1. The effect of time on the maintenance requirements of steers held at constant liveweights. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 88, 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Leuthold W 1971. Studies on the food habits of lesser kudu in Tsavo National Park, Kenya. East African Wildlife Journal 9, 35–45.Google Scholar
  86. Leuthold W 1978. On the ecology of the gerenuk. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 561–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Leuthold B M and W Leuthold 1972. Food habits of giraffe in Tsavo National Park, Kenya. East African Wildlife Journal 10, 129–141.Google Scholar
  88. Leuthold W and J B Sale 1973. Movements and patterns of habitat utilization of elephants in Tsavo National Park, Kenya. East African Wildlife Journal 11, 369–384.Google Scholar
  89. Levin D A 1976. Alkaloid-bearing plants: an ecogeographic perspective. American Naturalist 110, 261–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Levins R 1975. Evolution in communities near equilibrium. In: Cody M L and J M Diamond (eds) Ecology and evolution of communities. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp 16–50.Google Scholar
  91. Lewis J G 1978. Game domestication for animal production in Kenya: shade behaviour and factors affecting the herding of eland, oryx, buffalo and zebu cattle. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 90, 587–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Livingstone H G, W J A Payne and M T Friend 1962. Urea excretion in ruminants. Nature 194, 1057–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lobao Tello J L and R G van Gelder 1975. The natural history of nyala in Mozambique. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 155, 323–386.Google Scholar
  94. Mackie R J, F M Gilchrist, A M Robberts, P E Hannah and H M Schwartz 1978. Microbiological and chemical changes in the rumen during stepwise adaptation of sheep to high concentrate diets. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 90, 241–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Maipas R C 1977. Diet and the condition and growth of elephants in Uganda. Journal of Applied Ecology 14, 489–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mangan J L and J West 1977. Ruminal digestion of chloroplasts and the protection of protein by glutaraldehyde treatment. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 89, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Marten G C 1978. The animal—plant complex in forage palatability phenomena. Journal of Animal Science 46, 1470–1477.Google Scholar
  98. Marten G C, R F Barnes, A B Simons and F J Wooding 1973. Alkaloids and palatability of Phalaris arundinacea grown in diverse environments. Agronomy Journal 65, 199–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Martin P S 1966. Africa and Pleistocene overkill. Nature 212, 339–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Martin R B 1974. Structure, biomass and utilization of vegetation in the mopane and miombo woodlands of the Sengwa Wildlife Research Area. Certificate in Field Ecology Thesis. University of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
  101. McCullagh K G 1972. Are African elephants deficient in essential fatty acids? Nature 242, 267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McNaughton S J 1976. Serengeti migratory wildebeest: facilitation of energy flow by grazing. Science 191, 92–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Milne J A, J C Macrae, A M Spence, and S Wilson 1976. Intake and digestion of hill-land vegetation by the red deer and the sheep. Nature 263, 763–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Moen A N 1973. Wildlife ecology. An analytical approach. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  105. Moir K W 1972. An assessment of the quality of forage from its cell wall content and the amount of cell wall digested. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 78, 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nge’the J C and F W Box 1976. Botanical composition of eland and goat diets in an acacia grassland community in Kenya. Journal of Range Management 29, 290–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Novellie P A (in prep) Feeding ecology of the Kudu in the Kruger National Park.Google Scholar
  108. Odberg F 0 and K Francis-Smith 1977. Studies on the formation of ungrazed elimination areas in fields used by horses. Applied Animal Ethology 3, 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Oh H K, M B Jones and W M Longhurst 1968. A comparison of rumen microbial inhibition resulting from various essential oils isolated from relativity unpalatable species. Applied Microbiology 16, 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Owaga M L 1975. The feeding ecology of wildebeest and zebra in Athi—Kaputei Plains. East African Wildlife Journal 13, 375–383.Google Scholar
  111. Owen-Smith N 1978. Theme VII. The influence of consumers on primary production. A synthesis of information generated in the South African Savanna Ecosystem Project. Report to the National Programme for Environmental Sciences, CSIR, Pretoria. Typescript, 29 pp.Google Scholar
