Principles of Construction of the Lower Extremity. Their Significance for the Stressing of the Skeleton of the Leg

Second Contribution on the Functional Anatomy and the Basic Morphology of the Supporting Apparatus
  • Friedrich Pauwels


In my first contribution I determined the fundamental significance of the muscles and ligaments as well as that of the bony axis for the stressing of the tubular bone. The present work will show in what way these construction principles are implemented in an articulated system, in the skeleton of the lower extremity, and what significance is attributable to them for the mechanical stressing of the femur and the tibia as well as of the large joints. To this end, I chose a schematic representation. The skeleton of the lower extremity is considered first as a single loaded column. The significant static peculiarities of construction of the lower extremity are introduced in this column one after another. Their influence on the stressing of the column is on each occasion analysed quantitatively and represented graphically.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friedrich Pauwels
    • 1
  1. 1.AachenGermany

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