Primary Energy pp 219-251 | Cite as


  • D. L. Vischer
Conference paper


The earth can be considered from a “material” point of view as a closed system, there being practically no exchange of material with external sources. However, this is not the case when considering “energy.” The earth is continually subject to energy exchanges with the solar system, namely energy from the sun impinges on the earth’s surface and is partially reflected.


Draft Tube Hydropower Station Francis Turbine Machine Unit Hydropower Potential 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. L. Vischer
    • 1
  1. 1.Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Versuchsanstalt für WasserbauETH - ZentrumZürichSwitzerland

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