Advertisement

Cellular onc Genes: Their Role as Progenitors of Viral onc Genes and Their Expression in Human Cells

  • F. Wong-Staal
  • S. Josephs
  • R. Dalla Favera
  • E. Westin
  • E. Gelmann
  • G. Franchini
  • R. C. Gallo
Part of the Haematology and Blood Transfusion / Hämatologie und Bluttransfusion book series (HAEMATOLOGY, volume 28)

Abstract

Type C retroviruses are associated with naturally occurring leukemia-lymphomas in many animal species, including man (see Gallo et al., this volume), and they are also the first tangible tools for approaches to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cellular transformation (see Dues-berg et al. and Vande Woude et al., this volume). While most retroviruses isolated in nature are slow acting in disease induction (chronic leukemia viruses), a subclass of viruses, including the sarcoma viruses and acute leukemia viruses, cause disease rapidly in vivo and transform appropriate target cells efficiently in vitro. These properties are conferred on the viruses by a viral transforming (v-onc) gene. There are now at least 17 different v-onc genes identified in retroviruses isolated from avian, rodent, feline, and primate species. All viral onc genes are derived from normal cellular genes (c-onc genes) of their host of origin. C-onc genes share several common features: (1) they are highly conserved among all vertebrates and some are conserved even in nonvertebrate species. For example, sequences related to a few onc genes have been identified in Drosophila [8], and an enzyme related to pp60 src of Rous sarcoma virus has been detected in sponge (M. Schartl, personal communication). (2) With few exceptions, the homology between c-onc and v-onc genes is interrupted by nonhomologous stretches in c-onc, tentatively referred to as introns. (3) Most c-onc genes have been found to be expressed at least at some stages of normal cell growth, suggesting they are functional genes in normal cellular processes.

Keywords

Woolly Monkey Human Hematopoietic Cell Simian Sarcoma Virus Feline Sarcoma Virus Recombinant Virus Genome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Coffin JM (1979) Structure, replication and recombination of retrovirus genomes: some unifying hypotheses. J Gen Virol 42: 1–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dalla Favera R, Gelmann EP, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F (1981) A human onc gene homologous to the transforming gene (v-sis) of simian sarcoma virus. Nature 292:31–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dalla Favera R, Gelmann EP, Martinotti S, Franchini G, Papas T, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F (1982) Cloning and characterization of different human sequences related to the onc gene (v-myc) of avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6497–6501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eva A, Robbins KC, Andersen PR, Srinvasan A, Tronick SR, Reddy EP, Ellmore NW, Galen AT, Lautenberger JA, Papas TS, Westin EH, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC, Aaronson SA (1981) Cellular genes analogous to retroviral onc genes are transcribed in human tumor cells. Nature 95: 116–119Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Franchini G, Gelmann EP, Dalla-Favera R, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F (1982) A human gene (c-fes) related to the onc sequences of Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus. Mol Cell Biol 2:1014–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gelmann EP, Wong-Staal F, Kramer R, Gallo RC (1981) Molecular cloning and comparative analyses of the genomes of simian sarcoma virus and its associated helper virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3373–3377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldfarb MP, Weinberg RA (1981) Generation of novel, biologically active Harvey sarcoma viruses via apparent illegitimate recombination. J Virol 38: 136–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shilo BZ, Weinberg RA (1981) DNA sequences homologous to vertebrate oncogenes are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:6789–6792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thomas PS (1980) Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transformed to nitrocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5201–5205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Westin EH, Wong-Staal F, Gelmann EP, Dalla-Favera R, Papas TS, Lautenberger JA, Eva A, Reddy P, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA, Gallo RC (1982a) Expression of cellular homologs of retroviral onc genes in human hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:2490–2494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Westin EH, Gallo RC, Arya SK, Eva A, Souza LM, Baluda MA, Aaronson SA, Wong-Staal F (1982b) Differential expression of the amv gene in human hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:2194–2198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolfe L, Deinhardt F, Theilen G, Kawakami T, Bustad L (1971) Induction of tumors in marmoset monkeys by simian sarcoma virus type 1 (Lagotherix): A preliminary report. J Natl Cancer Inst 47:1115–1120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wong-Staal F, Dalla-Favera R, Gelmann E, Manzari V, Szala S, Josephs S, Gallo RC (1981a) The transforming gene of simian sarcoma virus (sis): A new onc gene of primate origin. Nature 294:273–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wong-Staal F, Dalla-Favera R, Franchini G, Gelmann EP, Gallo RC (1981b) Three distinct genes in human DNA related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. Science 213:226–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Wong-Staal
  • S. Josephs
  • R. Dalla Favera
  • E. Westin
  • E. Gelmann
  • G. Franchini
  • R. C. Gallo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations