Acidic Lipids: Prostaglandins

Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 59 / 2)


Many studies on gastrointestinal motility have dealt mainly with prostaglandins (PGs) of the E and F series (PGE and PGF) which until recently were thought to be the major PGs formed by tissues. Reviews of this work include Bennett and Fleshler (1970), Bennett (1972, 1973, 1976a,b, 1977), Wilson (1972), Main (1973), Waller (1973), Karim and Ganesan (1974), and Robert (1974). Other specialist reviews concerning PGs and the gut are referred to subsequently. PGs are formed from fatty acids which are released mainly from phospholipids of cell membranes. Metabolism by cyclooxygenase of the released precursors, of which arachidonic acid is the most abundant, can result in various PGs and related cyclic substances collectively known as prostanoids (Fig. 1). In addition, metabolism of arachidonic acid by lipoxygenase produces various straight-chain derivatives including a new group of compounds called leukotrienes of which slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) is a constituent (Samuelsson et al. 1979; Morris et al. 1980; Fig. 1). Most of the work described in this chapter concerns the prostanoids. Little is known about the formation of lipoxygenase products in the gut, but SRS-A potently contracts the longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig isolated ileum (Piper and Seale 1978).


Longitudinal Muscle Circular Muscle Acidic Lipid Prostanoid Receptor Lower Oesophageal Sphincter Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdel-Aziz A (1974) Blockade by prostaglandins E, and Fla of the responses of the rabbit ileum to stimulation of sympathetic nerve and its reversal by some anti-histamines, dexamphetamine, and methylphenidate.Eur J Pharmacol 25: 226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aboulafia J, Medes GB, Miyamoto ME, Paiva ACM, Paiva TB (1976) Effect of indomethacin and prostaglandins on the smooth muscle contracting activity of angiotensin and other agonists. Br J Pharmacol 58: 223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akanuma M (1970) Modes of the stimulating action of prostaglandin Ei on the gastrointestinal tract from the guinea-pig. Sapporo Igakukai Zasshi 38: 41–52Google Scholar
  4. Albuquerque RH, Owens CWI, Bloom SR (1979) Study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ( VIP) stimulated intestinal fluid secretion in rat and its inhibition by indomethacin. Experientia 35: 1496–1497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali M, Zamecnik J, Cerskus AL, Stoessl AJ, Barnett WH, McDonald JWD (1977) Synthesis of thromboxane B2 and prostaglandins by bovine gastric mucosal microsomes. Prostaglandins 14: 819–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Al Timimi KS, Bedwani JR, Stanton AWB (1978) Effects of prostaglandin E2 and a prostaglandin endoperoxide analogue on neuroeffector transmission in rat anococcygeus muscle. Br J Pharmacol 63: 167–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Assouline G, Leibson V, Danon A (1977) Stimulation of prostaglandin output from rat stomach by hypertonic solution. Eur J Pharmacol 44: 271–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrowman JA, Bennett A, Hillenbrand P, Rolles K, Pollock DJ, Wright JT (1975) Diarrhoea in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: evidence for the role of prostaglandins and the therapeutic effect of nutmeg. Br Med J 3: 11–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bedwani JR, Okpako DT (1975) Effects of crude pure cholera toxin on prostaglandin release from the rabbit ileum. Prostaglandins 10: 117–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett A (1971) Cholera and prostaglandins. Nature 231: 536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett A (1972) Effects of prostaglandins on the gastrointestinal tract. In: Karim SSM (ed) The prostaglandins: progress in research. Medical and Technical, Oxford, pp 205–221Google Scholar
  12. Bennett A (1973) Prostaglandins and the gut. In: Truelove SC, Jewell DP (eds) Topics in gastroenterology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 281–293Google Scholar
  13. Bennett A (1974) Prostaglandin antagonists. Adv Drug Res 8: 83–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennett A (1976a) Prostaglandins and the gut. Annu Res Rev, Eden Press, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  15. Bennett A (1976b) Prostaglandins as factors in diseases of the alimentary tract. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res 2: 547–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bennett A (1976c) The relationship of prostaglandins to cholera. Prostaglandins 11:425–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bennett A (1977) The role of prostaglandins in gastrointestinal tone and motility. In Berti F, Samuelsson B, Velo GP (Eds) Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes. Plenum Press, New York. pp 275–285Google Scholar
  18. Bennett A (1978) Prostaglandins. In: Turner P, Shand DG (eds) Recent advances in clinical pharmacology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 17–30Google Scholar
  19. Bennett A (1979) Prostaglandins and cancer. In: Karim SSM (ed) Practical applications of prostaglandins and their synthesis inhibitors. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 149–188Google Scholar
  20. Bennett A, Charlier EM (1977) Evidence against the release of prostaglandin-like material from isolated intestinal tissue by pure cholera toxin. Prostaglandins 13: 431–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bennett A, Del Tacca M, Stamford IF, Zebro T (1977a) Prostaglandins from tumours of human large bowel. Br J Cancer 35: 881–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bennett A, Eley KG, Scholes GB (1968a) Effects of prostaglandins Er and E2 on human, guinea-pig, and rat isolated small intestine. Br J Pharmacol 34: 630–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bennett A, Eley KG, Scholes GB (1968b) Effect of prostaglandins E, and E2 on intestinal motility in the guinea-pig and rat. Br J Pharmacol 34: 639–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bennett A, Hey KG, Stockley HL (1975a) The effects of prostaglandins on guinea-pig isolated intestine and their possible contribution to muscle activity and tone. Br J Pharmacol 54: 197–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bennett A, Eley KG, Stockley HL (1975 b) Modulation by prostaglandins of contractions in the guinea-pig ileum. Prostaglandins 9: 377–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bennett A, Eley KG, Stockley HL (1976) Inhibition of peristalsis in guinea-pig isolated ileum and colon by drugs that block prostaglandin synthesis. Br J Pharmacol 57: 335–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bennett A, Fleshier B (1969) Action of prostaglandin E, on longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig isolated colon. Br J Pharmacol 35: 351–352Google Scholar
  28. Bennett A, Fleshler B (1970) Prostaglandins and the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 59: 790–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bennett A, Friedmann CA, Vane JR (1967) Release of prostaglandin Ei from the rat stomach. Nature 216: 873–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bennett A, Gradidge CF, Stamford IF (1974) Prostaglandins, nutmeg and diarrhoea. N Engl J Med 290: 110–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bennett A, Hensby CN, Sanger GJ, Stamford IF (1980a) Identification and distribution of arachidonic acid metabolites in the human gastrointestinal tract, and the ways in which some of these affect the longitudinal muscle. In: Velo GP, Berti F (eds). The Prostaglandin System. Plenum Press, New York. pp 365–375Google Scholar
  32. Bennett A, Hensby CN, Sanger GJ, Stanford IF (1981) Metabolites of arachidonic acid formed, by human gastrointestinal tissues and their actions on the muscle layers. Br J Pharmacol 74: 435–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bennett A, Jarosik C, Sanger GJ, Wilson DE (1980b) Antagonism of prostanoid-induced contractions of rat gastric fundus muscle by SC-19220, sodium meclofenamate, indomethacin or trimethoquinol. Br J Pharmacol 71: 169–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bennett A, Jarosik C, Wilson DE (1978) A study of receptors activated by analogues of prostaglandin H2. Br J Pharmacol 63: 358Google Scholar
  35. Bennett A, Murray JG, Wyllie JH (1968c) Occurrence of prostaglandin E2 in human stomach and a study of its effects on human isolated gastric muscle. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 32: 339–349Google Scholar
  36. Bennett A, Posner J (1971) Studies on prostaglandin antagonists. Br J Pharmacol 42: 584–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bennett A, Pratt D, Sanger GJ (1980c) Antagonism by fenamates of prostaglandin action in guinea-pig and human alimentary muscle. Br J Pharmacol 68: 357–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bennett A, Sanger GJ (1978) The effects of prostaglandin D2 on the circular muscle of guinea-pig isolated ileum and colon. Br J Pharmacol 63: 357–358Google Scholar
  39. Bennett A, Sanger GJ (1979) Trimethoquinol selectively antagonises longitudinal muscle contractions of rat isolated gastric fundus to thromboxane B2 and epoxymethano analogues of PGH2. Br J Pharmacol 66: 450Google Scholar
  40. Bennett A, Sanger GJ (1980) Prostacyclin relaxes the longitudinal muscle of human isolated stomach and antagonizes contractions to some prostanoids. J Physiol (Lond) 298: 45–46Google Scholar
  41. Bennett A, Stamford IF, Stockley HL (1977b) Estimation and characterization of prosta-glandins in the human gastrointestinal tract. Br J Pharmacol 61: 579–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Bennett A, Stockley HL (1977) The contribution of prostaglandins in the muscle of human isolated small intestine to neurogenic responses. Br J Pharmacol 61: 573–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Benz M, Salzmann R (1974) The effects of PGE1, PGE2, PGF2 on the parasympathetic transmission. Arch Pharmacol [Suppl] 282: R7Google Scholar
  44. Beubler E, Juan H (1978 a) Is the effect of diphenolic laxatives mediated via release of prostaglandin E? Experientia 34: 386–387Google Scholar
  45. Beubler E, Juan H (1978b) PGE-mediated laxative effect of diphenolic laxatives. NaunynSchmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 305: 241–246Google Scholar
  46. Beubler E, Juan H (1979) Effect of ricinoleic acid and other laxatives on net water flux and prostaglandin E release by the rat colon. J Pharm Pharmacol 31: 681–685Google Scholar
  47. Boot JR, Dawson W, Cockerill AF, Mallen DNB, Osborne DJ (1977) The pharmacology of prostaglandin-like substances released from guinea-pig lungs during anaphylaxis. Prostaglandins 13: 927–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Borowska A, Sierakowski J, Mackowiak J, Wisniewski K (1979) A prostaglandin-like activity in small intestinal and postirradiation gastrointestinal syndrome. Experientia 35: 1368–1370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Botting JH (1977) The mechanism of the release of prostaglandin-like activity from guinea-pig ileum. J Pharm Pharmacol 29: 708–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Botting JH, Salzmann R (1974) The effect of indomethacin on the release of PGE2 and acetylcholine from guinea-pig isolated ileum at rest and during field stimulation. Br J Pharmacol 50: 119–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Buisseret PD, Youlten LJF, Heinzelmann DI, Lessof MH (1978) Prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors in prophylaxis of food intolerance. Lancet 1: 906–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Bundy GL (1975) The synthesis of prostaglandin endoperoxide analogs. Tetrahedron Lett 24: 1957–1960Google Scholar
  53. Bunting S, Moncada S, Vane JR (1976) The effects of prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane A2 on strips of rabbit coeliac artery and other smooth muscle preparations. Br J Pharmacol 57: 462Google Scholar
  54. Burleigh DE (1977) The effects of indomethacin on the tone and spontaneous activity of the human small intestine in vitro. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 225: 240–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Burleigh DE, D’Mello A, Parks AG (1979) Responses of isolated human internal anal sphincter to drugs and electrical field stimulation. Gastroenterology 77: 484–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Burnstock G, Cocks T, Paddle B, Staszewska-Barczak J (1975) Evidence that prostaglandin is responsible for the “rebound contraction” following stimulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (“purinergic”) inhibitory nerves. Eur J Pharmacol 31: 360–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Chijimatsu Y, Nguyen TV, Said SI (1977) Effects of prostaglandin endoperoxide analogues on contractile elements in lung and gastrointestinal tract. Prostaglandins 13: 909–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Chouseterman M, Petite JP, Housset E, Hornych A (1977) Prostaglandins and acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Lancet 2: 138–139Google Scholar
