Low-Dose Electron Microscopy of Individual Biological Macromolecules

  • M. Kessel
  • J. Frank
  • W. Goldfarb
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


Structural details at a resolution in the range 7–15 Å have now been demonstrated for a number of biological macromolecules [1, 2, 13]. The main limitation to visualizing such high-resolution details has been the damage to macromolecular fine structure caused by the large electron dosages employed in conventional electron microscopy [8]. Reduction of electron dosages, however, results in recorded images with an extremely poor signal- to-noise ratio. This ratio is further reduced by the need to sacrifice conventional staining methods if one aims at high resolution. This problem has been effectively overcome by averaging over a large number of unit cells, which is easy to achieve for the ordered two- dimensional arrays which occur in a number of biological objects.


Glutamine Synthetase Tobacco Mosaic Virus Faraday Cage Electron Dosage Conventional Electron Microscopy 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kessel
    • 1
  • J. Frank
    • 2
  • W. Goldfarb
    • 2
  1. 1.Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical SchoolJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Division of Laboratories and ResearchNew York State Department of HealthAlbanyUSA

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