Renal Calculus pp 151-165 | Cite as

Idiopathic Hypercalciuria

  • Leslie N. Pyrah

Abstract

Hypercalciuria is found in some subjects in whom there is no clinical evidence of disease. Various terms have been used to try to define etiological variants relating to hypercalciuria. The term ‘relative hypercalciuria’ was introduced [40] to indicate the variable levels of the urinary calcium following alterations in the concentration of urinary solutes. The terms ‘relative’ and ‘absolute’ hypercalciuria have been used [9] to refer to subdivisions of hypercalciuric patients selected by special techniques designed to estimate the urinary calcium level during a 24 h period. Dietary hypercalciuria depends upon a high intake of calcium.

Keywords

Fatigue Catheter Phosphorus Magnesium Citrate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams,P., Chalmers,T.M., Hill,L.F., Trus-cott,C.McN.: Idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperparathyroidism. Br. Med. J. IV, 582 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albright,F., Henneman,P., Benedict,P.H., Forbes,A.P.: Idiopathic hypercalciuria. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 13, 860 (1953)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnaud,C.D., Littledike,T., Tsao,H.S.: Calcium homeostasis and the simultaneous measurement of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone in the pig. In: Calcitonin. Proc. Second Int. Symp. London: Heinemann 1970Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Avioli,L.V., McDonald,J.E., Singer,R.A., Henneman,P.H. A new oral isotope test of calcium absorption. J. Clin. Invest. 44, 128 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernstein,D.S., Newton,R.: The effect of sodium phosphate on the formation of renal calculi and on idiopathic hypercalciuria. Lancet II, 1105 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beyer,K.H.: The mechanism of action of chlorothiazide. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 71, 363 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Black,W.C.: III. Correlative light and electron microscopy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch. Pathol. 88, 225 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boyce,W.H., Garvey,F.K., Govan,C.E.: Abnormalities of calcium metabolism in patients with idiopathic urinary calculi. J. Am. Med. Ass. 166, 1577 (1958)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chambers,R.M., Dormandy,T.L.: Hypercalciuria, relative and absolute. In: Renal Stone Research Symposium, Hodgkinson, A., Nordin, B.E.C. (eds.), p. 233. London: Churchill 1969Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen,P.S., Neuman,W.F.: Renal excretion of calcium by the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 180, 623 (1955)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cook,D.A.: Treatment of renal stones: cellulose phosphate or magnesium? N. Eng. J. Med. 291, 1034 (1974)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Copp,D.H., Cameron,E.C., Cheney,B.A., Davidson,A.G.F., Henze,K.G.: Evidence for calcitonin, a new hormone from the parathyroid that lowers blood calcium. Endocrinology 70, 638 (1962)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Copp,D.H., Davidson,A.G.F., Cheney,B.A.: Evidence for a new parathyroid hormone which lowers blood calcium. Proc. Can. Fed. Biol. Soc. 4, 17 (1961)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cordonnier,J.J., Talbot,B.S.: Effect of ingestion of sodium and phosphate on urinary calcium in recumbency. J. Urol. 60, 316 (1948)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dent,C.E., Harper,C.M., Parfitt,A.M.: The effect of cellulose phosphate on calcium metabolism in patients with hypercalciuria. Clin. Sci. 27, 417 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dent,C.E., Watson,L.: Metabolic studies in a patient with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Br. Med. J. II, 449 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Edwards,N., Hodgkinson,A.: Metabolic studies in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Clin. Sci. 29, 147 (1965a)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Edwards,N., Hodgkinson,A.: Studies of renal function in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Clin. Sci. 29, 327 (1965b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ehrig,U., Harrison,J.E., Wilson,J.R.: Effect of long-term thiazide therapy on intestinal calcium absorption in patients with recurrent renal calculi. Metabolism 23, 139 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ettinger,B.: Recurrent nephrolithiasis: natural history and effect of phosphate therapy. A double-blind controlled study. Am. J. Med. 61, 200 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ettinger,B., Kolb,F.O.: Inorganic phosphate treatment of nephrolithiasis. Am. J. Med. 55, 32 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gibbon,N.: Calcium-fortified flour and renal stone. Letter. Lancet II, 616 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gill,J.R., Bartter,F.C.: On the impairment of renal concentrating ability in prolonged hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria in man. J. Clin. Invest. 