Advertisement

Peptides: Pancreatic Hormones

Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 59 / 2)

Abstract

The pancreatic hormone glucagon, well known essentially for its metabolic effects, has also been used as a pharmacologic tool in different conditions: as a provocative test for pheochromocytoma, as a stimulus for growth hormone release, in the treatment of uncomplicated insulin-induced and sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia, and in some cases of acute heart failure in which myocardial tissue is essentially healthy. From a chemical point of view glucagon is a member of the so-called secretin family and it shares 14 positionally identical amino acids with secretin (see Table 1 in Chap. 2a, Secretin), suggesting that these two peptides may have a common ancestral gene and that their structure may contain a still undeciphered message of phylogenetic and physiologic significance (for reviews see Lefebvre and Unger 1972; Foà et al. 1977). No wonder that their effects have so many points in common: both stimulate the secretion of insulin, inhibit gastric secretion, and exert a predominant inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This latter effect will be described in detail.

Keywords

Lower Esophageal Sphincter Gastrointestinal Motility Gastric Motility Pancreatic Polypeptide Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anuras S, Cooke RA (1978) Effects of some gastrointestinal hormones on two muscle layers of duodenum. Am J Physiol 234: E60–E63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Behar J (1978) Effect of glucagon on the feline lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in vivo. Gastroenterology 74: A1116Google Scholar
  3. Behar J, Field S, Marin C (1979) Effect of glucagon, secretin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on the feline lower esophageal sphincter: mechanism of action. Gastroenterology 77: 1001–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertrand G, Linscheer WG, Raheja KL, Woods RE (1977) Double-blind evaluation of glucagon and propantheline bromide (probanthine) for hypotonie duodenography. Am J R oen tgen o l 128: 197–200Google Scholar
  5. Bloom SR, Polak JM (1978) Gut hormone overview. In: Bloom SR (ed) Gut hormones. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  6. Bortolotti M, Sanavio C, Sansone G, Lab() G (1975) Modifications in human gastric motility induced by secretin and by glucagon. Rend Gastroenterol 7: 240Google Scholar
  7. Cameron AJ, Phillips SF, Summerskill WHJ (1970) Comparison of effects of gastrin, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin, secretin, and glucagon on human stomach muscle in vitro. Gastroenterology 59: 539–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carsen GM, Finby N (1976) Hypotonie duodenography with glucagon. A clinical comparison study. Radiology 118: 529–533Google Scholar
  9. Chernish SM, Miller RE, Rosenak BD, Schulz NE (1972) Hypotonie duodenography with the use of glucagon. Gastroenterology 63: 392–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chernish SM, Brunelle RR, Rosenak BD, Ahmadzai S (1978a) Comparison of the effects of glucagon and atropine sulfate on gastric emptying. Am J Gastroenterol 70: 581–586Google Scholar
  11. Chernish SM, Miller RE, Brunell RL, Rosenak BD (1978b) Dose-response to intravenous glucagon as measured by roentgenography. Radiology 127: 55–59Google Scholar
  12. Chowdhury AR, Lorber SH (1975) Effect of glucagon on cholecystokinin and prostigmininduced motor activity of the distal colon and rectum in humans. Gastroenterology 68: 875Google Scholar
  13. Chowdhury AR, Lorber SH (1977) Effects of glucagon and secretin on food-or morphine-induced motor activity of the distal colon, rectum, and anal sphincter. Dig Dis Sci 22: 775–780Google Scholar
  14. Christiansen J, Borgeskov S (1974) The effect of glucagon and the combined effect of glucagon and secretin on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in man. Scand J Gastroenterol 9: 615–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Christiansen J, Lauritzen K, Moesgaard J, Holst JJ (1977) Effect of endogenous and exogenous glucagon on pentagastrinstimulated lower esophageal sphincter pressure in man. Scand J Gastroenterol 12: 33–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen ML, Wiley KS, Yaden E, Slater IH (1979) In vitro actions of somatostatin, D-Val’Trp8-somatostatin and glucagon in rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 211:423–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Corazziari E (1976) Mechanical activity of the second portion of human duodenum. Rend Gastroenterol 8: 64Google Scholar
  18. Doteval G, Koch NG (1963) The effect of glucagon on intestinal motility in man. Gastroenterology 45: 364–367Google Scholar
  19. Egberts EH, Johnson AG (1977) The effect of cholecystokinin on human taenia coli. Digestion 15: 217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans DF, Foster GE, Hardcastle JD, Johnson F, Wright J (1978) The effect of glucagon on the canine duodenum and small intestine. Br J Pharmacol 64: 475 PGoogle Scholar
  21. Fasth S, Hulten L (1971) The effect of glucagon on intestinal motility and blood flow. Acta Physiol Scand 83: 169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferrucci JT, Long JA (1977) Radiologie treatment of esophageal food impacting using intravenous glucagon. Radiology 125: 25–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Foà PP, Bajaj JS, Foà NL (eds) (1977) Glucagon: its role in physiology and clinical medicine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Foster GE, Hardcastle JD, Evans DF, Wright J, Johnson F (1979) Action of glucagon on the human and canine duodenum. Gut 20: A439–A440Google Scholar
  25. García-Vilar R Recherches sur la motricité colique chez le chien. Master’s thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, pp 1–136Google Scholar
  26. Gardner JD, Malloy RG, Hogan WJ (1973) Pentagastrin and glucagon effects on the internal anal sphincter pressure in man. Clin Res 21: 826Google Scholar
  27. Gerner T, Haffner JFW (1975) The significance of distention for the effect of glucagon on the fundic and antral motility in isolated guinea-pig stomach. Scand J Gastroenterol 10: 51–53Google Scholar
  28. Gerner T, Haffner JFW (1978) The inhibitory effect of secretin and glucagon on pressure responses to cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in isolated guinea-pig stomach. Scand J Gastroenterol 13: 537–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gohel VK, Dalinka MK, Coren GS (1975) Hypotonie examination of the colon with glucagon. Radiology 115: 1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Granata L, Leone D, Paccione F, Ruccia D (1974) Effetti del glucagone sulla motilità del digiuno nel cane non narcotizzato. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 50: 780–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Harned RK, Stelling CB, Williams S, Wolf GL (1976) Glucagon and barium enema examinations: a controlled clinical trial. Am J Roentgenol 126: 981–984Google Scholar
  32. Hecht HL, Hollenberg GM, Pradham AR (1979) Glucagon-induced small intestinal hy-potonie demonstrating bleeding lymphoma. Gastrointest Radiol 4: 61–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hicks T, Turnberg LA (1974) Influence of glucagon on the human jejunum. Gastroenter-ology 67: 1114–1118Google Scholar
  34. Hogan WJ, Dodds WJ, Hoke SE, Reid DP, Kalkhoff RK, Arndorfer RC (1975) Effect of glucagon on esophageal motor function. Gastroenterology 69: 60–65Google Scholar
  35. Holst JJ (1978) Physiology of enteric glucagon-like substances. In: Bloom SR (ed) Gut hormones. Churchill Livingstone, London Edinburgh, pp 383–386Google Scholar
  36. Hradsky M, Stockbrügger R, Oestberg H (1973) The effect of glucagon on gastric motility, the pylorus and reflux of bile into the stomach during gastroscopie examination. Scand J Gastroenterol [Suppl 20] 8: 26Google Scholar
  37. Ihasz M, Koiss I, Németh EP, Folly G, Papp M (1976) Action of caerulein, glucagon or prostaglandin E, on the motility of intestinal villi. Pfluegers Arch 364: 301–304Google Scholar
  38. Jaffer SS, Makhlouf GM, Schorr BA, Zfass AM (1974) Nature and kinetics of inhibition of lower esophageal sphincter pressure by glucagon. Gastroenterology 67: 42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jennewein HM, Waldeck F, Siewert R, Weiser F, Thimm R (1973) The interaction of glucagon and pentagastrin on the lower oesophageal sphincter in man and dog. Gut 14: 861–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kill J, Andersen D, Weinreich J (1976) A double-blind comparison of gastric relaxation after buscopan and glucagon Novo. Scand J Gastroenterol [Suppl 38] 11: 58Google Scholar
  41. Koch NG, Darle N, Doteval G (1967) Inhibition of intestinal motility in man by glucagon given intraportally. Gastroenterology 53: 88–92Google Scholar
  42. Kowalewski K, Kolodej A (1975) Effect of glucagon on myoelectrical activity recorded from the isolated homologous perfused canine stomach. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 218: 186–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kowalewski K, O’Sullivan G, Kolodej A (1976) Effect of glucagon on myoelectrical and mechanical activity of the isolated homologous perfused porcine stomach. Pharmacology 14: 115–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Labò G, Bortolotti M (1976) Effect of gut hormones on myoelectric and manometric activity of the duodenum in man. Rend Gastroenterol 8: 64Google Scholar
  45. Lefebvre PJ, Luyckx AS (1978) Gastric-glucagon: physiology and pathology. In: Grossman M, Speranza V, Basso N, Lezoche E (eds) Gastrointestinal hormones and pathology of the digestive system. Plenum, New York, pp 173–181Google Scholar
  46. Lefebvre PJ, Unger RH (1972) Glucagon. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Lin TS (1980) Effects of insulin and glucagon on secretory and motor function of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Jerzy Glass GB (ed) Gastrointestinal Hormones. Raven, New York, pp 639–691Google Scholar
  48. Meeroff JC, Jorgens J, Isenberg JI (1975) The effect of glucagon on barium-enema examination. Radiology 115: 5–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Meves M, Beger HG, Hüthwohl B (1975) The effect of some gastrointestinal hormones on gastric evacuation in man. In: Vantrappen G (ed) Fifth International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility. Typoff, Herentals, pp 76–81Google Scholar
  50. Miller RE, Chernish SM, Skucas J, Rosenak BD, Rodda BE (1974a) Hypotonic roent-genography with glucagon. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nuc Med 121: 264–274Google Scholar
  51. Miller RE, Chernish SM, Skucas J, Rosenak BD, Rodda BE (1974b) Hypotonic colon ex-amination with glucagon. Radiology 113: 555–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Miller RE, Chernish SM, Brunelle RL, Rosenak BD (1978a) Dose response to intramuscular glucagon during hypotonic radiography. Radiology 127: 49–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Miller RE, Chernish SM, Brunelle RL, Rosenak BD (1978b) Double-blind radiographic study of dose-response to intravenous glucagon for hypotonie duodenography. Radiology 127: 55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Miolan JP, Roman C (1975) Mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of glucagon on gastric motility. In: Vantrappen G (ed) Fifth International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility. Typoff, Herentals, pp 70–75Google Scholar
  55. Mlecko LM (1974) Hypotonie duodenoscopy using glucagon. Gastroenterology 66:A164/ 818Google Scholar
  56. Necheles H, Sporn J, Walker L (1966) Effect of glucagon on gastrointestinal motility. Am J Gastroenterol 45: 34–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Nicolov NA, Deleva JI (1977) Effects of glucagon on the motor and mio-electrical activity of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs. Riv Farmacol Ter 8: 275–280Google Scholar
  58. Patel GK, Whalen GE, Soergel KH, Wu WC, Meade RC (1979) Glucagon effects on the human small intestine. Dig Dis Sci 24: 501–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Phaosawasdi K, Boden G, Kolts B, Fisher RS (to be published) Hormonal effects on pyloric sphincter pressure: are they of physiological importance? Clin ResGoogle Scholar
  60. Pillari G, Bank S, Katzka I, Fulco JD (1979) Meat bolus impaction of the lower esophagus associated with a paraesophageal hernia. Successful noninvasive treatment with intravenous glucagon. Am J Gastroenterol 71: 287–289Google Scholar
  61. Ratcliffe JF (1980) Glucagon in barium examination in infants and children: special reference to dosage. Br J Radiol 53: 860–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Scott LD, Summers RW (1976) Correlation of contractions and transit in rat small intestine. Am J Physiol 230: 132–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Siegel SR, Brown FC, Castell DO, Johnson LF, Said SI (1979) Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ( VIP) on lower esophageal sphincter in awake baboons-comparison with glucagon and secretin. Dig Dis Sci 24: 345–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Stunkard SJ, Van Itallie TB, Reis BB (1955) The mechanism of satiety. Effect of glucagons on gastric hunger contraction in man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 89: 258–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Taylor I, Duthie HL, Cumberland DC, Smallwood R (1975a) Glucagon and the colon. Gut 16: 973–978Google Scholar
  66. Taylor I, Duthie HL, Smallwood R ( 1975 b) The effect of glucagon on colonic myoelectric activity. In: Vantrappen F (ed) Fifth International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility. Typoff, Herentals, pp 76–81Google Scholar
  67. Tolin RD, Boden G, Fisher RS (1979) Effects of endogenous hyperglucagonemia on lower esophageal sphincter pressure and gastric acid secretion. Dig Dis Sci 24: 296–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Unger RH, Eisentraut A, Sims K, McCall MS, Madison LL (1961) Sites of origin of glu-cagon in dogs and humans. Clin Res 9: 53Google Scholar
  69. Valenzuela JE (1976) Effect of intestinal hormones and peptides on intragastric pressure in dogs. Gastroenterology 71: 766–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Vecchioli A, Aluffi A, Parrella RE, Colagrande C (1977) Glucagon in gastric and duodenal roentgenology. In: Speranza V, Basso N, Lezoche E (eds) Int Symp Gastrointestinal Horm and Pathol Dig Syst, Rome, June 13–15, 1977. Arti Grafiche Tris, Rome, p 104Google Scholar
  71. Waldeck F, Siewert R, Jennewein HM, Weiser F (1973) Das Druckprofil im unteren Ösophagussphinkter beim Menschen und seine Beeinflussung durch Gastrin, Calcitonin und Glucagon. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 98: 1059–1063Google Scholar
  72. Watanabe O, Atobe Y, Atsutaka Mori K, Akagi M, Nishi K (1979) Effects of feeding and glucagon on electrical activity of the stomach in the conscious dog: Proc 8th Symposium on Pharmacological Activity and Mechanism, Kumamoto, Oct. 25–26. p S-4Google Scholar
  73. Whalen GA (1974) Glucagon and the small gut. Gastroenterology 67: 1284–1286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Wingate DL, Pearce EA, Thomas PA, Boucher BJ (1978) Glucagon stimulates intestinal myoelectric activity. Gastroenterology 74: A1152Google Scholar
  75. Adrian TE, Besterman HS, Christofides ND, Bloom SR (1978) Interaction of gastrointestinal hormones and cholinergic innervation on the release of pancreatic polypeptide. Scand J Gastroenterol [Suppl 49] 13: 1Google Scholar
  76. Ali TM, Nicholson T, Singleton AG (1976) Stomach motility in insulin-treated sheep. Q J Exp Physiol 61: 321–329Google Scholar
  77. Arnqvist HJ (1974) Action of insulin on vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. Effects on aminoacid transport, protein synthesis, and accumulation of glucose carbon. Acta Physiol Scand 90: 132–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Arnqvist HJ, Lundstrom B (1976) Effects of insulin on human intestinal smooth muscle. Acta Endocrinol [Suppl 203] 82: 10Google Scholar
  79. Bachrach WH (1953) Action of insulin hypoglycemia on motor and secretory functions of the digestive tract. Physiol Rev 33: 566–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Barlow OW (1931) Effect of insulin on perfused heart and on isolated rabbit intestine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 41: 217–228Google Scholar
  81. Bogach PG, Nga CS, Groisman SD (1973) Effect of insulin hypoglycemia on the motility of the dog jejunum and ileum. Fiziol Zh 19: 471–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Bogach PG, Groisman SD, Chan SN (1974) Effect of varying degree of parasympathetic denervation of the stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum on the motor reactions induced by insulin hypoglycemia. Fiziol Zh SSSR 60: 1446–1453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Bowen JM (1962) Effect of insulin hypoglycemia on gastrointestinal motility in the sheep. Am J Vet Res 23: 948–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Bueno L, Ruckebusch Y (1975) Evidence for a role of endogenous insulin on intestinal motility. In: Vantrappen G (ed) Fifth International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility. Typoff, Leuven, pp 64–69Google Scholar
  85. Bueno L, Ruckebusch M (1976) Insulin and jejunal electrical activity in dogs and sheep. Am Physiol 230: 1538–1544Google Scholar
  86. Bulatao E, Carlson AJ (1924) Influence of experimental changes in blood sugar levels on gastric hunger contraction. Am J Physiol 69: 108–115Google Scholar
  87. Castell DO (1971) Changes in lower esophageal sphincter pressure during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Gastroenterology 61: 10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Christensen NJ (1974) Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in untreated diabetics during fasting and after insulin administration. Diabetes 23: 1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Code CF (1956) Histamine and gastric secretion. Ciba Foundation Symposium. In: Wolstenholme GEW, O’Connor CM (eds) Histamine. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, pp 189–219Google Scholar
  90. De Fronzo RA, Andres R, Bledsoe TA, Boden G, Faloona GA, Tobin JD (1977) A test of the hypothesis that the rate of fall in glucose concentration triggers counterregulatory hormonal responses in man. Diabetes 26: 445–452Google Scholar
  91. Felber JP, Dick J (1975) L’axe entéro-pancréatique. Med Hyg 33: 82–83Google Scholar
  92. Feldman M, Morrison S (1948) The effect of insulin on motility of the stomach following bilateral vagotomy. Am J Dig Dis 15: 175AGoogle Scholar
  93. Garcia-Vilar R (1979) Recherches sur la motricité colique chez le chien. Master’s Thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, pp 1–136Google Scholar
  94. Goyal RK, Rattan S (1978) Neurohumoral, hormonal, and drug receptors for the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 74: 598–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Grossman MI (1971) How does insulin stimulate the lower esophageal sphincter? Gastroenterology 61: 119–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gzgzyan DM, Kuzina MM (1973) Stomach motor activity in the black sea ray Daeyatis paetinaca. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol 9: 536–539Google Scholar
  97. Gzgzyan DM, Kuzina M, Tanaschuk OF (1973) The effect of hypophysical hormons and insulin on motor activity of the stomach in the scorpion fish Scorpaena porpus. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol 9: 301–303Google Scholar
  98. Heinz TE, Palmer WL (1930) A study of the effect of insulin on gastric motility. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 27: 1047–1049Google Scholar
  99. Hill KJ (1954) Insulin hypoglycemia and gastric motility in the sheep. Q J Exp Physiol 39: 253–260Google Scholar
  100. Jahnberg T, Abrahamson H, Jansson G, Martinson J (1977) Gastric relaxation response to insulin before and after vagotomy. Scand J Gastroenterol 12: 229–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kahlson G, Rosengren E, Svahn D, Thunberg R (1964) Mobilization and formation of histamine in the gastric mucosa as related to gastric secretion. J Physiol (Lond) 174: 400–416Google Scholar
  102. Kaneto A, Miki E, Kosaka K (1974) Effects of vagal stimulation on glucagon and insulin secretion. Endocrinology 95: 1005–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Killenberg PG, Cornwell GG (1964) Effect of insulin hypoglycemia on the human sigmoid colon. Am J Dig Dis 9: 221–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kleitsch WP, Puestow CB (1939) Studies of intestinal motility: the effect of intravenous solutions and of insulin upon peristalsis. Surgery 6: 687–696Google Scholar
  105. La Barre J (1931) Influence of insulin hypoglycemia of the central nervous system on gastric motility. C R Soc Biol (Paris) 107: 258–260Google Scholar
  106. La Barre J, Destree P (1930) Role des centres nerveux supérieurs dans l’hypermotilité gastri-que consécutive aux états d’hypoglycémie. C R Soc Biol (Paris) 104: 112–113Google Scholar
  107. Lalich J, Youmans WB, Meek WJ (1937) Insulin and gastric motility. Am J Physiol 120: 554–558Google Scholar
  108. Lee KY, Chey WY, Tai HH (1978) Roles of the vagus in endogenous release of secretin and exocrine pancreatic secretion in dog. In: Grossman M, Speranza V, Basso N, Lezoche E (eds) Gastrointestinal hormones and pathology of the digestive system. Plenum, New York, pp 211–216Google Scholar
  109. Lin TM (1980) Effects of insulin and glucagon on secretory and motor function of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Jerzy Glass GB (ed) Gastrointestinal hormones. Raven, New York, pp 639–691Google Scholar
  110. Lorber SH, Shay H (1962) Effect of insulin and glucose on gastric motor activity of dogs. Gastroenterology 43: 564–574Google Scholar
  111. Manville IA, Chuinard EG (1934) Studies on gastric hunger mechanisms. Am J Dig Dis 1: 688–693Google Scholar
  112. Marco J, Hedo JA, Villanueva ML (1978) Control of pancreatic polypeptide secretion by glucose in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46: 140–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Meythaler F, Graeser F (1935) Die Wirkung des Insulins auf den Darm. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 178: 27–35Google Scholar
  114. Moniuszko-Jokaniuk J (1974) Influence of insulin on the effect of neostigmine in healthy mice and mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Acta Physiol Pol 25: 497–508Google Scholar
  115. Mulinos MG (1933) The gastric hunger mechanism. IV. The influence of experimental alterations in blood sugar concentration on the gastric hunger contractions. Am J Physiol 104: 371–378Google Scholar
  116. Necheles H, Olson WH, Morris R (1941) Depression of gastric motility by insulin. Am J Dig Dis 8: 270–273Google Scholar
  117. Nga CS, Bogach PG, Groisman SD (1973) Mechanisms of the effect of insulin hypoglycemia on colon motility. Byull Eksp Biol Med 76: 12–15Google Scholar
  118. Paton WDM, Vizi ES (1969) The inhibitory action of noradrenalin and adrenalin on acetyl-choline output by guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle strip. Br J Pharmacol 35: 10–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pavel I, Milcou SM (1932) Action de l’insuline sur l’intestin. C R Soc Biol (Paris) 109: 776–779Google Scholar
  120. Postlethwaite RW, Hill HV, Chittum JR, Grimson KS (1948) Effect of vagotomy and of drugs on gastric motility. Ann Surg 128: 184–194Google Scholar
  121. Prasad S (1934) Effect of insulin on the contraction of the intestinal muscle. Indian J Med Res 21: 563–567Google Scholar
  122. Quigley JP (1928/1929) Action of insulin on the gastric motility of man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 26:769–770Google Scholar
  123. Quigley JP, Barnes BO (1930) Action of insulin on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. VI. Antagonistic action of posterior pituitary lobe preparations. Am J Physiol 95: 7–12Google Scholar
  124. Quigley JP, Hallaran WR (1932) The independence of spontaneous gastrointestinal motility and blood sugar levels. Am J Physiol 100: 102–110Google Scholar
  125. Quigley JP, Solomon EI (1929/1930) Action of insulin on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. V. a. Action on the human duodenum. b. Action on the colon of dogs. Am J Physiol 91: 488–495Google Scholar
  126. Quigley JP, Templeton RD (1929/1930) Action of insulin on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. IV. Action on the stomach following double vagotomy. Am J Physiol 91: 482–487Google Scholar
  127. Quigley JP, Johnson V, Solomon EI (1929) Action of insulin on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol 90: 89–98Google Scholar
  128. Regan.JF (1933) The action of insulin on the motility of the empty stomach. Am J Physiol 104: 91–95Google Scholar
  129. Ruckebusch Y (1979) Interaction of duodenal and antral activity in sheep and dogs. J Physiol (Lond) 254: 79P-80 PGoogle Scholar
  130. Ruckebusch M, Fioramonti J (1975) Insuline-secretion et motricité intestinale. C R Soc Biol (Paris) 169: 435–439Google Scholar
  131. Schapiro H, Woodward ER (1959) The action of insulin hypoglycemia on the motility of the human gastrointestinal tract. Am J Dig Dis 4: 787–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Schwartz TW (1978) Pancreatic polypeptide (PP). In: Grossman M, Speranza V, Basso N, Lezoche E (eds) Gastrointestinal hormones and pathology of the digestive system. Plenum, New York, pp 165–168Google Scholar
  133. Simici D, Giurea G, Dimitriu C (1927) L’action de l’insuline sur la motilité et l’évacuation de l’estomac â l’état normal et pathologique. Arch Mal Appar Dig Mal Nutr 17: 17–18Google Scholar
  134. Singh RV, Sud SC, Bahga HS, Soni BK (1972) Effect of insulin on rumen motility, blood glucose and blood lactic acid in male buffalo-calves (Bubalus bubalis). Indian J Anim Sci 42: 784–788Google Scholar
  135. Sive AA, Vinik AI, Hickman-Van Hoorn R, Van Tonder S (1978) Secretory response of pancreatic polipeptide in man and pigs. Scand J Gastroenterol [Suppl 49] 13: A169Google Scholar
  136. Templeton RD, Quigley JP (1929/1930) The action of insulin on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. II. Action on the Heidenhain pouch. Am J Physiol 91: 467–474Google Scholar
  137. Unger RH, Eisentraut AM (1969) Entero-insular axis. Arch Intern Med 123: 261–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wilder RL, Schultz FW (1932) The action of atropine and adrenalin on gastric tonus and hypermotility induced by insulin hypoglycemia. Am J Physiol 96: 54–58Google Scholar
  139. Winter LB, Smith W (1924) On the effect of insulin on the isolated intestine of the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 58: 12Google Scholar
  140. Adrian TE, Greenberg GR, McCloy RF, Fitzpatrick ML, Bloom SR (1979) How to assess the physiological role of a new peptide hormone: pancreatic polypeptide infusion in man. J Endocrinol 81: 154P-155 PPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Chance RE, Root MA, Galloway JA (1976) The immunogenicity of insulin preparations. Acta Endocrinol 83 (S-205): 185–196Google Scholar
  142. Duke GE, Kimmel JR (1978) Inhibition of gastric motility in turkey by avian pancreatic peptide (Abstr 849). Fed Proc 37: 373Google Scholar
  143. Floyd JC, Fajans SS, Pek S (1978) Physiologic regulation of plasma levels of PP in man. In: Bloom SR (ed) Gut hormones. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, pp 247–253Google Scholar
  144. Gustayson S, Johansson H, Lundquist G, Nilsson F (1977) Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pancreatic polypeptide on small bowel propulsion in the rat. Scand J Gastroenterol 12: 993–997Google Scholar
  145. Kimmel JR, Pollock HG, Hazelwood RL (1968) Isolation and characterization of chicken insulin. Endocrinology 83: 1323–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lin TM (1980) Pancreatic polypeptide: isolation, chemistry, and biological function. In: Jerzy Glass GB (ed) Gastrointestinal hormones. Raven, New York, pp 275–303Google Scholar
  147. Lin TM, Chance RE (1974a) Bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and avian pancreatic peptide ( APP); candidate hormones of the gut. Gastroenterology 67: 737–738Google Scholar
  148. Lin TM, Chance RE (1974b) Gastrointestinal actions of a new bovine pancreatic peptide (BPP). In: Chey WY, Brooks FP (eds) Endocrinology of the gut. Thorofare, NJ, pp 143–145Google Scholar
  149. Lin TM, Chance RE (1978) Spectrum of gastrointestinal actions of bovine PP. In: Bloom SR (ed) Gut hormones. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, pp 242–246Google Scholar
  150. Rattan S, Goyal RK (1979) Effect of bovine pancreatic polypeptide on the opossum lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 77: 672–676PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations