Circadian Rhythms of the Isolated Chicken Pineal in Vitro
Behavioral experiments with passerine birds and physiological experiments with the pineal of chickens demonstrate that the avian pineal contains one or more circadian oscillators (for review see, Takahashi and Menaker 1979). In house sparrows, the pineal is necessary for the persistence of circadian rhythmicity (Gaston and Menaker 1968); pineal transplants restore circadian rhythmicity in arrhythmic pinealectomized hosts (Zimmerman and Menaker 1975, Menaker and Zimmerman 1976); and, more importantly, pineal transplants determine the phase of the restored rhythm (Zimmerman and Menaker 1979). These results argue that the pineal functions as a pacemaker within the circadian system of the sparrow.
KeywordsCircadian Rhythm Pineal Gland Light Cycle House Sparrow Circadian System
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