Advertisement

Sleep pp 37-81 | Cite as

Endocrine and Peptide Functions in the Sleep-Waking Cycle

  • René Drucker-Colín
  • Carlos Valverde-R
Part of the Current Topics in Neuroendocrinology book series (CT NEUROENDOCRI, volume 1)

Abstract

Ever since the landmark discovery of Aserinsky and Kleitman (1953) that certain periods of sleep were accompanied by conjugate rapid eye movements (REM), which made it possible to distinguish between two phases of sleep, physiologists have been concerned with finding their neurohumoral counterparts. For many years this aspect was dominated by the monoamine theory of sleep, largely due to the very elegant series of experiments carried out by Jouvet and his group (1972). In recent years, partly due to some conflicting evidence bearing on the monoamine theory (Drucker-Colin and Spanis 1976; Gillin et al. 1978; Ramm 1979) and partly due to the enormous interest generated in the neurosciences by hormones and peptides, this theory has fallen slightly into disfavor. This state of affairs should not be taken to signify that the monoamines do not play a role in sleep, but rather that their role should no longer be conceived as being of central importance, since in all probability sleep depends on a number of systems.

Keywords

Peptide Function Luteinizing Hormone Release Hormone Locus Coeruleus Delta Sleep Induce Peptide Arginine Vasotocin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe K, Kroning J, Greer MA, Critchlow V (1979) Effects of destruction of the supra-chiasmatic nuclei on the circadian rhythms in plasma corticosterone, body temperature, feeding and plasma thyrotropin. Neuroendocrinology 29: 119–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam, K, Oswald I (1977) Sleep is for tissue restoration. J Coll Physicians Lond 11: 376–388Google Scholar
  3. Amico JA, Stolc LT, Seif SM (1980) Mid-cycle elevation of oxytocin and oxytocin-neurophysin in women (Abstr 346). The Endocrine Society 62nd Annual Meeting. Endocrine Soc, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Annunziato L (1979) Regulation of the tuberoinfundibular and nigrostriatal system. Evidence for different kinds of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Neuroendocrinology 29: 66–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antunes JL, Carmel PW, Zimmerman EA (1977) Projections from the paraventricular nucleus to the zona externa of the median eminence of the rhesus monkey: an immunohistochemical study. Brain Res 137: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aschoff J (1979) Circadian rhythms: general features and endocrinological aspects. In: Krieger DT (ed) Endocrine rhythms. Raven, New York, pp 1–62Google Scholar
  7. Aserinsky E, Kleitman N (1953) Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science 118: 273–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnea A, Oliver C, Porter JC (1977) Subcellular compartmentalization by hypothalamic peptides: characteristics and ontogeny. Adv Exp Mèd Biol 87: 49–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baxter JD, Funder JW (1979) Hormone receptors. N Engl J Med 301: 1149–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baxter JD, Eberhardt NL, Apriletti JW, Johnson LK, Ivarie RD, Schachter BS, Morris JA, Seeburg PH, Goodman HM, Latham KR, Polansky JR, Martial JA (1979) Thyroid hormone receptors and responses. Recent Prog Horm Res 35: 95–153Google Scholar
  11. Beaumont A, Hughes J (1979) Biology of opiod peptides. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 19: 245–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben-Jonathan N, Oliver CH, Weiner HJ, Mical RS, Porter JC (1977) Dopamine in hypophysial portal plasma of the rat during the estrous cycle and throughout pregnancy. Endocrinology 100: 542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bentley PJ (1976) Comparative vertebrate endocrinology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Melbourne New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergland RM, Page RB (1980) Pituitary-brain vascular relations: a new paradigm. Wislocki’s models for brain-pituitary relations emphasizing portal “veins” is reconsidered and revised. Science 204: 18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloom FE (to be published) Peptides: integrators of cell and tissue function. Soc Gen Physiol Ser 35Google Scholar
  16. Bowie EP, Herbert DC (1976) Immunocytochemical evidence for the presence of arginine vasotocin in rat pineal gland. Nature 261: 66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyar RM (1978a) Control of the onset of puberty. Annu Rev Med 29: 509–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyar RM (1978b) Sleep related endocrine rhythms. In: Reichlin S, Baldessarini RJ, Martin JB The hypothalamus. Raven, New York, pp 373:386Google Scholar
  19. Brazeau P, Vale W, Burgus R, Ling N, Blutcher M, Rivier J, Guillemin R (1973) Hypothalamic peptide that inhibits the secretion of immunoreactive pituitary growth hormone. Science 179: 77–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodskii V, Gusatinskii NV, Kogan AB, Mechaeva NV (1974) Variations in the intensity of 3H-leucine incorporation into proteins during slow wave and paradoxical phases of natural sleep in the cat associative cortex. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 215: 748–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brownfield MS, Kozlowsli GP (1977) The hypothalamo-choroidal tract I. iImmuno-histochemical demonstration of neurophysin pathways to telencephalic choroidal plexuses and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell Tissue Res 178: 111–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brownstein MJ, Russel JT, Gainer H (1980) Synthesis, transport and release of posterior pituitary hormones. Science 207: 373–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Candland DK, Horowitz SH, Culbertson JL (1962) Acquisition and retention of acquired avoidance with gentling as reinforcement. J Comp Physiol Psychol 61: 50–58Google Scholar
  24. Chihara K, Arimura A, Schally AV (1979) Effect of intraventricular injection of dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxitryptamine on immunoreactive somatostatin release into rat hypophyseal portal blood. Endocrinology 104: 1656–1662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cicero TJ (1980) Effects of exogenous and endogenous opiates on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male. Fed Proc 39: 2551–2554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen DH, Cabot JB (1979) Toward a cardiovascular neurobiology. TINS 2: 273–276Google Scholar
  27. DeAndres I, Gutierrez-Rivas E, Nava E, Reinoso-Suarez F (1976) Independence of sleep-wakefulness cycle in an implanted head “encephale isolé”. Neurosci Lett 2: 13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Defendi R, Zimmermann EA (1978) The magnocellular neurosecretory system of the mammalian hypothalamus. In: Reichlin S, Baldessarini RJ, Martin JB (eds) The hypothalamus. Raven, New York, pp 137–152Google Scholar
  29. DeWeid D, Versteeg DH (1979) Neurohypolyseal rinciples and memory. Fed Proc 38: 2348–2354Google Scholar
  30. Dogterom J, Pevet P, Buijs RM, Snijdewint SM, Swaab DJ (1979) Vasopressin, oxytocin and vasotocin in pineal gland, subcommisural organ and foetal pituitary: failure to demonstrate vasotocin in mammals. Acta Endocrinol [Suppl] (Copenh) 225: 413Google Scholar
  31. Drucker-Colin RR (1973) Crossed perfusion of a sleep inducing brain tissue substance in conscious cats. Brain Res 56: 123–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Drucker-Colin RR, Benitez J (1977) REM sleep rebound during withdrawal from chronic amphetamine administration is blocked by chloramphenicol. Neurosci Lett 6: 267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Drucker-Colin RR, Gutiérrez MC (1976) Effects of forebrain lesions on release of proteins from the midbrain reticular formation during the sleep-wake cycle. Exp Neurol 52: 339–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Drucker-Colin RR, Spanis CW (1975) Neurohumoral correlates of sleep: increase of proteins during rapid eye movement sleep. Experientia 31: 551–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Drucker-Colin RR, Spanis CW (1976) Is there a sleep transmitter? Prog Neurobiol 6: 1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Drucker-Colin RR, Rojas-Ramirez JA, Vera-Trueba J, Monroy-Ayala G, Hernández Peon R (1970) Effect of crossed-perfusion of the midbrain reticular formation upon sleep. Brain Res 23: 269–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Drucker-Colin RR, Spanis CW, Hunyadi J, Sassin JF, McGaugh JL (1975a) Growth hormone effects on sleep and wakefumess in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 18: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Drucker-Colin RR, Spanis CW, Cotman CW, McGaugh JL (1975 b) Changes in protein in perfusates of freely moving cats: relation to behavioral state. Science 187: 963–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Drucker-Colin RR, Bernal-Pedraza JG, Diaz-Mitoma F, Zamora-Quezada J (1977) Oscillatory changes in multiple unit activity during rapid eye movement sleep. Exp Neurol 57: 331–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Drucker-Colin RR, Zamora J, Bernal-Pedraza J, Sosa B (1979a) Modification of REM sleep and associated phasic activities by protein synthesis inhibitors. Exp Neurol 63: 458–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Drucker-Colin RR, Dreyfus-Cortes G, Bernal-Pedraza JG (1979b) Differences in multiple unit activity discharge frequency during short and long REM sleep periods: effects of protein synthesis inhibition. Behav Neural Biol 26: 123–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Drucker-Colin RR, Tuena de Gomez-Puyou M, Gutierrez MC, Dreyfus-Cortes G (1980) Immunological approach to the study of neurohumoral sleep factors: effects on REM sleep of antibodies to brain stem proteins. Exp Neurol 69: 563–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dupont A, Barden N, Cusan L, Merand Y, Labrie F, Veudry H (1980) β-endorphin and Met-enkephalins: their distribution, modulation by estrogens and haloperidol, and role in neuroendocrine control. Fed Proc 39: 2544-2550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Elde R, Hökfelt T (1978) Distribution of hypothalamic hormones and other peptides in the brain. In:Ganong WF, Martini L (eds) Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  45. Elde R, Hökfelt T (1979) Localization of hypophysiotropic peptides and other biologically active peptides within the brain. Annu Rev Physiol 41: 587–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Emanuele N, Kirsteins L, Lawrence AM (1979) Brain LH: localization, response to hypophysectomy and ovariectomy. Clin Res 27: 250Google Scholar
  47. Enright JT (1980) The timing of sleep and wakefulness. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Epstein AN (1978) The neuroendocrinology of thirst and salt peptides. In: Ganong WF, Martini L (eds) Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp 101–134Google Scholar
  49. Epstein AN (1980) Angiotensin induced water and salt intake. In: Valverde-R C, Aréchiga H (eds) Comparative aspects of neuroendocrine control and behavior. Karger, Basel Paris London New York, pp 104–119Google Scholar
  50. Fencl V, Koski G, Pappenheimer JR (1971) Factors in cerebrospinal fluid from goats that affect sleep and activity in rats. J Physiol (Lond) 216: 565–589Google Scholar
  51. Fisher LA, Spinderl ER, Fernstrom JD (1980) Nonapeptide content of the bovine pineal gland (Abstr 11). The Endocrine Society 62nd Annual Meeting. Endocrine Soc, Washington, p 103Google Scholar
  52. Fitzsimons JT (1980) Angiotension in the control of water and sodium intake. In: Bloom FE (ed) Peptides: integrators of cell and tissue functions. Raven, New York, pp 99–107Google Scholar
  53. Flerko B (1980) The hypophysial portal circulation today. Neuroendocrinology 30: 56–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Frantz AG (1979) Rhythms in prolactin secretion. In: Keirieger DT (ed) Endocrine rhythms. Raven, New York, pp 175–186Google Scholar
  55. Fuller RW, Wong DT (1977) Inhibition of serotonin reuptake. Fed Proc 36: 2154–2158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fuxe K, Hökfelt T, Anderson K, Ferland L, Johansson O, Ganten D, Eneroth P, Gustafsson JA, Skett P, Said SI, Mutt V (1978 a) The transmitters of the hypothalamus. In: Cox B, Morris ID, Weston AH (eds) Pharmacology of the hypothalamus. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 31–61Google Scholar
  57. Fuxe K, Ogren SO, Agnati L, Jonsson G (1978b) Further evidence that methergoline is a central 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor blocking agent. Neurosci Lett 9: 195–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fuxe K, Anderson K, Hökfelt T, Mutt V, Ferland L, Agnati LF, Ganten D, Said S, Eneroth P, Gustafsson JA (1979) Localization and possible function of peptidergic neurons and their interactions with central catecholamine neurons, and the central actions of gut hormones. Fed Proc 38: 2333–2340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gainer H (ed) (1977) Peptides in neurobiology. Plenum, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. Gallo RV (1980) Neuroendocrine regulation of pulsatile luteirizing hormone release in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 30: 122–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Georg CPL, Messerli FH, Genest J, Nowaczynski W, Boucher R, Kuchel O, Ortega RO (1975) Diurnal variation of plasma vasopressin in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 332–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gillin JC, Mendelson WB, Sitaram N, Wyatt RJ (1978) The neuropharmacology of sleep and wakefulness. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 18: 563–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Golde DW (1980) Growth hormone. Ann Intern Med 92: 650–662Google Scholar
  64. Grave GD (1977) (ed) Thyroid hormones and brain development. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Grossman MI (1979) Neural and hormonal regulation of gastrointestinal function: an overview. Ann Rev Physiol 41: 27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Guansing A, Hagen TC, Hojuat S, Lawrence AM (1977) Brain TSH: extra-pituitary localization of immuno and bioassayable TSH-like activity. Clin Res 25: 605AGoogle Scholar
  67. Gudelsky GA, Porter JC (1980) Release of dopamine from tubero infundibular neurons into pituitary stalk blood after prolactin or haloperidal administration. Endocrinology 106: 526–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Guillemin R (1978) Biochemical and physiological correlates of hypothalamic peptides. The new endocrinology of the neuron. In: Reichlin S, Baldessarini RJ, Martin JB (eds) The hypothalamus. Raven, New York, p 155Google Scholar
  69. Guy J, Leclerc R, Vaudry H, Pelletier G (1980) Identification of a second category of MSH-containing neurons in the rat brain (Abstr 117). The Endocrine Society 62 nd Annual Meeting. Endocrine Soc, Washington, p 104Google Scholar
  70. Havlicek V, Resek M, Friesen H (1976) Somatostatin and thyrotropin releasing hormone: central effect on sleep and motor system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 4: 455–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hendriksen SJ, Jacobs BJ, Dement WC (1972) Dependence of REM sleep PGO spikes on cholinergic mechanisms. Brain Res 48: 412–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Heritage AS, Stumpf WE, Sar M, Grant LD (1980) Brainstem catecholamine neurons are target sites for sex steroid hormones. Science 207: 1377–1379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hery F, Pujol JF, Lopez M, Macon J, Glowinski J (1970) Increased synthesis and utilization of serotonin in the central nervous system of the rat during paradoxical sleep deprivation. Brain Res 21: 391–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hexum TD, Hanbauer I, Yang H-YT, Costa E (1980) Secretion of enkephalinlike peptides from dog adrenal gland (Abstr 1799). Fed Proc 39: 605Google Scholar
  75. Hobson JA, McCarley RW, Freedman R, Pivik RT (1974) Time course of discharge rate changes by cat pontine brain stem neurons during sleep cycle. J Neurophysiol 37: 1297–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hökfelt T, Johansson O, Ljungdahl A, Lundberg J, Schultzberg M, Fuxe K, Goldstein M, Steinbusch H, Verhofstad A, Elde R (1978a) Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides: distribution patterns and cellular localization as revealed by immunocytochemistry. In: Fuxe K, Hökfelt T, Luft R (eds) Central regulation of the endocrine system. Plenum, New York London, pp 31–48Google Scholar
  77. Hökfelt T, Elde R, Fuxe K, Johansson O, Ljungdahl A, Goldstein M, Luft R, Nilsson G, Said S, Fraser H, Jeffcoate SL, White N, Ganten D, Rehfeld J (1978b) Aminergic and peptidergic pathways in the nervous system with special reference to the hypothalamus. In: Reichlin S, Baldessarini RJ, Martin JB (eds) The hypothalamus. Raven, New York, pp 69–135Google Scholar
  78. Ibata Y, Watanabe K, Kinoshita H, Kubo S, Sano Y (1979) The location of LHRH neurons in the rat hypothalamus and their pathways to the median eminence. Cell Tissue Res 198: 381–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Inouye SIT, Kawamura H (1979) Persistence of circadian rhythmicity in a mammalian hypothalamic “island” containing the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 5962–5966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jackson IMD (1978) Extrahypothalamic and phylogenetic distribution of hypothalamic peptides. In: Reichlin S, Baldessarini RJ, Martin JB (eds) The hypothalamus. Raven, New York, pp 217–231Google Scholar
  81. Jackson IMD (1980) Distribution and evolutionary significance of the hypophysiotropic hormones of the hypothalamus. In: Valverde-R C, Arechiga H (eds) Comparative aspects of neuroendocrine control of behavior. Karger, Basel Paris London New York, pp 36–69Google Scholar
  82. Johnston CA, Demarest KT, More KE (1980) Involvement of protein synthesis in the delayed activation of dopamine synthesis in tuberoinfundibular nerves by prolactin. Fed Proc 39: 555Google Scholar
  83. Jouvet M (1972) The role of monoamines and acetylcholine in the regulation of the sleep-waking cycle. Ergb Physiol Biol Chem Exp Pharmakol 64: 166–307Google Scholar
  84. Jouvet M (1978) Does a genetic programming of the brain occur during paradoxical sleep. In: Buser H, Rougeul-Buser M (eds) Cerebral correlates of conscious experience. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 245–261Google Scholar
  85. Jurado JL, Rhodes JM, Fernández-Guardiola A, Valverde R-C (1979) Positive results in two cases of narcolepsy treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (Abstr 2359). Society Neuroscience 9 th Annual Meeting. Soc for Neurosci, Atlanta, Georgia, p 696Google Scholar
  86. Kanamori N, Sakai K, Jouvet M (to be published) Neuronal activity specific to paradoxical sleep in the ventromedial medullary reticular formation of unrestrained cats. Brain ResGoogle Scholar
  87. Karacan I, Rosenbloom AL, Williams RL, Finley WW, Nursch CJ (1971) Slow wave sleep deprivation in relation to plasma growth hormone concentration. Behav Neuropsychiatry 2: 11–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kastin AJ, Nissen C, Schally AV, Coy DH (1978) Radioimmunoassay of DSIP-like material in rat brain. Brain Res Bull 3: 691–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Khachaturian H, Sladek JR Jr (1980) Simultaneous monoamine histofluorescence and neuropeptide immunocytochemistry. III. Ontogeny of catecholamine varicosities and neurophysin neurons in the rat supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Peptides 1: 77–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. King JA (1979) Phylogenetic and anatomical distribution of somatostatin in vertebrates. Endocrinology 105: 1322–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kitahama K, Valatx JL (1975) Effet du chloramphenicol et du thiamphenicol sur le sommeil de la souris. Comptes rendues Soc Biol (Paris) 169: 1522–1525Google Scholar
  92. Knigge KM, Joseph SA, Hoffman GE (1978) Organization of LRF and SRIF neurons in the endocrine hypothalamus. In: Reichlin S, Baldessarini RJ, Martin JB (eds) Hypothalamus. Raven, New York, pp 49–68Google Scholar
  93. Kozlowski GA, Brownfield MS, Hostetter G (1978) Neurosecretory supply of extrahypothalamic structures: choroid plexus, circunventricular organs and limbic system. In: Bargman W, Oksche A, Polenov A, Scharrer B (eds) Neurosecretion and neuroendocrine activity. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 217–227Google Scholar
  94. Kozlowski GP, Chu L, Hostetter G, Kerdelhue B (1980) Cellular characteristics of immunolabeled luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)-neurons. Peptides 1: 37–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kroll FW (1933) Über das Vorkommen von übertragbaren schlaferzeugenden Stoffen im Hirn schlafender Tiere. Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 146: 208–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Krueger JM, Pappenheimer JR, Karnovsky ML (1978) Sleep promoting factor S: purification and properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 5235–5238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Krulich L (1979) Central neurotransmitters and the secretion of prolactin, GH, LH, and TSH. Annu Rev Physiol 41: 603–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. LeDourain N (1974) Cell recognition based on natural morphological nuclear makers. Med Biol 52: 281Google Scholar
  99. LeDourain N, Smith J, Teillet M-A, Le Lievre C, Ziller C (1980) The natural crest and its developmental analysis in avian embryo chimaeras. TINS 3: 39–42Google Scholar
  100. Legendre R, Pieron H (1910) Le probleme des facteurs du sommeil. Resultats d’injections vasculaires et intra-cerebrales des liquides insomniques. Crit Rev Soc Biol (Paris) 68: 1077–1078Google Scholar
  101. Legendre R, Pieron H (1911) Du developpement au cours de l’insomie expérimental, des propriétes hypnotoxiques des humeurs en relation avec le besoin croissant de sommeil. Comptes Rendues Soc Biol (Paris) 70: 190–192Google Scholar
  102. Legendre R, Pieron H (1912) De la propriéte hypnotoxique des humerus dévelopeés au cours d’une veille prolongée. Comptes Rendues Soc Biol 72: 210–212Google Scholar
  103. Leibson L (1979) Endocrinology evolution and evolutionary endocrinology. Perspect Biol Med 23: 25–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lenard HG, Schulte FJ (1972) Polygraphic sleep study in cramopagus twins. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 35: 756–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Leowy DD, McKellar S (1980) The neuroanatomical basis of central cardiovascular control. Fed Proc 39: 2495–2503Google Scholar
  106. Lewis RV, Kimura S, Stern A, Rossier J, Stein A, Udenfriend S (1980) Enkephalin precursors in bovine adrenal granules. Fed Proc 39: 385 A 613Google Scholar
  107. Liotta AS, Gilderslleve D, Brownstein MJ, Krieger DT (1979) Biosynthesis in vitro of immunoreactive 31,000-dalton corticitropin/-endorphinlike material by bovine hypothalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 1448–1452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lucke C, Hoffken B, von zur Mullen A (1976) Studies on the postponed growth hormone secretion following the infusion of somatostatin. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 82: 460–466Google Scholar
  109. Magoun H, Rhines R (1946) An inhibitory mechanism in the bulbarreticular formation. J Neurophysiol 9: 165–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Martin JB (1976) Brain regulation of growth hormone secretion. In: Martini L, Ganong WF (eds) Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, vol 4. Raven, New York, pp 129–168Google Scholar
  111. Matsumoto J, Sogabe K, Hori-Santiago Y (1972) Sleep in parabiosis. Experientia 28: 1043–1044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McKelvy JF (1977) Biosynthesis of hypothalamic peptides. Adv Exp Med Biol 87: 77–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. McKelvy JF, Epelbaum J (1978) Biosynthesis, packing, transport, and release of brain peptides. In: Reichlin S, Baldessarini RJ, Martin JB (eds) The hypothalamus. Raven, New York, 195–211Google Scholar
  114. McKelvy JB, Charli JL, Joseph-Bravo P, Sherman T, Loudes C (to be published) Cellular biochemistry of brain peptides biosynthesis, degradation, packaging, transport, and release. In: Motta M (ed) The endocrine function of the brain. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. McNeill TH, Scott DE, Sladek JR Jr (1980) Simultaneous monoamine histofluorescence and neuropeptide immunocytochemistry: I. Localization of catecholamines and gonadotropin-releasing Hormone in the rat median eminence. Peptides 1: 59–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mendelson WB, Gillin JC, Pisner G, Wyatt RJ (1980) Arginine Vasotocin and sleep in the rat. Brain Res 182: 246–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mendelson WB, Slater S, Gold P, Gillin JC (1980) The effect of growth hormone administration on human sleep: a dose response study. Biol. Psychiatry 15: 613–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Miselis RR, Shapiro RE, Hand PJ (1979) Subfornical organ efferents to neural systems for control of body water. Science 205: 1022–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Monnier M, Hosli L (1964) Dialysis of sleep and waking factors in blood of the rabbit. Science 146: 797–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Monnier M, Hosli L (1965) Humoral transmission of sleep and wakefulness. 11. Hemodialysis of a sleep inducing humor during stimulation of the thalamic somnogenic area. Pfluegers Arch 282: 60–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Monnier M, Hatt AM (1971) Humoral transmission of sleep. V. New evidence from production of pure sleep hemodialyzate. Pfluegers Arch 329: 231–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Monnier M, Koller T, Graber S (1963) Humoral influences of induced sleep and arousal upon electrical brain activity of animals with crossed circulation. Exp Neurol 8: 264–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Monnier M, Hatt AM, Cueni LB, Schoenenberger GA (1972) Humoral transmission of sleep. VI. Purification and assessment of a hypnogenic fraction of “sleep dialyzate” (factor delta). Pfluegers Arch 331: 257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Monnier M, Dudler L, Schoenenberger GA (1973) Humoral transmission of sleep. VIII. Effects of the “sleep factor delta” on cerebral, motor, and visceral activities. Pfluegers Arch 345: 23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Monnier M, Dudler L, Gachter R, Maier PF, Tobler HJ, Schoenenberger GA (1977) The delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP). Comparative properties of the original and synthetic nonapeptide. Experientia 33: 548–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Moore RY (1978) Central neural control of circadian rhythms. In: Ganong WF, Martini L (eds) Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp. 185–206Google Scholar
  127. Moore RY (1979) The anatomy of central neural mechanisms regulating endocrine rhythms. In: Krieger DT (ed) Endocrine rhythms. Raven, New York, pp 63–87Google Scholar
  128. Morin LP, Fitzgerald KM, Zucker I (1977) Estradiol shortens the period of hamster circadian rhythms. Science 196: 305–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Morrison A (1979) Brain stem regulation of behavior during sleep and wakefulnes. Prog Psychobiol 8: 91–131Google Scholar
  130. Moruzzi G (1972) The sleep-waking cycle. Ergb Physiol Biol Chem Exp Pharmakol 64: 1–165Google Scholar
  131. Moss RL (1979) Actions of hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormones in the brain. Annu Rev Physiol 41: 617–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Moss RL, Riskind P, Dudley CA (1979) Effects of LHRH on sexual activities in animal and man. In: Collu R, Barbeau A, Ducharme JR, Rochefort VG (eds) Central nervous system effects of hypothalamic hormones and other peptides. Raven, New York, pp 345–366Google Scholar
  133. Mullen PE, Jeffcoate WJ, Linsell C, Howard R, Rees LH (1979) The circadian variation of immunoreactive lipotropin and its relationship to ACTH and growth hormone in man. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 11: 533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nagasaki H, Iriki M, Indue S, Uchizono K (1974) The presence of a sleep promoting material in the brain of sleep-deprived rats. Proc Jap Acad 50: 241–246Google Scholar
  135. Nagasaki H, Iriki M, Uchizono K (1976) Inhibitory effect of the brain extract of sleep-deprived rats (BE-SDR) on the spontaneous discharges of crayfish abdominal ganglion. Brain Res 109: 202–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Neill JD (1980) LHRH and dopamine secretion into hypophyseal stalk blood. Effects of estrogen, mating, and nursing. In: Valverde-R C, Arechiga H (eds) Comparative aspects of neuroendocrine control of behavior. Karger, Basel Paris London New York, pp 192–217Google Scholar
  137. Negoro H, Visessuwan S, Holland DR (1973) Unit activity in the paraventricular nucleus of female rats at different stages of the reproductive cycle and after ovariectomy, with or without oestrogen or progesterone treatment. J Endocrinol 59: 545–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Negro-Vilar A, Sanchez-Franco F, Kwiatkowski M, Samson WK (1979) Failure to detect radioimmunoassayable arginine vasotocin in mammalian pineals. Brain Res Bull 4: 789–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Nicoll CS (1980) Ontogeny and evolution of prolactin’s functions. Fed Proc 39: 2563–2566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Nilaver G, Zimmerman EA, Wilkins J, Michaels J, Hoffman D, Silverman A-J (1980) Magnocellular hypothalamic projections to the lower brain stem and spinal cord of the rat. Neuroendocrinology 30: 150–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ochs S (1977) Axoplasmic transport of peripheral nerve and hypothalamoneuro-hypophyseal systems. In: Porter JC (ed). Hypothalamic peptide hormones and pituitary regulation. Adv Exp Med Biol 87: 13-40Google Scholar
  142. O’Donohue TL, Miller RL, Pendleton RC, Jacobowitz DM (1979) A diurnal rhythm of immunoreactive-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in discrete regions of the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 29: 281–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. O’Malley BW, Roop DR, Lai EC, Nordstrom JL, Catteral JF, Swaneck GE, Colbert DA, Tsai M-J, Dugaiczyk A, Woo SLC (1979) The ovalbumin gene: organization, structure, transcription and regulation. Recent Progr Horm Res 35: 1–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Oswald I (1969) Human brain protein, drugs and dreams. Nature 223: 893–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pacold ST, Hojvat S, Kirstems L, Yarzagary L, Kisla J, Lawrence AM (1977) Brain growth hormone: evidence for the presence and production of biologically active GH-like immunoreactivity from the amygdaloid nucleus. Clin Res 25: 299Google Scholar
  146. Pappenheimer JR, Miller TB, Goodrich CA (1967) Sleep promoting effects of cerebrospinal fluid from sleep-deprived goats. Proc Nat Acad Sci 58: 513–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pappenheimer JR, Koski G, Fencl V, Karnovsky ML, Krueger J (1975) Extraction of sleep promoting factor S from cerebrospinal fluid and from brains of sleep deprived animals. J Neurophysiol 38: 1299–1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Parker DC, Rossman LG, Vanderlaan EF (1974) Relation of sleep-entrained human release to REM and non REM cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38: 646–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Parker DC, Rossman LG, Kripke DF, Gibson W, Wilson K (1979) Rhythmicities in human growth hormone concentrations in plasma. In: Krieger DT (ed) Endocrine rhythms. Raven, New York, pp 143–173Google Scholar
  150. Pavel S (1965) Evidence for the presence of lysive vasotocin in the pig pineal gland. Endocrinology 77: 812–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pavel S (1979) Pineal vasotocin and sleep: involvement of serotonin containing neurons. Brain Res Bull 4: 731–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Pavel S, Matrescu L, Petrescu M (1973) Central corticotropin inhibition by arginine vasotocin. Neuroendocrinology 12: 371–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pavel S, Goldstein E, Ghinea E, Calb M (1977a) Chromatographic evidence of vasotocin biosynthesis by cultures pineal ependymal cells from rat fetures. Endocrinology 100: 205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pavel S, Psatta, Goldstein R (1977b) Slow wave sleep induced in cats by extremely small amounts of synthetic and pineal vasotocin inyected into the third ventricle of the brain. Brain Res Bull 2: 251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pearse AGE (1976) Peptides in brain and intestine. Nature 262: 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pearse AGE (1977) The diffuse neuroendocrine system and the APUD concept. Related “endocrine” peptides in brain, intestine, pituitary, placenta and anurain cutaneous glands. Med Biol 55: 115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Pearse AGE, Takor-Takor T (1976) Neuroendocrine embryology and the APUD concept. Clin Endocrinol [Suppl] 5: 2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pegram V, Hammond D, Bridgers W (1973) The effects of protein synthesis inhibition on sleep in mice. Behav Biol 9: 377–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Pelletier G, Desy L (1979) Localization of ACTH in the human hipothalamus. Cell Tissue Res 196: 525–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Pelletier G, Leclerc R (1979) Immunohistochemical localization of adrenocorticotropin in the rat brain. Endocrinology 104: 1426–1433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Perez-E B, Valverde-R C (to be published) The diffuse neuroendocrine system and its pathology: antecedents, present concepts, perspectives. MetabolismGoogle Scholar
  162. Peters JA, Santa-Cruz F, Rubin RT (1980) Neuroendocrine responses to TRH during REM and slow-wave sleep in man (Abstr 634). The Endocrine Society 62nd Annual Meeting. Endocrine Soc, Washington, p 233Google Scholar
  163. Petitjean F, Buda C, Janin M, David M, Jouvet M (1979) Effets du Chloramphenicol sur le sommeil du chat — Comparison avec le thiamphénicol, l’erythromycine et l’erytrhomycine et l’oxytétracycline. Psychopharmacologie 66: 147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Phillips MI, Weyhenmeyer J, Felix D, Ganten D, Hoffman WE (1979) Evidence for an endogenous brain renin-angiotensin system. Fec Proc 38: 226–266Google Scholar
  165. Pieron H (1913) Le probleme physiologique du sommeil. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  166. Polak JM (1979) The diffuse neuroendocrine system. Studies of this newly discovered controlling system in health and disease. J Histochem Cytochem 27: 1398–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Polc P, Schneeberger J, Haefely W (1978) Effect of the delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on the sleep-wakefulness cycle of cats. Neurosci Lett 9: 33–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Polet RJ, Levey GS (1980) Principles of membrane receptor physiology and their application to clinical medicine. Ann Int Med 92: 663–680Google Scholar
  169. Purpura D (1956) A neurohumoral mechanism of reticular cortical action. Am J Physiol 186: 50–54Google Scholar
  170. Quabbe HJ (1977) Chronobiology of growth hormone secretion. Chronobiologia 4: 217–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Ramirez G (1973) Synaptic plasma membrane protein synthesis: selective inhibition by chloramphenicol in vivo, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 50: 452–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Ramm P (1979) The locus coeruleus, catecholamines and REM sleep: a critical review. Behav Neural Biol 25: 415–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Reichlin S (1980) Peptides in neuroendocrine regulation. In: Bloom F (ed) Peptides: integrators of cell and tissue function. Raven, New York, pp 235–250Google Scholar
  174. Reichlin S, Connolly J, Greens GL, Jensen EV, Robbins RJ (1980) Histochemical localization of estrophilin-like immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamic cell cultures using anti-calf uterine estrophilin antibody (Abstr 121). The Endocrine Society 62nd Annual Meeting. Endocrine Soc, Washington, p 105Google Scholar
  175. Renaud LP, Pittman QJ, Blume HW (1978) Neurophysiology of hypothalamic peptidergic neurons. In: Fuxe K, Hökfelt T, Luft R(eds) Central regulation of the endocrine system. Plenum, New York London, pp 119–136Google Scholar
  176. Renaud LP, Blume HW, Pittman QJ, Lamour Y, Tan AT (1979 a) Thyrotropin releasing hormone selectively depresses glutamate excitation of cerebral cortical neurons. Science 205: 1275–1277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Renaud LP, Pittman Q, Blume H, Lamour Y, Arnaud E (1979b) Effects of peptides on central neuronal excitability. In: Collu R, Barbeau A, Ducharme JR, Rochefor JC (eds) Central nervous system effects of hypothalamic hormones and other peptides. Raven, New York, pp 147–162Google Scholar
  178. Rezek M, Havlicek V, Hughes K, Friesen H (1976) Cortical administration of somatostatin (SRIF): effect on sleep and motor behavior. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 5: 73–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Rillema JA (1980) Mechanism of prolactin action. Fed Proc 39: 2593–2598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Ringle DA, Herndon BL (1968) Plasma dialyzates from sleep-deprived rabbits and their effect on the electrocorticogram of rats. Pfluegers Arch 303: 344–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Ringle D, Herndon B (1969) Effects on rats of CSF from sleep deprived rabbits. Pfluegers Arch 30: 320–328Google Scholar
  182. Roger LJ (1979) Evidence for T4-GH interaction during brain development. Nature 282: 414–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rojas-Ramirez JA, Aguilar-Jimenez E, Posadas-Andrews A, Bernal-Pedraza J, Drucker-Colin RR (1977) The effects of various protein synthesis inhibitors on the sleep-wake cycle of rats. Psychopharmacol 53: 147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rosenbloom AA, Fisher DA (1974) Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasotocin. Endocrinology 95: 1726–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rossier J, Pittman Q, Bloom F, Guillemin R (1980) Distribution of opiod peptides in the pituitary: a new hypothalamic-pars nervosa enkephalinergic pathway. Fed Proc 39: 2555–2560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Rubin RT, Poland RE, Ravessound F, Gouin PR, Tower BB (1975) Antidiuretic hormone: episodic nocturnal secretion in adult men. Endocr Res Commun 2: 461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Rusak B, Zucker I (1979) Neural regulation of circadian rhythms. Physiol Rev 59: 449–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sachs H, Pearson D, Nureddin H (1975) Guinea pig neurophysin: isolation, developmental aspects, biosynthesis in organ culture. Ann NY Acad Sci 248: 36–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sakai K, Sastre JP, Salvert D, Touret M, Tohyama M, Jouvet M (1979) Tegmento reticular projections with special reference to the muscular otonia during paradoxical sleep: an HRP study. Brain Res 176: 233–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Sassin J, Parker DC, Johnson LC, Rossman LG, Male JW, Gotlin RW (1969) Effects of slow wave sleep deprivation in human growth hormone — release in sleep: preliminary study. Life Sci 8: 1299–1307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sastre JP (1978) Effects des lesions du tegmentum pontique sus l’organization des etats de sommeil dies la chat. PhD dissertation, Université Claude Bernard, LyonGoogle Scholar
  192. Sastre JP, Jouvet M (1979) Le comportement oniseque du chiat. Physiol Behav 22: 979: 989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Scharrer B (1978) Peptidergic neurons. Facts and trends. Gen Comp Endocrinol 34: 50–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Scherrer H, Seidah NG, Benjannet S, Crine P, Cretien M (1979) Biosynthese de beta-lipotropin dans le tissue cerebral in citro. Crit Rev Acad Sci (Paris) 288: 543–546Google Scholar
  195. Schnedorf JG, Ivy AC (1939) An examination of the hypnotoxin theory of sleep. Am J Physiol 125: 191–205Google Scholar
  196. Schnitzer SB, Ross S (1960) Effects of physiological saline injection on locomotor activity in C57 BL/6 mice. Psychol Rep 6: 351–354Google Scholar
  197. Schoenenberger GA, Monnier M (1977) Characterization of a delta-electroencephalogram (sleep) inducing peptide. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 74: 1282: 1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Schoenenberger GA, Cueni LB, Monnier M, Hatt AM (1972) Humoral transmission of sleep. VII. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of the “sleep inducing factor delta.” Pfluegers Arch 338: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Schoenenberger GA, Maier PF, Tobler JH, Monnier M (1977) A naturally occurring delta-EEG enhancing nonapeptide in rabbits. X. Final isolation characterization and activity test. Pfluegers Arch 369: 99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Schoenenberger GA, Manier PF, Tobler HJ, Wilson K, Monnier M (1978) The delta EEG (sleep) inducing peptide (DSIP). XI. Amino acid analysis, sequence, synthesis and activity of the nonapeptide. Pfluegers Arch 378: 119–129Google Scholar
  201. Schultz WJ, Bronfield MS, Kizlowski GP (1977) The hypothalamo-choroidal tract. 11. Ultrastructural response of the coroid plexus to vasopressin. Cell Tissue Res 178: 129–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Schwarz WJ, Gainer H (1977) Suprachiasmatic nucleus: use of 14 D-labeled deoxy-glucose uptake as a functional marker. Science 197: 1089–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Seif SM, Robinson AG (1979) Rhythms of the posterior pituitary. In: Krieger DT (ed) Endocrine rhythms. Raven, New York, pp 187–201Google Scholar
  204. Smith OA, Astley CL, DeVito JL, Stein JM, Walsh KE (1980) Functional analisis of hypothalamic control of the cardiovascular responses accompanying emotional behavior. Fed Proc 39: 2487–2494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Solis H, Fernandez-Guardiola A, Valverde-R C (1979) Neuropharmacologic and neuroendocrine interrelations of human sleep. In: Drucker-Colin R, Shkurovich M, Sterman MB (eds) The functions of sleep. Academic Press, New York, pp 147–170Google Scholar
  206. Spanis CW, Gutierrez MC, Drucker-Colin PR (1976) Neurohumoral correlates of sleep: further biochemical and physiological characterization of sleep perfusates, Pharmacol Biochem Behav 5: 165–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Stemberger LA, Hoffman GE (1978) Immunocytology of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Neuroendocrinology 25: 111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Steriade M, Hobson JA (1976) Neural activity during the sleep waking cycle. Prog Neurobiol 6: 155–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Stern WC, Morgane PJ (1977) Sleep and memory: effects of growth hormone on sleep, brain biochemistry and behavior. In: Drucker-Colin RR, McGaugh JL (eds) Neurobiology of sleep and memory. Academic Press, New York, pp 373–410Google Scholar
  210. Stern WC, Miller FP, Cox RH, Maickerl RP (1971) Brain norepinephrine and serotonin levels following REM sleep deprivation in the rat. Psychopharmacoly 22: 50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Stern WC, Morgane PJ, Panksepp J, Solovick AJ, Jalowiec JE (1972) Elevation of REM sleep following inhibition of protein synthesis. Brain Res 47: 254–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Stern WC, Jalowiec E, Shabshalowtiz H, Morgane PJ (1975) Effects of growth hormone on sleep-waking patterns in cats. Horm Behav 6: 189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Stumpf WE (1970) Estrogen-neurons and estrogen-neuron systems in the periventricular brain. Am J Anat 129: 207–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Takahashi Y (1979) Growth hormone secretion related to the sleep and waking rhythm. In: Drucker-Colin R, Shkurovich M, Sterman MB (eds) The functions of sleep. Academic Press, New York, pp 113–145Google Scholar
  215. Takahashi Y, Kipnis DM, Daughaday WH (1968) Growth hormone secretion during sleep. J Clin Invest 47: 2079–2090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Takahashi Y, Ebihaba S, Nakamura Y, Takahashi K (1978) Sleep related growth hormone secretion in dogs after 8 h forced wakefulness. In: Tsukahara N, Kubata K, Yagi K (eds) Integrative control functions of the brain. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 389–391Google Scholar
  217. Tata JR (1968) Hormonal regulation of growth and protein synthesis. Nature 219: 331–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Terry LC, Martin JB (1978) Hypothalamic hormones: subcellular distribution and mechanisms of release. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 18: 111–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Tobler I, Borbely A (1980) Effect of delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) and arginine vasotocyn (AVT) on sleep and motor activity in the rat. Waking Sleeping 4: 139–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Toubeau G, Desclin J, Parmentier M, Pasteeis JL (1979a) Compared localizations of prolactin-like material and adrenocorticotropin immunoreactivities within the brain. Neuroendocrinology 29: 374–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Toubeau G, Desclin J, Parmentier M, Pasteels JL (1979b) Cellular localization of a prolactin-like antigen in the rat brain. J Endocrinol 83: 261–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Vale W, Rivier C, Brown M (1977) Regulatory peptides of the hypothalamus. Annu Rev Physiol 39: 473–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Valverde-R C (to be published) La integracion neuroendocrina y el binomio vigiliasueno como un sistema de intercomunicaciön. Rev Asoc Psiq MéxGoogle Scholar
  224. Valverde-R C, Jurado J, Ruiz-Primo E, Ruiz-Juvera A, Maisterrena JA, Fernandez-Guardiola A (1980) Hormones and sleep rhythms in endocrine dysfunction. Front Horm Res, pp 156-175Google Scholar
  225. Vanderleghen JJ, DeMey J, Lostra F, Giles C (1979) Localization of gastrin-cholecystokinin-like peptides in the brain and hypophysis of the rat. Acta Neurol Belg 79: 62–63Google Scholar
  226. Vandesande F, Dierickx K, DeMey J (1975) Identification of the vasopressin-neuro-physin producing neurons of the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei. Cell Tissue Res 156: 377–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Van Houten M, Posner BI, Kopriwa B, Brawer JR (1980) Insulin binding sites localized to nerve termin als in rat median eminence and arcuate-nucleus. Science 207: 1081–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Van Vugt DA, Meites J (1980) Influence of endogenous opiates on anterior pituitary function. Fed Proc 39: 2533–2538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Vijayan E, Samson WK, Said SI, McCann SM (1979) Vasoactive intestinal peptide: evidence for a hypothalamic site of action to release growth hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin in conscious ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 104: 53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Viveros OH, Diliberto EJ, Hazum E, Chang K-J (to be published) Enkephalins as possible adrenomedullary hormones: storage, secretion and regulation of synthesis. Adv Biochem PsychopharmacolGoogle Scholar
  231. Wagner DR, Weitzmann ED (1980) Neuroendocrine secretion and biological rhythms in man. Psychiatr Clin North Am 3: 223–250Google Scholar
  232. Watson SJ, Richard CW III, Ciaranello RD, Barchas JD (1980) Interactions of opiate peptide and noradrenalin systems: light microscopic studies. Peptides 1: 23–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Weindl A, Sofroniew MV (1976) Demonstration of extrahypothalamic peptide secreting neurons. A morphologic contribution to the investigation of psychotropic effects of neurohormones. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol 9: 226–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Weiner RI, Ganong WF (1978) Role of brain monoamines and histamine in regulation of anterior pituitary secretion. Physiol Rev 58: 905–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Weitzman ED (1980) Biological rhythms and hormonal secretion patterns. In: Krieger DT, Hughes JC (eds) Neuroendocrinology. Sunderland, Mass., Sinauer Associates, pp 85–92Google Scholar
  236. Weitzman ED, Czeisler CA, Moore-Ede MC (1979) Sleep-wake neuroendocrine and body temperature circadian rhythms under entrained and non-entrained (free running) conditions in man. In: Suda M, Hayaishi O, Nakagawa H (eds) Biological rhythms and their central mechanism. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam Oxford New York, pp 199–227Google Scholar
  237. Zieglgansberger W (1980) Peptides in the regulation of neural function. In: Bloom F (ed) Peptides: integrators of cell and tissue function. Raven, New York, pp 219–234Google Scholar
  238. Zimmerman EA (1976) Localization of hypothalamic hormones by immunocytochemical techniques. In: Martin L, Ganong WF (eds) Frontier in neuroendocrinology. Raven, New York, pp 25–62Google Scholar
  239. Zimmerman EA, Antunes JL (1976) Organization of the hypothalamo-pituitary system: current concepts from immunohistochemical studies. J Histochem Cytochem 24: 807–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Zucker I, Cramer CP, Bittman EL (1980) Regulation by the pituitary gland of circadian rhythms in the momster. J Endocrinol 85: 17–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Zwick M (1977) Some analogies of hierarchical order in biology and linguistics. In: Klir GJ(ed) Applied general systems research. Plenum, New York London, pp 521–530Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • René Drucker-Colín
    • 1
  • Carlos Valverde-R
    • 2
  1. 1.Depto. de Neurociencias, Centro de Investigaciones en Fisiologia CelularUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxico 20, D.F.Mexico
  2. 2.Depto. de Medicina Nuclear y Clinica de TiroidesInstituto Nacional de NutriciónMéxico 22, D.F.México

Personalised recommendations