  59. Classen M, Sturzenhofecker P, Koch H, Demling L (1973) The effect of prostaglandin E1 on the secretion and motility of the human stomach. Acta Hepatogastroenterol (Stuttg) 20: 159–162Google Scholar
  60. Coceani F, Pace-Asciak C, Volta F, Wolfe LS (1967) Effect of nerve stimulation on pros- taglandin formation and release from the rat stomach. Am J Physiol 213: 1056–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Coleman RA, Humphrey PPA, Kennedy I, Levy GP, Lumley P (1980a) U-46619, a selective thromboxane A2-like agonist? Br J Pharmacol 68: 127–128Google Scholar
  62. Coleman RA, Humphrey PPA, Kennedy I, Levy GP, Lumley P (1980b) Preliminary characterisation of three types of prostanoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol 69: 265–266Google Scholar
  63. Coleman RA, Kennedy I, Levy GP (1980c) SC-19220, a selective prostanoid receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 69: 266P - 267 PGoogle Scholar
  64. Coleman RA, Kennedy I, Levy GP, Penning C (1980d) An analysis of the prostanoid receptors mediating contraction of chick isolated ileum. Br J Pharmacol 70: 89P - 90 PGoogle Scholar
  65. Coleman RA, Kennedy I, Sheldrick RLG (1980 e) A simple method for generating thromboxane A2. Br J Pharmacol 69: 341P - 342 PGoogle Scholar
  66. Collier HOJ (1974) Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors and the gut. In: Robinson HJ, Vane JR (eds) Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Raven, New York, pp 121–133Google Scholar
  67. Collier HOJ, McDonald-Gibson WJ, Saeed SA (1975) Stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis by capsaicin, ethanol, and tyramine. Lancer 1: 702Google Scholar
  68. Collier HOJ, McDonald-Gibson WJ, Saeed SA (1976) Stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis by drugs: effects in vitro of some drugs affecting gut function. Br J Pharmacol 58: 193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Collins WP, Willman EA (1978) Prostaglandins and uterine function. Top Horm Chem, pp 180–215Google Scholar
  70. Connell AM (1962) The motility of the pelvic colon. II. Paradoxical motility in diarrhoea and constipation. Gut 3: 342–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Cook HW, Lands WEM (1976) Mechanism for suppression of cellular biosynthesis of Prostaglandins. Nature 260: 630–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Crofts TJ, Stockley HL, Johnson AG (1979) Failure of prostaglandin E2 to inhibit contraction of taenia coli from patients with diverticular disease. Gut 20: A444Google Scholar
  73. Cummings JH, Newman A, Misiewicz JJ, Milton-Thompson GJ, Billings JA (1973) Effect of intravenous prostaglandin Fla on small intestinal function in man. Nature 243: 169–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Dajani EZ, Bertermann RE, Roge EAW, Schweingruber FL, Woods EM (1979) Canine gastrointestinal motility effects of prostaglandin Fza in vivo. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 237: 16–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Daniel EE, Sarna S, Waterfall W, Crankshaw J (1979) Role of endogenous prostaglandins in regulating the tone of opossum lower esophageal sphincter in vivo. Prostaglandins 17: 641–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Davis WG, Tormey WP, Delaney PV (1979) Enkephalins in large bowel malignancy and in acute appendicitis. Gut 20: 865–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Davison P, Ramwell PW, Willis AL (1972) Inhibition of intestinal tone and prostaglandin synthesis by 5,8,11,14-tetraynoic acid. Br J Pharmacol 46: 547–548Google Scholar
  78. De S, Sicar BK, Sasmal D, De SP, Mondai A (1974) Ibuprofen ( Brufen) in cholera and other diarrhoeas. Indian J Med Res 62: 756–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Demers LM, Schweitzer J, Lipton A, Harvey H (1979) Blood 6-keto-PGFIa levels as potential tumour marker. Poster demonstration in: First International Congress on Hormones and Cancer, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  80. Dilawari JD, Newman A, Poleo J, Misiewicz JJ (1975) Response of the human cardiac sphincter to circulating prostaglandins Fla and E2 and to anti-inflammatory drugs. Gut 16: 137–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Dluglecka MJ (1974) The failure of indomethacin to modify the response of cat intestine to cholera enterotoxin. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 26: 93–100Google Scholar
  82. Dupont HL, Sullivan P, Pickering LK, Haynes G, Ackerman PB (1977) Symptomatic treatment of diarrhoea with bismuth subsalicylate among students attending a Mexican university. Gastroenterology 73: 715–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Dupont J, Maydani S, Lewis L, Case G, Ewens-Luby S, Mathias MM (1978) Prostaglandins and metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract. Prostaglandins 15: 710Google Scholar
  84. Eakins KE, Sanner JH (1972) Prostaglandin antagonists. In: Karim SMM (ed) The prostaglandins: progress in research. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 263–292Google Scholar
  85. Eisen V, Walker DI (1976) Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandin-like activity in tissues. Br J Pharmacol 57: 527–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Eisen V, Walker DI (1978) Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandin 15-OH-dehydrogenase ( PGDH ). Br J Pharmacol 62: 461Google Scholar
  87. Elde R, Hökfelt T, Johansson O, Terenius L (1976) Immuno-histochemical studies using antibodies to leucine-enkephalin: initial observations on the nervous system of the rat. Neuroscience 1: 349–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Eley KG, Bennett A (1979) Rat colonic circular muscle: PGE2 causes contraction in vivo but relaxes isolated strips. Abstracts 4th International Prostaglandin Conference, Washington, DC, p 30Google Scholar
  89. Eley KG, Bennett A, Stockley HL (1977) The effects of prostaglandins E1, E2, Fia, and Fla on the guinea-pig ileal and colonic peristalsis. J Pharm Pharmacol 29: 280–296Google Scholar
  90. Farris RK, Tapper EJ, Powell DW, Morris SM (1976) Effect of aspirin on normal and cholera toxin-stimulated intestinal electrolyte transport. J Clin Invest 57: 916–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Fawell WN, Thompson G (1973) Nutmeg for diarrhoea of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. N Engl J Med 289: 108–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ferreira SH, Herman A, Vane JR (1972) Prostaglandin generation maintains the smooth muscle tone of the rabbit isolated jejunum. Br J Pharmacol 44: 328Google Scholar
  93. Ferreira SH, Herman A, Vane JR (1976) Prostaglandin production by rabbit isolated jejunum and its relationship to the inherent tone of the preparation. Br J Pharmacol 56: 469–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ferreira SH, Vane JR (1967) Prostaglandins, their disappearance from, and release into the circulation. Nature 216: 868–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Fiedler L (1979) PGFZO — a new therapy for paralytic ileus? Abstracts 4th International Prostaglandin Conference, Washington, DC, p 33Google Scholar
  96. Fink AD, Katz RL (1972) Prevention of cholera-induced intestinal secretion in the cat by aspirin. Nature 238: 273–274Google Scholar
  97. Fleshier B, Bennett A (1969) Responses of human, guinea-pig, and rat colonic circular muscle to prostaglandins. J Lab Clin Med 74: 872Google Scholar
  98. Fochem K (1955) Über den Einfluß der Menstruation auf die Motilität des Magens. Med Klin 40: 20–28Google Scholar
  99. Fontaine J, Van Nueten JM, Reuse JJ (1977) Effects of prostaglandins on the peristaltic reflex of the guinea-pig ileum. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 226: 341–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Frankhuijzen AL, Bonta IL (1975) Role of prostaglandins in tone and effect on reactivity of the isolated rat stomach preparation. Eur J Pharmacol 31: 44–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Frigo GM, Lecchini S (1970) An improved method for studying the peristaltic reflex in the isolated colon. Br J Pharmacol 39: 346–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Fukunishi S, Amano S, Saijo H, Matsumoto K, Iriyama K, Fujino T (1977) The effect of intravenous prostaglandin Fla on the motility of the gastrointestinal tracts after major abdominal surgery. Jpn J Smooth Muscle Res 13: 141–152Google Scholar
  103. Ganesan PA, Karim SMM (1973) Polyphloretin phosphate temporarily potentiates prostaglandin E2 on the rat fundus, probably by inhibiting PG 15-hydroxy-dehydrogenase. J Pharm Pharmacol 25: 229–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Gershon MD, Ross LL (1966) Location of sites of 5-hydroxytryptamine storage and metabolism by autoradiography. J Physiol (Lond) 186: 477–492Google Scholar
  105. Gintzler AR, Musacchio JM (1974) Failure of prostaglandins to participate in the inhibitory response of the guinea-pig ileum to morphine. Fed Proc 33: 502Google Scholar
  106. Goligher JC (1967) Surgery of the anus, rectum, and colon, 2nd edn. Bailliere Tindall & Cassell, London, pp 500–503Google Scholar
  107. Golub M, Zia P, Matsumo M, Horton R (1975) Metabolism of prostaglandins Al and E1 in man. J Clin Invest 56: 1404–1410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Gorman RR, Sun FF, Miller OV, Johnson RA (1977) Prostaglandin H1 and prostaglandin H2–convenient biochemical synthesis and isolation–further biological and spectroscopic characterization. Prostaglandins 13: 1043–1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Gots RE, Formal SB, Giannella RA (1974) Indomethacin inhibition of salmonella typhimurium, shigella flexneri, and cholera-mediated rabbit ileal secretion. J Infect Dis 130: 280–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Goyal RK, Rattan S, Hersh T (1973) Comparison of the effects of prostaglandins E1, E2, and A2, and of hypovolmic hypotension on the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 65: 608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Grbovic L, Radmanovié BZ (1978) A modulating role of prostaglandins in responses of guinea-pig isolated ileum to various agonists. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 235: 230–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Grubb MN, Burks TF (1974) Modification of intestinal stimulatory effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine by adrenergic amines, prostaglandin E1 and theophylline. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 189: 476–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hadhâzy P, Illés P, Knoll J (1973) The effects of PGE1 on responses to cardiac vagus nerve stimulation and acetylcholine release. Eur J Pharmacol 23: 251–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hall WJ, O’Neill P, Sheehan JD (1975) The role of prostaglandins in cholinergic neurotransmission in the guinea-pig. Eur J Pharmacol 34: 39–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hamberg M, Hedqvist P, Strandberg K, Svensson J, Samuelsson B (1975) Prostaglandin endoperoxides. IV. Effects on smooth muscle. Life Sci 16: 451–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Harper MJK, Skarnes RC (1972) Inhibition of abortion and fetal death produced by endotoxin or prostaglandin F22. Prostaglandins 2: 295–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Harry JD (1968) The action of prostaglandin E1 on the guinea-pig isolated intestine. Br J Pharmacol 33: 213Google Scholar
  118. Hart SL (1974) The actions of prostaglandins E2 and Fla on human foetal intestine. Br J Pharmacol 50: 159–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hazra J (1975) Evidence against prostaglandin E having a physiological role in acetylcholine liberation from Auerbach’s plexus of guinea-pig ileum. Experientia 31: 565–566Google Scholar
  120. Hedqvist P, Gustafsson L, Hiemdahl P, Svanborg K (1980) Aspects of prostaglandin action on autonomic neuroeffector transmission. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res: 1245–1248Google Scholar
  121. Hedqvist P, Persson N-A (1975) Prostaglandin action on adrenergic and cholinergic responses in the rabbit and guinea-pig intestine. In: Almgen O, Carlsson A, Engel J (eds) Chemical tools in catecholamine research II. North Holland, New York, pp 211–218Google Scholar
  122. Herman AG, Vane JR (1975) Endotoxin and production of prostaglandins by the isolated rabbit jejunum. Influence of indomethacin. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 213: 328–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hökfelt T, Johansson O, Ljungdahl A, Lundberg JM, Schultzberg M (1980) Peptidergic neurones. Nature 284: 515–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Hong E (1974) Differential pattern of activity of some prostaglandins on diverse superfused tissues. Prostaglandins 8: 213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Horton EW (1973) Prostaglandins at adrenergic nerve endings. Br Med Bull 29: 148–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Horton EW, Jones RL (1974) Biological activity of prostaglandin D2 on smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 52: 110–111Google Scholar
  127. Horton EW, Main IHM, Thompson CJ, Wright PM (1968) Effect of orally administered prostaglandin E1 on gastric secretion and gastrointestinal motility in man. Gut 9: 655–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Hoult JRS, Moore PK (1980) Adaptive changes in activity of prostaglandin synthesising and metabolising enzymes are coupled. Br J Pharmacol 69: 272P - 273 PGoogle Scholar
  129. Hudson N, Hindi ES, Wilson DE, Poppe L (1975) Prostaglandin E in cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion. Lack of an intermediatory role. Dig Dis 20: 1035–1039Google Scholar
  130. Hudson N, Poppe L, Wilson DE (1974) Role of prostaglandin E ( PGE) in experimental cholera. Clin Res 22: 604Google Scholar
  131. Hughes J, Kosterlitz HW, Smith TW (1977) The distribution of methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin in the brain and peripheral tissues. Br J Pharmacol 61: 639–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Hunt RH, Dilawari JB, Misiewicz JJ (1975) The effect of intravenous prostaglandin Fla and E2 on the motility of the sigmoid colon. Gut 16: 47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Illés P, Hadhâzy P, Torma A, Vizi ES, Knoll J (1973) The effect of number of stimuli and rate of stimulation on the inhibition by PGE1 of adrenergic transmission. Eur J Pharmacol 24: 29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Illés P, Knoll J (1975) Specific densensitization to PGE, and PGE2 in guinea-pig ileum: evidence for a common receptor site. Pharmacol Res Commun 7: 37–47Google Scholar
  135. Illés P, Vizi EW, Knoll J (1974) Adrenergic neuroeffector junctions sensitive and insensitive to the effect of PGE1. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 26: 127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Ishii T, Sakato M, Shimo Y (1977) Effects of prostaglandin E1 and indomethacin on the stimulation-evoked overflow of 3H-noradrenaline from guinea-pig taenia caecum. Eur J Pharmacol 45: 381–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ishizawa M, Miyazaki E (1973a) Action of prostaglandins on gastrointestinal motility. Sapporo Med J 42: 366–373Google Scholar
  138. Ishizawa M, Miyazaki E (1973b) Effect of prostaglandins on the movement of guinea-pig isolated intestine. Jpn J Smooth Muscle Res 9: 235–237Google Scholar
  139. Ishizawa M, Miyazaki E (1975) Effect of prostaglandin Fza on propulsive activity of the isolated segmental colon of the guinea-pig. Prostaglandins 10: 759–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Jacoby HI, Marshall CH (1972) Antagonism of cholera enterotoxin by anti-inflammatory agents in the rat. Nature 235: 163–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Jaffe BM (1974) Prostaglandins and cancer: an update. Prostaglandins 6: 453–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Jaffe BM, Condon S (1976) Prostaglandins E and F in endocrine diarrheagenic syndromes. Ann Surg 184: 516–523Google Scholar
  143. Jaques R (1977) Inhibition effect of methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin on contractions of guinea pig ileum elicited by PGEI. Experientia 33: 374–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Johansson C, Ekelund K (1977) Effects of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 on the integrated response to a meal. In: Duthie HL (ed) Gastrointestinal motility in health and disease. Proc 6th Int Symp Gastrointest Motility, Edinburgh. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 195–202Google Scholar
  145. Kadlec O, Malek K, Seferna I (1974) A modulating role of prostaglandins in contractions of the guinea-pig ileum. Br J Pharmacol 51: 565–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kadlec O, Malek K, Seferna I (1975) The role of prostaglandins in the output of neurotransmitters from the isolated guinea-pig ileum. Abstracts 6th International Congress on Pharmacology, p 156Google Scholar
  147. Kadlec O, Malek K, Seferna I (1978) Modulation by prostaglandins of the release of acetylcholine and noradrenaline in guinea-pig isolated ileum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 205: 635–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kapadia L, Elder MG (1978) Flufenamic acid in treatment of primary spasmodic dysmenorrhoea. Lancet 1: 348–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Karim SMM, Ganesan PA (1974) Prostaglandins and the digestive system. Ann Acad Med Singapore 3: 286–293Google Scholar
  150. Kassai T, Redl P, Balla E, Jécsay GY, Harangozo E (1979) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in the rat: failure to induce worm rejection by prostaglandins. Abstracts 4th International Prostaglandin Conference, Washington, DC, p 58Google Scholar
  151. Kauppila A, Ylikorkala O (1977) Indomethacin and tolfenamic acid in primary dysmenorrhoea. Eur J Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Biol 7: 59–64Google Scholar
  152. Kelly JD, Dineen JK, Goodrich BS, Smith ID (1974) Expulsion of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis from the intestine of rats. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 47: 458–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Khan O, Hensby CN, Williams G (1981) Prostacyclin in Prostatic disease. In: Lewis PG, O’Grady J (eds) Clinical pharmacology of prostacyclin. Raven Press, New York, pp 49–52Google Scholar
  154. Kimberg DV, Field M, Gershon E, Henderson A (1974) Effects of prostaglandins and cholera enterotoxin on intestinal mucosal cyclic AMP accumulation. Evidence against an essential role for prostaglandins in the action of toxin. J Clin Invest 53: 941–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kirk D, Duthie HL (1977) In vitro studies of the electrical activity of the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the human colon. In: Duthie HL (ed) Gastrointestinal motility in health and disease. Proc 6 th Int Symp Gastrointest Motility, Edinburgh. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 327–332Google Scholar
  156. Knapp HR, Oelz O, Oates JA (1977) Effects of hyperosmolarity on prostaglandin release by the rat stomach in vitro. Fed Proc 36: 10–20Google Scholar
  157. Knapp HR, Oelz O, Sweetman BJ, Oates JA (1978) Synthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins E2, F and D2 by the rat gastrointestinal tract. Stimulation by a hypertonic environment in vitro. Prostaglandins 15: 751–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Kowalewski K, Kotedej A (1975) Effect of prostaglandin E2 on myoelectric and mechanical activity of total isolated, ex-vivo-perfused, canine stomach. Pharmacology 13: 325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lacey SM, Sanger GJ (1980) Antagonism of prostanoid-induced contractions of rat stomach muscle by trimethoquinol or isoxsuprine. Br J Pharmacol 70: 88P - 89 PGoogle Scholar
  160. Laekeman GM, Herman AG (1978) Prostaglandins restore the hyoscine-induced inhibition of the guinea-pig ileum. Prostaglandins 15: 829–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Le Duc LE, Needlemann P (1980) Prostaglandin synthesis by dog gastrointestinal tract. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res 8: 1515–1517Google Scholar
  162. Lieb J (1978) Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors in prophylaxis of food intolerance. Lancet 2: 157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Lieb J (1980) Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors and prophylaxis of coffee intolerance. JAMA 243: 32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Luderer JR, Demers LM, Bonnem EM, Saleem A, Jeffries GH (1976) Elevated prostaglandin E in idiopathic intestinal pseudo obstruction. N Engl J Med 295: 1179Google Scholar
  165. Luderer JR, Demers LM, Nomides CT, Hayes AH Jr (1980) Mechanism of action of castor oil: a biochemical link to the prostaglandins. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res 8: 1633–1635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Lundström V (1978) Treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors–a promising alternative. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 57: 421–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Maclntyre DE, Willis AL (1978) Trimethoquinol is a potent prostaglandin endoperoxide antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 63: 361Google Scholar
  168. Maher JW, Hollenbeck JI, Crandall V, McGuigan J, Woodward ER (1978) Prostaglandin E2 effect on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and serum gastrin. J Surg Res 24: 87–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Main IHM (1973) Prostaglandins and the gastrointestinal tract. In: Cuthbert MF (ed) The prostaglandins. Pharmacological and therapeutic advances. Heinemann, London, pp 287–323Google Scholar
  170. Malmsten C (1977) Some biological effects of prostaglandin endoperoxide analogues. Life Sci 18: 169–176Google Scholar
  171. Mathias JR, Carlson GM, Bertiger G, Martin JL, Cohen S (1977) Migrating action potential complex of cholera: a possible prostaglandin-induced response. Am J Physiol 232: E529 - E534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. McCance RA, Pickles VR (1960) Cyclical variations in intestinal activity in women. J Endocrinol 20: XXVIIGoogle Scholar
  173. Mennie AT, Dalley V (1973) Aspirin in radiation-induced diarrhoea. Lancet 1: 11–31Google Scholar
  174. Mennie AT, Dalley VM, Dineen LC, Collier HOJ (1975) Treatment of radiation-induced gastro-intestinal distress with acetylsalicylate. Lancet 2: 942–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Misiewicz JJ, Waller SL, Kiley N, Horton EW (1969) Effect of oral prostaglandin Er on intestinal transit in man. Lancet 1: 648–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Miyazaki E, Ishizawa M, Sunano S, Synto B, Sakagami T (1967) Stimulating action of prostaglandin on the rabbit duodenal muscle. In: Bergstrom S, Samuelsson B (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd Nobel Symposium, Stockholm. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 277–281Google Scholar
  177. Moncada S, Korbut R, Bunting S, Vane JR (1978a) Prostacyclin is a circulating hormone. Nature 273: 767–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Moncada S, Salmon JA, Vane JR, Whittle BJR (1978b) Formation of prostacyclin and its product 6-oxo-PGF1 by the gastric mucosa of several species. J Physiol (Lond) 275: 4Google Scholar
  179. Morris HR, Taylor GW, Piper PJ, Tippins JR (1980) Structure of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis from guinea-pig lung. Nature 285: 104–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Mukhopadhyay AK, Weisbrodt NW, Copeland ED (1974) Effect of prostaglandin E2 infu- sion on patterns of intestinal myoelectric activity. Gastroenterology 66:A-98/752Google Scholar
  181. Naish FC (1952) Breast feeding. In: Moncrieff A, Thompson WAR (eds) Child health. Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, p 218Google Scholar
  182. Nakahata N, Nakanishi H, Suzuki TA (1980) A possible feedback control of excitatory transmission via prostaglandins in canine small intestine. Br J Pharmacol 68: 393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Neeley J, Catchpole B (1971) Ileus: the restoration of alimentary tract motility by pharmacological means: Br J Surg 58: 21–28Google Scholar
  184. Newman A, De Moraes-Filho JPP, Philippakos D, Misiewicz JJ (1975) The effect of intravenous infusions of prostaglandins E2 and Fla on human gastric function. Gut 16: 272–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Nylander B, Mattsson O (1975) Effect of 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 on gastric emptying and intestinal transit of a barium-food test meal in man. Scand J Gastroenterol 10: 289–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. O’Grady J, Warrington S, Moti MJ et al. (1979) Effects of intravenous prostacyclin infusions in healthy volunteers — some preliminary observations. In: Vane JR, Bergstrom S (eds) Prostacyclin. Raven, New York, pp 409–417Google Scholar
  187. Okpako DT (1975) Prostaglandins and cholera: the occurrence of prostaglandin-like smooth muscle contraction substances in cholera diarrhoea. Prostaglandins 10: 769–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Pace-Asciak C (1972) Prostaglandin synthetase activity in the rat stomach fundus. Activation by L-norepinephrine and related compounds. Biochim Biophys Acta 280: 161–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Pace-Asciak C (1976) Isolation, structure, and biosynthesis of 6-keto-prostaglandin-Fla in the rat stomach. Am Chem Soc 98: 2348–2349Google Scholar
  190. Pace-Asciak C, Wolfe LS (1971) A novel prostaglandin derivative formed from arachidonic acid by rat stomach homogenates. Biochemistry 10: 3657–3664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Persson N-A, Hedqvist P (1973) Reduced intestinal muscular response to adrenergic nerve stimulation after the administration of prostaglandins. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl] 396: 108Google Scholar
  192. Peskar BM (1978) Regional distribution of prostaglandin-metabolizing enzymes in the mucosa of the human upper gastrointestinal tract. Acta Hepato-gastroenterol (Stuttg) 25: 49–51Google Scholar
  193. Peskar BM, Peskar BA (1976) On the metabolism of prostaglandins by human gastric fun-dus mucosa. Biochim Biophys Acta 424: 430–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Peskar BM, Seyberth HW, Peskar BA (1980) Synthesis and metabolism of endogenous prostaglandins by human gastric mucosa. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res 8: 1511–1514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Piper PJ, Seale JP (1978) Release of slow-reacting substance from guinea-pig and human lung by calcium ionophore A23187. Br J Pharmacol 63: 364–365Google Scholar
  196. Powell DW, Farris RK (1975) Effect of aspirin on cholera toxin stimulated intestinal electrolyte transport. Gastroenterology 68: 968Google Scholar
  197. Radmanovie B (1968) Prostaglandins in perfusate of the rat small intestine after vagal stimulation. Jugosl Physiol Pharmacol Acta, 4: 123–124Google Scholar
  198. Radmanovié B (1972) The effect of PGE1 on the peristaltic activity of the guinea-pig isolated ileum. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 200: 396–404Google Scholar
  199. Radmanovié B (1974) The effect of prostaglandins F and inderal on the peristaltic activity of the guinea-pig isolated ileum. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 285:R. 65Google Scholar
  200. Rask-Madsen J, Bukhave K (1978) Indomethacin-responsive diarrhoea in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 19: A448Google Scholar
  201. Rask-Madsen J, Bukhave K (1979) Prostaglandins and chronic diarrhoea: clinical aspects. Scand J Gastroenterol [Suppl 53] 14: 73–78Google Scholar
  202. Robert A (1974) Effects of prostaglandins on the stomach and the intestine. Prostaglandins 6: 523–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Robert A, Hancher AJ, Lancaster C, Nezamis JE (1979) Prostacyclin inhibits enteropooling and diarrhoea. In: Vane JR, Bergstrom S (eds) Prostacyclin. Raven, New York, pp 147–158Google Scholar
  204. Ruwart MJ, Klepper MS, Rush BD (1980) Prostaglandin stimulation of gastrointestinal transit in post-operative ileus rats. Prostaglandins 19: 415–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Saeed SA, McDonald-Gibson WJ, Cuthbert J et al. (1977) Endogenous inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase. Nature 270: 32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Sakato M (1975) Studies on the physiological role of prostaglandins in adrenergic and nonadrenergic inhibitory neurotransmission in the guinea-pig taenia coli. Folia Pharmacol Jpn 71: 445–455Google Scholar
  207. Sakato M, Shimo Y (1976) Possible role of prostaglandin E1 on adrenergic neurotransmission in the guinea-pig taenia coli. Eur J Pharmacol 40: 209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Samuelsson B, Borgeat P, Hammarström S, Murphy RC (1979) Introduction of a nomenclature: leukotrienes. Prostaglandins 17: 785–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Sanger GJ (1977) Modulation by prostaglandins of the autonomic control of motility in guinea-pig isolated ileum. PhD thesis, University of ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  210. Sanger GJ, Bennett A (1979) Fenamates may antagonise the actions of prostaglandin endoperoxides in human myometrium. Br J Clin Pharmacol 8: 479–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Sanger GJ, Bennett A (1980a) Regional differences in the responses to prostanoids of cir- cular muscle from guinea-pig isolated intestine. J Pharm Pharmacol 32: 705–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Sanger GJ, Bennett A (1980b) Prostanoid agonists and antagonists: differentiation of prostanoid receptors in the gut. In: Velo GP, Berti F (eds) The Prostaglandin System. Plenum Press, New York, pp 377–391Google Scholar
  213. Sanger GJ, Hensby CN, Stamford IF, Bennett A (1981) Identification of arachidonic acid metabolites extracted from human uterus, and their effects on the isolated myometrium, J Pharm Pharmacol 33: 607–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Sanger GJ, Watt AJ (1978) The effect of PGE1 on peristalsis and on perivascular nerve inhibition of peristaltic activity in guinea-pig isolated ileum. J Pharm Pharmacol 30: 762–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Sanger GJ, Watt AJ (1980) Some mechanisms which may modulate noradrenaline release in guinea-pig isolated ileum. J Pharm Pharmacol 32: 188–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Sanner JH (1969) Antagonism of prostaglandin E2 by 1-acetyl-2-(8-chloro-10,11-dihydrobenz(b,f)(1,4)oxazepine- 10-carbonyl) hydrazine(SC-19220). Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 180: 45–56Google Scholar
  217. Sanner JH (1974) Substances that inhibit the actions of prostaglandins. Arch Intern Med 133: 133–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Sanner JH, Eakins KE (1976) Prostaglandin antagonists. In: Karim SMM (ed) Prostaglandins: chemical and biochemical aspects. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 139–190Google Scholar
  219. Schulz R, Cartwright C (1976) Sensitization of the smooth muscle by prostaglandin E1 contributes to reversal of drug-induced inhibition of the guinea-pig ileum. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 294: 257–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Shafran I, Maurer W, Thomas FD (1977) Prostaglandins and Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 296: 694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Shea-Donohue PT, Myers L, Castell DO, Dubois A (1980) The effect of prostacyclin on gastric emptying and secretion in Rhesus monkeys. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res 8: 1557–1558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Shehadeh Z, Price WE, Jacobson ED (1969) Effects of vasoactive agents on intestinal blood flow and motility in the dog. Am J Physiol 216: 386–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Sinar DR, Fletcher JR, Castell DO (1979)Comparison of the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of prostaglandins E1, E2, I2 or 6-keto-F1, on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Abstracts 4th International Prostaglandin Conference, Washington, DC, p 107Google Scholar
  224. Sinzinger H, Silberbauer K, Winter M, Seyfried H (1978)Human rectal mucosa generates prostacyclin. Lancet 2: 1253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Smith JB, Dawkins PD (1971) Salicylate and enzymes. J Pharm Pharmacol 23: 729–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Smythies JR, Russell RO (1974) Possible role of prostaglandins in idiopathic postural hypotension. Lancet 2: 963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Spenney JG (1979) Prostaglandin-15-hydroxy-dehydrogenase and d13 reductase: differential content in rabbit fundic and antral mucosa and muscle. Gastroenterology 76: 1254AGoogle Scholar
  228. Spruegel W, Mitznegg P, Domschke W, Domschke S, Wuensch E, Moroder L, Demling L (1977) Direct inhibitory effects of enkephalins on contractile responses in the guinea-pig ileum. Gastroenterology 72: 1135Google Scholar
  229. Stamford IF, Bennett A, Greenhalf J (1978) Treatment of diarrhoea in cattle and pigs with nutmeg. Vet Rec 103: 14–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Stamford IF, Bennett A, Greenhalf J (1980) Treatment of diarrhoea in calves with nutmeg. Vet Rec 106: 389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Stockley HL, Bennett A (1976) Modulation of activity by prostaglandins in human gastrointestinal muscle. In: Vantrappen G (ed) Fifth International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility. Typoff, Herentals, pp 31–36Google Scholar
  232. Sun FF, Chapman JP, McGuire JC (1977) Metabolism of prostaglandin endoperoxide in animal tissues. Prostaglandins 14: 1055–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Suzuki T, Hashikawa T, Takano S, Hayashi A (1975) Effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on isolated stomach, small intestine, bronchus, and uterus of experimental animals, and the intestinal effects of the agent in vivo. Folia Pharmacol Jpn 71: 109–122Google Scholar
  234. Tafuri WL, Raick A (1964) Presence of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the intramural nervous system of guinea-pig’s intestine. Z Naturforsch [C] 19b: 1130–1132Google Scholar
  235. Takai M, Matsuyama S, Yagasaki O (1974) Prostaglandin release during extension of the small intestine of the guinea-pig. Jpn J Smooth Muscle Res 10: 187–189Google Scholar
  236. Takai M, Yagasaki O (1976) Effect of prostaglandin E1 on the acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum. Jpn J Pharmacol [Suppl] 26: 146Google Scholar
  237. Thompson JH, Angulo M (1968) Prostaglandin-induced serotonin release. Experientia 25: 721–722Google Scholar
  238. Tonnesen MG, Jubiz W, Moore JG, Frailey J (1974) Circadian variation of prostaglandin E production in human gastric juice. Am J Dig Dis 19: 644–648Google Scholar
  239. Tothill A (1976) Prostaglandin E2: a factor in the pathogenesis of cholera. Prostaglandins 11: 925–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Trendelenburg P (1917) Physiologische and pharmakologische Versuche über die Dünn-darmperistaltik. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 81: 55–129Google Scholar
  241. Valiulis E, Long JF (1973) Effects of drugs on intestinal water secretion following cholera toxin in guinea-pigs and rabbits. Physiologist 16: 475Google Scholar
  242. Vanasin B, Greenough W, Schuster MM (1970) Effect of prostaglandin ( PG) on electrical and motor activity of isolated colonic muscle. Gastroenterology 58: 1004Google Scholar
  243. Vaughan-Williams EM, Dohadwalla AN (1969) Diarrhoea and intestinal fluid accumulation in uninfected rabbits cross perfused with blood from donar rabbits intra-intestinally infected with cholera. Nature 222: 586–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Wald A, Gotterer GS, Rajendra NA, Turjman NA, Hendrix TR (1977) Effect of indomethacin on cholera-induced fluid movement, unidirectional sodium fluxes, and intestinal cAMP. Gastroenterology 72: 106–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Waller SL (1973) Prostaglandins and the gastrointestinal tract. Gut 14: 402–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Whittle BJR, Boughton-Smith NK, Moncada S, Vane JR (1978) The relative activity of prostacyclin (PGI2) and a stable analogue 6ß-PGI2 on the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. J Pharm Pharmacol 30: 597–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Willis AL, Davison P, Ramwell PW (1974) Inhibition of intestinal tone, motility and prostaglandin biosynthesis by 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid ( TYA ). Prostaglandins 5: 355–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Wilson DE (1972) Prostaglandins and the gastrointestinal tract. Prostaglandins 1: 281–293Google Scholar
  249. Wolfe LS, Coceani F, Pace-Asciak C (1967) The relationship between nerve stimulation and the formation and release of prostaglandins. Pharmacologist 9: 171–172Google Scholar
  250. Yagasaki O, Matsuyama S, Takai M (1974) The release of prostaglandins from the passively distended wall of guinea-pig intestine. Jpn J Pharmacol [Suppl] 24: 31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations