Somatomedin: Physiological Control and Effects on Cell Proliferation

  • D. R. Clemmons
  • J. J. Van Wyk
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 57)

Abstract

The pituitary somatotropic hormone has long been believed to be the principal regulator of balanced growth in vivo since growth hormone deficient patients exhibit proportional dwarfism and patients with acromegaly undergo diffuse enlargement of their internal organs and soft tissues. Administration of growth hormone to pituitary dwarfs is followed by dramatic increases in both cell number and cell size (Cheek and Hill, 1974). Attempts to develop in vitro bioassays based on the supposed effects of growth hormone, however, made it apparent that the magnitude of the in vitro effects produced by growth hormone correlated poorly with its in vivo actions. While searching for an in vitro bioassay system, Salmon and Daughaday (1957) observed that growth hormone itself had no direct effect on cartilage metabolism, but that plasma from normal or growth hormone-treated hypophysectomized rats contained a growth hormone-inducible factor which directly stimulated sulfate uptake by this tissue. This serum factor, initially designatedcsul-fation factor,” subsequently was shown to consist of a family of closely related pep-tide growth factors which were given the generic designation “somatomedin” (Daughaday et al., 1972; Hall and Van Wyk, 1974). Although the somatomedins originally were postulated to mediate the anabolic effects of growth hormone only on skeletal tissue, they subsequently have been shown to promote cellular proliferation in a wide variety of cell types (Van Wyk and Underwood, 1978; Zapf et al., 1978 b). These substances now are believed to form a vital link between growth hormone and the stimulation of the metabolic processes leading to cellular proliferation.

Keywords

Estrogen Adenoma Sarcoma Polypeptide Dexamethasone 

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

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  • D. R. Clemmons
  • J. J. Van Wyk

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