40, 716 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harrison,A.R.: Some results of metabolic investigations in cases of renal stone. Br. J. Urol. 31, 398 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harrison,A.R., Rose,G.A.: The effect of bendrofluazide on urinary and faecal calcium and phosphate. Clin. Sci. 34, 343 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heaton,F.W., Hodgkinson,A.: External factors affecting diurnal variation in electrolyte excretion with particular reference to calcium and magnesium. Clin. Chim. Acta 8, 246 (1963)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Henneman,P.H., Dempsey,E.F., Carroll,E.W., Albright,F.: The cause of hyper-calciuria in sarcoid and its treatment with cortisone and sodium phytate. J. Clin. Invest. 35, 1229 (1956)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Henneman,P.H., Benedict,P.H., Forbes,A.P., Dudley,H.R.: Idiopathic hyper-calciuria. N. Engl. J. Med. 259, 802 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Higgins,B.A., Nassim,J.R. Collins,J., Hilt,A.: The effect of bendrofluazide on urine calcium. Clin. Sci. 27, 457 (1964)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hodgkinson,A.: Idiopathic hypercalciuria. Proc. Assoc. Clin. Biochem. 1, 52 (1961)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hodgkinson,A.: Citric acid excretion in normal adults and in patients with renal calculus. Clin. Sci. 23, 203 (1963a)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hodgkinson,A.: The relation between citric acid and calcium metabolism with particular reference to primary hyperparathyroidism and idiopathic hypercalciuria. Clin.Sci. 24, 167 (1963b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hodgkinson,A.: Oxalate metabolism and hyperoxaluria. In: Scientific foundations of urology. Williams,D.I., Chisholm,G.D. (eds.). Vol. 1, p. 289. London: Heinemann (1976)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hodgkinson,A., Pyrah,L.N.: The urinary excretion of calcium and inorganic phosphate in 344 patients with calcium stone of renal origin. Br. J. Surg. 46, 10 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Holdsworth,M.J., Hodgkinson,A.: The hexosamine content of the kidney in experimental renal calcification. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 42, 331 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Howard,J.E.: Urinary stone. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 86, 22 (1962)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Howard,J.E.: Reflections on calcium habits. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 99, 41 (1968)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Howard,J.E.: Serendipity in clinical investigation. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 207, 736 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Howard,J.E., Thomas,W.C.: Control of crystallization in urine. Am. J. Med. 45, 693 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Isaacson,L.C.: Relative hypercalciuria in nephrolithiasis. Br. Med. J. II, 558 (1966)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jackson,W.P.U., Dancaster,C.: A consideration of the hypercalciuria in sarcoidosis, idiopathic hypercalciuria and that produced by vitamin D. A new suggestion. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 19, 658 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lamberg,B.A., Kuhlback,B.: Effect of chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide on the excretion of calcium in urine. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 11, 357 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Leading article: Calcium requirements. Br. Med. J. 1, 671 (1963)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liberman,U.A., De Vries,A.: Idiopathic hypercalciuria. A state of compensated hyperparathyroidism? Rev. Fr. Clin. Biol. 26, 860 (1971)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liberman,U.A., Sperling,O., Atsmon,A., Frank,M., Modan,M., DeVries,A.: Metabolic and calcium kinetic studies in idiopathic hypercalciuria. J. Clin. Invest. 47, 2580 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lichtwitz,A., Seze,S.de, Hioco,D., Parlier,R., Lanham,C., Miramet,L.: Physiopathologie et traitement des formes rénales et entero-rénales du diabète calcique. Sem. Hôp. Paris 37, 614 (1961)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lichtwitz,A., Seze,S.de, Hioco,D., Mira-met,L., Lanham,C., Parlier,R.: I. Double syndrome d’hyperabsorption intestinale du ca et d’insuffisance de la réabsorption tubulaire. II. Physiopathologie et trait-ment. Présse Med. 71, 107 and 165 (1963)Google Scholar
  48. Lichtwitz,A., Seze,S.de, Hioco,D., Mira-met,L., Lanham,C., Parlier,R.: I. Double syndrome d’hyperabsorption intestinale du ca et d’insuffisance de la réabsorption tubulaire. II. Physiopathologie et trait-ment. Présse Med. 71, and 165 (1963)Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Litin,R.B., Diessner,G.R., Keating,F.R.: Urinary excretion of calcium in patients with renal lithiasis. J. Urol. 68, 17 (1961)Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    MacFadyen,I.J., