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Peptides: Candidate Hormones

Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 59 / 2)

Abstract

About 50 years ago (Von Euler and Gaddum 1931) substance P (SP) was obtained from extracts of equine brain and intestine which were able to stimulate contraction of rabbit bowel which had been pretreated with atropine. The active moiety found in the dried extracts was given the provisional name “preparation P” and was shown to differ from all the other stimulants known at that time. Many years later its structure was identified as a peptide with 11 amino acid residues (Chang et al. 1971) and it was synthesized. Meinardi and Craig (1966) found several peptides with SP-like activity in the brain and gut of different mammalian species and suggested that this activity may be possessed by a family of related peptides rather than by a single substance. Zetler (1970) came to a similar conclusion. This heterogeneity, which is both biologic and immunologic (Nilsson and Brodin 1977), finds its counterpart in the heterogeneity of several gastrointestinal hormones and “candidate” hormones. Only recently have we come to recognize that substance P is the prototype of a long and still growing list of peptides present both in brain and gut.

Keywords

Gastric Emptying Lower Esophageal Sphincter Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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