Zusammenfassung

Die menschliche Speiseröhre ist vor allem ein Transportorgan. Motorische Funktionen stehen ganz im Vordergrund. Dabei dienen phasische Bewegungsvorgänge dem zum Magen gerichteten Transport und tonische dem zwischenzeitlichen Verschluß am proximalen und distalen Ende des Ösophagus. Da beide Motilitätsformen mit intralu-minalen Druckänderungen einhergehen, stellt die Messung des intraösophagealen Druk-kes, die Ösophagusmanometrie, ein adäquates Verfahren zur Erfassung der normalen und der gestörten Speiseröhrenfunktion dar. Klinische Bedeutung hat die Methode erst erlangt, als quantitative Verfahren mit reproduzierbaren Meßergebnissen entwickelt waren.

Key words

Ösophagusmanometrie Ösophagusfunktionsstörungen Achalasie Ösophagusspasmus Sklerodermie Refluxkrankheit Unterer Ösophagussphinkter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Allen Th, Clagett OTh (1965) Changing concepts in the surgical treatment of pulsion diverticule of the lower esophagus. J Thorac Carciovasc Surg 50: 455–462Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anuras S, Crane SS, Faculte DL, Hubel UA (1978) Intestinal pseudoobstruction. Gastroenterology 74: 1318–1324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arloing F (1877) Application de la méthode graphique à l’étude du méchanisme de la déglutition. These de ParisGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arndorfer RC, Stef JJ, Dodds WJ, Linehan JH, Hogan WJ (1977) Improved infuion system for intraluminal esophageal manometry. Gastroenterology 73: 23–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ask P, Öberg PÅ, Tibbling L (1979) Frequency content of esophageal peristaltic pressure. Am J Physiol 236: E296–E300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ask P, Tibbling L (1979) Clinical evaluation of different fluid-filled systems for eosophageal manometry. Scand J Gastroenterol 14: 1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Atkinson M, Edwards DAW, Honour AJ, Rowlands EN (1957) Comparison of cardiac and pyloric sphincters: a manometry study. Lancet II: 918–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beck IT, Hernandez NA, Solymar J, Phelps E (1966) Dyschalasia: A variant or early phase of achalasia. Can Med Assoc J 95: 941–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Behar J, Biancani P (1976) Effect of oral metoclopramide on gastroesophageal reflux in the post-cibal state. Gastroenterology 70: 331–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benjamin SB, Gerhardt DC, Castell DO (1979) High amplitude, peristaltic esophageal contractions associated with chest pain and/or dysphagia. Gastroenterology 77: 478–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berges W, Wienbeck M, Strohmeyer G (1976) Die pneumatische Dehnungsbehandlung der Achalasie der Speiseröhre. Med Welt 27: 2382–2382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berges W, Borchard F, Strohmeyer G, Wienbeck M (1980) Columnar lined lower esophagus in primary motility disorders. Gastroenterology 78: 1140Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berges W, Stolze Th, Wienbeck M (1980) Klassifikationsprobleme bei Achalasie und Ösophagusspasmus. Z Gastroenterol 18: 365–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biancani P, Zabinski MP, Behar J (1975) Pressure, tension and force of closure of the human lower esophageal sphincter and esophagus. J Clin Invest 56: 476–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bloom AA, Stakelmann M, Varadee R, Carrajal S, Davidson M (1974) Resting pressures in the lower esophageal sphincter. Am J Dig Dis 19: 1120–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boesby S, Bransborg M, Bransborg O, Larsen NK, Pedersen SA (1976) The effect of carbachol on resting gastrooesophageal sphincter pressure and serum gastrin in normal human subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol 11: 171–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Botha GSM, Astley R, Carre LJ (1957) A combined cineradiographic and mano-metric study of the gastro-oesophageal junction. Lancet I: 659–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brand DL, Martin D, Pope ChE (1977) Esophageal manometrics in patients with angina-like chest pain. Am J Dig Dis 22: 300–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Butin JW, Olsen AM, Moersch HJ, Code CF (1953) A study of esophageal pressures in normal persons and patients with cardiospasm. Gastroenterology 23: 278–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Butterfield DG, Struthers JE, Showalter JP (1972) A test of gastroeosophageal sphincter competence. The common cavity test. Am J Dig Dis 17: 415–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cameron AJ, Payne WS (1978) Barrett’s esophagus occuring as a complication of scleroderma. Mayo Clin Proc 53: 612–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chattopadhyay DK, Pope ChE (1979) Lower esophageal sphincter pressure’s variability destroys its usefulness. Gastroenterology 76: 1110Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Christensen J (1967) Esophageal manometry in myxoedema. Gastroenterology 52: 1130Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Christensen J, Daniel EE (1968) Effects of some autonomic drugs on circular esophageal smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 159: 243–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clark MD, Rinaldo JA, Eyler WR (1970) Correlation of manometric and radiologic data from the esophagogastric area. Radiology 94: 261–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Code CF, Creamer B, Schlegel JF, Olsen AM, Donoghue FE, Andersen HA (1958) An atlas of esophageal motility in health and disease. Thomas, Springfield/Ill.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Code CF, Schlegel JF (1958) The pressure profile of the gastroesophageal sphincter in man: An improved method of detection. Mayo Clin Proc 33: 406–414Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cohen S, Harris LD (1970) Lower esophageal sphincter pressure as an index of lower esophageal sphincter strength. Gastroenterology 58: 157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohen S, Lipshutz W, Hughes W (1971) Role of gastrin supersensitivity in the pathogenesis of lower esophageal sphincter hypertension in achalasia. J Clin Invest 50: 1241–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cohen S, Lipshutz W (1971) Hormonal regulation of human esophageal sphincter competence: Interaction of gastrin and secretin. J Clin Invest 50: 449–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cohen S, Snape WJ (1975) Action of metiamide on the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 69:911–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cohen S, Morris DW, Schoen HJ, Di Marino AJ (1976) The effect of oral and intravenous metoclopramide on human lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Gastroenterology 70: 484–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Creamer B, Andersen HA, Code CF (1956) Esophageal motility in patients with scleroderma and related diseases. Gastroenterology 86: 763–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Demeester TR, Johnson LF, Joseph GJ, Toscano MS, Hall AW, Skinner DB (1976) Patterns of gastroesophageal reflux in health and disease. Ann Surg 184: 459–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dent J (1976) A new technique for continuous sphincter pressure measurement. Gastroenterology 71: 263–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dilawari JB, Newman A, Poleo J, Misiewicz JJ (1975) Response of the human cardiac sphincter to circulating prostaglandins F2α and E2 and to antiinflammatory drugs. Gut 16: 137–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Di Marino AJ, Cohen S (1974) Characteristics of lower esophageal sphincter function in symptomatic diffuse esophageal spasm. Gastroenterology 66: 1–6Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dodds WJ, Stef JJ, Hogan WJ (1960) Factors determining pressure measurement accuracy by intraluminal esophageal manometry. Gastroenterology 70: 117–123Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dodds WJ, Hogan WJ, Reid DP, Stewart ET, Arndorfer RC (1973) A comparison between primary esophageal peristalsis following wet and dry swallows. J Appl Physiol 35: 851–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dodds WJ, Stewart ET, Hogan WJ, Stef JJ, Arndorfer RC (1974) Effect of esophageal movement on intraluminal esophageal pressure recording. Gastroenterology 67: 592–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dodds WJ, Hogan WJ, Stef JJ, Miller WN, Lydon SB, Arndorfer RC (1975) A rapid pull-through technique for measuring lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Gastroenterology 68: 437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dodds WJ, Stef JJ, Hogan WJ, Hoke SE, Stewart ET, Arndorfer RC (1975) Radial distribution of esophageal peristaltic pressure in normal subjects and patients with esophageal diverticulum. Gastroenterology 69: 584–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dodds WJ (1976) Instrumentation and methods for intraluminal esophageal manometry. Arch Int Med 136: 515–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dodds WJ, Miller WN, Hogan WJ, Stewart ET, Arndorfer RC (1976) Use of a steer-able catheter for intubating patients with Zenker’s diverticulum. Am J Dig Dis 21: 47–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dodds WJ, Hauser R, Hogan WJ, Dent J, Patel OK, Arndorfer RC (1979) Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal clearance in normal human volunteers and patients with reflux esophagitis. In: Christensen J (ed) Gastrointestinal motility. Raven, New York, p 87–88Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dornhorst AC, Harrison K, Pierce JW (1954) Observations on the normal oesophagus and cardia. Lancet I: 695–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Eckardt V, Weigand H (1974) Supersensitivity to pentagastrin in diffuse oesophageal spasm. Gut 15: 706–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Eckhardt VF, Krüger J, Holtermüller KH, Ewe K (1975) Alteration of esophageal peristalsis by pentagastrin in patients with diffuse esophageal spasm. Scand J Gastroenterol 10: 475–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ellis F, Cole FL (1965) Reflux after cardiomyotomy. Gut 6: 80–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fisher RS, Malmud LS, Roberts GS, Lobis JF (1977) The lower esophageal sphincter as a barrier to gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroenterology 72: 19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fisher RS, Roberts GS, Grabowski CJ, Cohen S (1978) Inhibition of lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle by female sex hormons. Am J Physiol 234: E243–E247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Förster ChF, Weihrauch TR, Brummer A, Vallerius P, Lehmann H (1977) A new electronic transducer system for gastrointestinal pressure studies. Med Progr Technol 4: 169–175Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fyke FE, Code CF (1955) Resting and deglutition pressures in the pharyngo-esophageal region. Gastroenterology 29: 24–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fyke FE, Code CF, Schlegel JF (1956) The gastroesophageal sphincter in healthy human beings. Gastroenterologia 86: 135–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Garrett JM, Godvin DH (1969) Gastroesophageal hypercontracting sphincter. JAMA 208: 992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Garrett JM, Winkelmann RK, Schlegel JF (1971) The course of esophageal deterioration in scleroderma. Mayo Clin Proc 46: 92–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goyal RK, Biancani P, Phillips A, Spiro HM (1971) Mechanical properties of the esophageal wall. J Clin Invest 50: 1456–1465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gryboski JD (1965) The swallowing mechanism of the neonate. Esophageal and gastric motility. Pediatrics 35: 445–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Harris LD, Pope ChE (1966) The pressure inversion point: its genesis and reliability. Gastroenterology 51: 641–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Heitmann P, Wolf BS, Sokol EM, Cohen BR (1966) Simultaneous cineradiographic-manometric study of the distal esophagus: small hiatal hernias and rings. Gastroenterology 50: 737–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Heitmann P, Espinoza J, Csendes A (1969) Physiology of the distal esophagus in achalasia. Scand J Gastroenterol 4: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Heitmann P (1970) Die Hiatusgleithernien mit einem hypertonischen gastro-ösophagealen Verschlußmechanismus. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 95: 824–829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Heitmann P, Möller N (1970) The effect of metoclopramide on the gastroesophageal junction zone and the distal esophagus in man. Scand J Gastroenterol 5: 620–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Heitmann P (1971) Der idiopathische diffuse Ösophagusspasmus. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 96: 1668–1675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Heitmann P, Wienbeck M (1972) The immediate effect of succesful pneumatic dilatation on esophageal function in achalasia. Scand J Gastroenterol 7: 197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hogan WJ, Caflisch CR, Windship DH (1969) Unclassified oesophageal motor disorders simulating achalasia. Gut 10: 234–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hogan WJ, Dodds WY, Hoke SE, Reid DP, Kolkhoff RK, Arndorfer RC (1975) Effect of glucagon on esophageal motor function. Gastroenterology 69: 160–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hollis JB, Castall DO (1975) Effect of dry swallows and wet swallows of different volumes on esophageal peristalsis. J Appl Physiol 38: 1161–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hurwitz AL, Duranceau A (1978) Upper-esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Am J Dig Dis 23: 275–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Itoh Z, Aizawa I, Honda R, Hiwataschi K, Couch EF (1978) Control of lower-esophageal sphincter contractile activity by Motilin in conscious dogs. Am J Dig Dis 23: 341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kaye MD, Showalter JP (1971) Manometric configuration of the lower esophageal sphincter in normal human subjects. Gastroenterology 61: 213–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kaye MD, Showalter JP (1974) Measurement of pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter. The influence of catheter diameter. Am J Dig Dis 19: 860–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kaye MD, Showalter JP, Rock KC, Johnson E (1977) A circumferentially-sensitive miniature pressure sensor for study of human esophageal motility. Med Res Eng 12: 10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Keck FS, Dietz RH (1980) Die Meßgenauigkeit der Durchzugs-Perfusionsmanometrie im gastroösophagealen Verschluß. Z Gastroenterol 18: 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kehrer B, Oesch A (1971) Motilitätsstudie des terminalen Ösophagus bei der kindlichen Hiatushernie. Z Kinderchir 10: 345–358Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Khan TA, Shragge BW, Crispin YS, Lind JF (1977) Esophageal motility in the elderly. Am J Dig Dis 22: 1049–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kilman WJ, Goyal RK (1976) Disorders of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter motor function. Arch Intern Med 136: 592–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Koelz HR, Brändli HH, Blum AL (1975) Simple perfusion pump for gastrointestinal manometry. Lancet II: 1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Koelz HR, Lepsien G, Hollinger AP, Säuberli H, Largiadier F, Arnold R, Blum AL, Siewert R (1978) Effect of intraduodenal peptone on the lower esophageal sphincter pressure in the dog. Gastroenterology 75: 283–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kramer P Ingelfinger FJ (1949) Motility of the human esophagus in control subjects and in patients with esophageal disorders. Am J Med 7: 168–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kramer P, Ingelfinger FJ (1951) Esophageal sensitivity to Mecholyl in cardiospasm. Gastroenterology 19: 242–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kramer P, Harris LD, Donaldson RM (1967) Transition from symptomatic diffuse spasm to cardiospasm. Gut 8:115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kronecker H, Meltzer S (1883) Der Schluckmechanismus, seine Erregung und seine Hemmung. Arch Anat Physiol (Suppl) 7: 328–362Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kunath U (1975) Ein neues Verfahren zur Druckmessung in Sphinkterzonen und im Speiseröhren-Verschlußsegment. Münch Med Wochenschr 112: 809–812Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kunath U (1977) Die druckkonstante Perfusionsmanometrie. Med Welt 28: 803–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kunath U, Hansen U-H, Hencke R (1979) Functional analysis of organic sphincter systems by elastance-measurement. Evaluation of a new method. Acta Hepato-gastroenterol 26: 136–141Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lane WH, Ippoliti AF, McCallum RW (1979) Effect of gastrin heptadecapeptide (G 17) on oesophageal contractions in patients with diffuse oesophageal spasm. Gut 20: 756–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lewis TD, Daniel EE, Sarna SK, Waterfall WE, Marzio L (1978) Idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Gastroenterology 74: 107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lichter I (1978) Motor disorder in pharyngoesophageal pouch. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 76: 272–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lind JF, Smith AM, McIver K, Coopland AT., Crispin JS (1968) Heartburn in pregnancy — a manometric study. Can Med Assoc J 98: 571–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lind JF, Crispin JS, McIver DK (1968) The effect of atropine on the gastroesophageal sphincter. J Physiol Pharmacol 46: 233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lipshutz HW, Eckert RJ, Gaskins DD, Blanton DE, Lukash WM (1974) Normal lower-esophageal sphincter function after surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux. N Engl J Med 291: 1107–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lock MR, Ellis H (1978) Achalasia of the cardia in elderly patients. Postgrad Med J 54: 538–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McCallum RW (1979) Esophageal achalasia secondary to gastric carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 71: 24–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McDonald GB, Brand DL, Thorning DR (1977) Multiple adenomatous neoplasms arising in columnar lined (Barrett’s) esophagus. Gastroenterology 72: 1317–1321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mellow M (1977) Symptomatic diffuse esophageal spasm: manometric follow-up and response to cholinergic stimulation and Cholinesterase inhibition. Gastroenterology 73: 237–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Messian RA, Hermos JA, Robbins AH (1978) Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 69: 458–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Meyer W, Vollmar F, Bär W (1979) Barrett-esophagus following total gastrectomy. Endoscopy 2: 121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miller WN, Ganeshappa KP, Dodds WJ, Hogan WJ, Barrebas RF, Arndorfer RC (1977) Effect of Bethanechol on gastroesophageal reflux. Dig Dis 22: 230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mokka REM, Punto L, Kairaluoma MI, Larmi TKI (1977) Indomethacin and canine lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Am J Gastroenterol 67: 366–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mukkopadhyay AK, Graham DY (1976) Esophageal motor dysfunction in systemic diseases. Arch Int Med 136: 583–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mukkopadhyay AK (1978) Effect of substance P on the lower esophageal sphincter of the opossum. Gastroenterology 75: 278–282Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mukkopadhyay AK, Kunnemann M (1979) Mechanism of lower esophageal sphincter stimulation by Bombesin in the opossum. Gastroenterology 76: 1409–1414Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nagler R, Wolfson AW, Lowman RM, Spiro HM (1960) Effect of gastric intubation on the normal mechanisms preventing gastroesophageal reflux. N Engl J Med 262: 1325–1327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nebel OT, Castell DO (1972) Lower esophageal sphincter changes after food ingestion. Gastroenterology 63: 778–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Orlando RC, Bozymski EM (1979) The effects of pentagastrin in achalasia and diffuse esophageals spasm. Gastroenterology 77: 472–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Papp JP (1979) Determination of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure in patients having a Nissen or Belsey fundoplication. Am J Gastroenterol 71: 154–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Payne WW, Poulton EP (1923) Experiments on visceral sensation. The relation of pain to activity in the human esophagus. J Physiol 63: 217–241Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pedersen GA, Alstrup P (1972) The hypertensive gastroesophageal sphincter, a manometric and clinical study. Scand J Gastroenterol 7: 531–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pert JH, Davidson M, Almy TP, Sleisenger MH (1959) Esophageal catheterization studies. J Clin Invest 38: 397–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pope ChE (1970) Effect of infusion on force of closure measurements in the human esophagus. Gastroenterology 58: 616–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pope ChE, Horton PE (1972) Intraluminal force transducer measurements of human oesophageal peristalsis. Gut 13: 464–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pope ChE (1978) Esophageal motility, who needs it. Gastroenterology 74: 1337–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Quigley JP, Brody DA, McKay B, Landolina WC, McAlister JH (1950) Accurate registration of intralumen pressures of the digestive tract by two new methods. Fed Proc 9: 102Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Raizman RE, Neva FA, Eckert RJ, Duffy PA, Lipshutz WH (1975) Chagasic megaesophagus: similarity to achalasia by manometrics, radiography and response to pneumatic dilation. Am J Dig Dis 20: 882–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rattan S, Goyal RK (1975) Effect of nicotine on the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 69: 154–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rinaldo JA, Levey JF (1968) Correlation of several methods for recording esophageal sphincteral pressures. Am J Dig Dis 13: 882–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rohner HG, Wienbeck M, Sennekamp J, Rodermund OE (1978) Ösophagusmano-metrie bei M. Behcet. Z Gastroenterol 16: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sanchez YC, Kramer P, Ingelfinger FJ (1953) Motor mechanisms of the esophagus, particularly of its distal portion. Gastroenterology 25: 321–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schoen HJ, Morris DW, Cohen S (1977) Esophageal peristaltic force in man. Response to mechanical and pharmacological alterations. Am J Dig Dis 22: 589–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schreiber J (1904) Über den Schluckmechanismus. Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schuffler MD, Pope ChE (1976) Esophageal motor dysfunction in idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Gastroenterology 70: 677–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Shepherd JK, Diamant NE (1972) Mecholyl test: comparison of balloon kymography and intraluminal pressure measurement. Gastroenterology 63: 557–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Siewert R, Früh E, Waldeck F, Schmidt H (1974) Zur Beeinflußbarkeit des unteren Ösophagussphinkters durch Polypeptidhormone bei der Achalasie. Z Gastroenterol 12: 117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Siewert R, Weiser E, Jennewein HM, Waldeck F (1974) Clinical and manometric investigations of the lower esophageal sphincter and its reactivity to pentagastrin in patients with hiatus hernia. Digestion 10: 287–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Siewert R, Weiser HF, Waldeck (1976) Klinische Anwendung der Ösophagusmanometrie. In: Siewert R, Blum AL, Waldeck F (Hrsg) Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Siewert R, Schattenmann G, Lepsien G (1979) Vagotomie und unterer Ösophagussphinkter. Z Gastroenterol 17: 522–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Simeone J, Burrell M, Toffler R (1976) Esophageal aperistalsis secondary to metastatic invasion of the myenteric plexus. Am J Roentgenol 127: 862–864Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Soergel KH, Zboralske FF, Amberg JR (1964) Presbyoesophagus: esophageal motility in nonagenarians. J Clin Invest 43: 1472–1479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Stanciu C, Bennett JR (1972) Smoking and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Br Med J 3:780–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Stef JJ, Dodds WJ, Hogan WJ, Linehan JH, Stewart ET (1974) Intraluminal esophageal manometry: an analysis of variables affecting recording fidelity of peristaltic pressures. Gastroenterology 67: 221–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Stelzner F, Lierse W (1968) Der angiomuskuläre Dehnverschluß der terminalen Speiseröhre. Langenbecks Arch Chir 321: 35–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tatelmann M, Keech MK (1966) Esophageal motility in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma. Radiology 86: 1041–1046Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Treacy WL, Baggenstoss AH, Slocumb CH, Code ChF (1963) Scleroderma of the esophagus. Ann Intern Med 59: 351–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Turner R, Lipshutz W, Miller W, Rittenberg G, Schumacher HR, Cohen S (1973) Esophageal dysfunction in collagen disease. Am J Med Sci 265: 191–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tucker HJ, Snape WJ, Cohen S (1978) Achalasia secondary to carcinoma: manometric and clinical features. Ann Intern Med 89: 315–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Van Thiel DH, Gavaler JS, Stremple J (1976) Lower esophageal sphincter pressure in women using sequential oral contraceptives. Gastroenterology 71: 232–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Van Thiel DH, Gavaler JS, Joshi SN, Sara RK, Stremple J (1977) Heartburn of pregnancy. Gastroenterology 72: 666–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vantrappen G, Janssens J, Hellemans J, Coremans G (1979) Achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, and related motility disorders. Gastroenterology 76: 450–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Vix VA (1969) Esophageal motility in diabetes mellitus. Radiology 92: 363–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Waldeck F (1972) A new procedure for functional analysis of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Pflügers Arch 335: 74–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Waldeck F, Jennewein H-M, Siewert R (1973) The continuous withdrawal method for the quantitative analysis of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) in humans. Eur J Clin Invest 3: 331–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Waldeck F, Jennewein H-M, Siewert R (1974) Manometric methods for measuring rapid pressure changes in the esophagus and its sphincters. In: Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Gastrointest. Motility. Mitchell, Vancouver, p 449–456Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Waldeck F (1976) Grundlagen der Ösophagusmanometrie. In: Siewert R, Blum AL, Waldeck F (Hrsg) Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Weihrauch TR, Förster ChF, Ewe K (1976) Endoscopische Manometrie (EM) — eine Methode zur kombinierten Diagnostik des oberen Gastrointestinaltraktes. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 82: 987–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Weihrauch TR, Korting GW, Ewe K, Vogt G (1978) Esophageal dysfunction and its pathogenesis in progressive systemic sclerosis. Klin Wochenschr 56: 963–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Weihrauch TR, Brummer A, Biewener A, Ewe K (1980) Assessment of various factors influencing esophageal pressure measurement. Klin Wochenschr 58: 279–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Welch RW, Luckmann K, Ricks PM, Drake ST, Gates GA (1979) Manometry of the normal upper esophageal sphincter and its alterations in laryngectomy. J Clin Invest 63: 1036–1041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 150.
    Welch RW, Drake ST (1980) Normal lower esophageal sphincter pressure: A comparison of rapid vs. slow pullthrough techniques. Gastroenterology 78: 1446–1451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 151.
    Wienbeck M, Heitmann P, Dombrowski H, Schmitz-Moormann E (1973) Das Bar-rett-Syndrom. Leber Magen Darm 3: 81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 152.
    Wienbeck M, Heitmann P (1973) Die pneumatische Dilatation zur Behandlung der Achalasie der Speiseröhre. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 98: 814–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 153.
    Wienbeck M (1974) Die intraösophageale Druckmessung in der Differentialdiagnose der Dysphagie. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 80: 353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 154.
    Wienbeck M (1976) The present status of esophageal manometry. Acta Hepato-gastroenterol 23: 59–67Google Scholar
  154. 155.
    Willich E (1971) Kardiafunktion im Kindesalter. Fortschr Med 89: 389–392Google Scholar
  155. 156.
    Winans CS (1972) The pharyngoesophageal closure mechanism: A manometric study. Gastroenterology 63: 768–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 157.
    Winans CS (1972) Alteration of lower esophageal sphincter characteristics with respiration and proximal esophageal balloon distention. Gastroenterology 62: 380–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 158.
    Winans CS (1977) Manometric asymmetry of the lower-esophageal high-pressure-zone. Am J Dig Dis 22: 348–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 159.
    Winship DH, Zboralske FF (1967) The esophageal propulsive force: Esophageal response to acute obstruction. J Clin Invest 46: 1391–1401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 160.
    Zabinski MP, Spiro HM, Biancani P (1975) Influence of perfusion rate and compliance on esophageal manometry. J Appl Physiol 38: 177–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 161.
    Zfass AM, Prince R, Allen FN, Farrar JT (1970) Inhibitory β-adrenergic receptors in the human distal esophagus. Am J Dig Dis 15: 303–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Wienbeck
  • W. Berges
    • 1
  1. 1.Medizinische Klinik DMedizinische Einrichtungen der Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany

Personalised recommendations