  112. Owen-Smith N 1979. Assessing the foraging efficiency of a large herbivore, the kudu. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 102–110.Google Scholar
  113. Owen-Smith N 1982 (in press). The white rhinoceros. The ecology and behaviour of a mega—herbivore. Garland Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Owen-Smith N (in prep). On the foraging time budgets and range extent of grazing and browsing ungulates.Google Scholar
  115. Parra R 1978. Comparison of foregut and hindgut fermentation in herbivores. In: Montgomery G G (ed) The ecology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D C. pp 205–229.Google Scholar
  116. Plowes D C H 1957. The seasonal variation of crude protein in twenty common veld grasses at Matopos, Southern Rhodesia, and related observations. Rhodesian Agricultural Journal 53, 33–55.Google Scholar
  117. Pyke G H, H R Pulliam and E L Charnov 1977. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theories and tests. Quarterly Review of Biology 52, 137–153. ~Google Scholar
  118. Rehr S S, P P Feeny and D H Janzen 1973. Chemical defense in Central American non—ant acacias. Journal of Animal Ecology 42, 405–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Richardson C R and E E Hatfield 1978. The limiting amino acids in growing cattle. Journal of Animal Science 46, 740–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Robbins C F, R L Prior, A N Moen and W J Visek 1974. Nitrogen metabolism of white—tailed deer. Journal of Animal Science 38, 186–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rogerson A 1968. Energy utilization by the eland and the wildebeest. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 21, 153–161.Google Scholar
  122. Rosenthal G A and D H Janzen 1979. Herbivores. Their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  123. Roth H H and R Osterberg 1971. Studies on the agricultural utilization of semi—domesticated eland in Rhodesia. 4. Chemical composition of eland browse. Rhodesian Journal of Agricultural Research 9, 45–51.Google Scholar
  124. Rushworth J E 1975. The floristic, physiognomic and biomass structure of Kalahari sand scrub vegetation in relation to fire and frost in Wankie National Park, Rhodesia. MSc Thesis. University of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
  125. Short H L 1963. Rumen fermentation and energy relationship in white—tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 27, 184–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Short H L, R M Blair and C A Segelquist 1974. Fiber composition and forage digestibility by small ruminants. Journal of Wildlife Management 38, 197–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Simpson C D 1974. Ecology of the Zambezi bushbuck. PhD Thesis. Texas A & M University.Google Scholar
  128. Sinclair ARE 1975. The resource limitation of trophic levels in tropical grassland ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology 44, 497–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sinclair ARE 1977. The African buffalo. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  130. Sinclair ARE and M D Gwynne 1972. Food selection and competition in the East African buffalo. East African Wildlife Journal 10, 77–89.Google Scholar
  131. Slade L M and D W Robinson 1970. Nitrogen metabolism in non-ruminant herbivores. II. Comparative aspects of protein digestion. Journal of Animal Science 30, 761–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith L W, H K Goering, D R Wald and C H Gordon 1971. In vitro digestion rate of forage cell wall components. Journal of Dairy Science 54, 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Spinage C A 1969. A quantitative study of the daily activity of the Uganda defassa waterbuck. East African Wildlife Journal 6, 89–93.Google Scholar
  134. Stanley-Price M R 1977. The estimation of food intake, and its seasonal variation, in the hartebeest. East African Wildlife Journal 15, 107–124.Google Scholar
  135. Stanley-Price M R 1978. The nutritional ecology of Coke’s hartebeest in Kenya. Journal of Applied Ecology 15, 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stobbs T H 1973a. The effect of plant structure on the intake of tropical pastures. I. Variation in the bite size of grazing cattle. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 24, 809–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stobbs T H 1973b. The effect of plant structure on the intake of tropical pastures. II. Differences in sward structure, nutritive value, and bite size of animals grazing Setaria anceps and Chi oris gayana at various stages of growth. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 24, 821–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Taylor C R 1968. The minimum water requirements of some East African bovids. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 21, 195–206.Google Scholar
  139. Taylor C R 1969. The eland and the oryx. Scientific American 220, 88–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Taylor C R 1970a. Strategies of temperature regulation: effect on evaporation in East African ungulates. American Journal of Physiology 219, 1131–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Taylor C R 1970b. Dehydration and heat: effects on temperature regulation of East African ungulates. American Journal of Physiology 219, 1136–1139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Taylor C R and G M O Maloiy 1967. The effect of dehydration and heat stress on intake and digestion of food in some East African bovids. Transactions of the Eighth International Congress on Game Biology, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  143. Taylor C R, C A Spinage and C P Lyman 1969. Water relations of the waterbuck, an East African antelope. American Journal of Physiology 217, 630–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Theron E P and P de V Booysen 1966. Palatability in grasses. Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa 1, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Thornton R F and D J Minson 1972. The relationship between voluntary intake and mean apparent retention time in the rumen. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 23, 871–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Thornton R F and D J Minson 1973. The relationship between apparent retention time in the rumen, voluntary intake, and apparent digestibility of legume and grass diets in sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 24, 889–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tomlinson DNS 1979. The feeding behaviour of waterbuck in the Lake Mcllwaine game enclosure. The Rhodesia Science News 13, 11–14.Google Scholar
  148. Van Hoven W 1974. Ciliate protozoa and aspects of the nutrition of hippopotamus in the Kruger National Park. South African Journal of Science 70, 107–109.Google Scholar
  149. Van Hoven W 1975. Rumen ciliates of the tsessebe in South Africa. Journal of Protozoology 22, 457–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Van Soest P J 1965. Symposium on factors influencing the voluntary intake of herbage by ruminants: voluntary intake in relation to chemical composition and digestibility. Journal of Animal Science 24, 834–843.Google Scholar
  151. Van Soest P J and L H R Jones 1968. Effect of silica in forages upon digestibility. Journal of Dairy Science 51, 1644–1648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Vesey-Fitzgerald D F 1960. Grazing succession among East African game animals. Journal of Mammalogy 41, 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Waldo D R 1968. Nitrogen metabolism in the ruminant. Journal of Dairy Science 51, 265–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Waldo D R, L W Smith and E L Cox 1972. Model of cellulose disappearance from the rumen. Journal of Dairy Science 55, 125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wallmo O C, L H Carpenter, W L Regelin, R B Gill and D L Baker 1977. Evaluation of deer habitat on a nutritional basis. Journal of Range Management 30, 122–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Warner A C J 1964. Factors influencing numbers and kinds of microorganisms in the rumen. In: Dougherty R W (ed) Physiology of digestion in the ruminant. Butterworth, London, pp 346–359.Google Scholar
  157. Waser P 1975. Diurnal and nocturnal strategies of the bushbuck. East African Wildlife Journal 13, 49–64.Google Scholar
  158. Webb S D 1977. A history of savanna vertebrates in the New World. Parti: North America. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8, 355–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Weinmann H 1948. Seasonal growth and changes in chemical composition of the herbage on Marandellas sandveld. Rhodesian Agricultural Journal 45, 119. —Google Scholar
  160. Western D 1975. Water availability and its influence on the structure and dynamics of a savanna large mammal community. East African Wildlife Journal 13, 265–286.Google Scholar
  161. Westoby M 1974. The analysis of diet selection by large generalist herbivores. American Naturalist 108, 290–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wilkins H L, R P Bates, R P Hewson, J Lindahl and R E Davis 1953. Tannin and palatability in Sericea lespedeza. Agronomy Journal 45, 335–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wilson A D 1977. The digestibility and voluntary intake of the leaves of trees and shrubs by sheep and goats. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 28, 501–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wilson J R and L T’Mannetje 1978. Senescence, digestibility and carbohydrate content of buffel grass and green leaves in swards. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 503–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zimmerman I (in press). Factors influencing the feed intake and liveweight gains of beef cattle on a mixed tree savanna in the Transvaal. Journal of Range Management.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Owen-Smith

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations