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Acidic Lipids: Prostaglandins

Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 59 / 2)

Abstract

Many studies on gastrointestinal motility have dealt mainly with prostaglandins (PGs) of the E and F series (PGE and PGF) which until recently were thought to be the major PGs formed by tissues. Reviews of this work include Bennett and Fleshler (1970), Bennett (1972, 1973, 1976a,b, 1977), Wilson (1972), Main (1973), Waller (1973), Karim and Ganesan (1974), and Robert (1974). Other specialist reviews concerning PGs and the gut are referred to subsequently. PGs are formed from fatty acids which are released mainly from phospholipids of cell membranes. Metabolism by cyclooxygenase of the released precursors, of which arachidonic acid is the most abundant, can result in various PGs and related cyclic substances collectively known as prostanoids (Fig. 1). In addition, metabolism of arachidonic acid by lipoxygenase produces various straight-chain derivatives including a new group of compounds called leukotrienes of which slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) is a constituent (Samuelsson et al. 1979; Morris et al. 1980; Fig. 1). Most of the work described in this chapter concerns the prostanoids. Little is known about the formation of lipoxygenase products in the gut, but SRS-A potently contracts the longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig isolated ileum (Piper and Seale 1978).

Keywords

Longitudinal Muscle Circular Muscle Acidic Lipid Prostanoid Receptor Lower Oesophageal Sphincter Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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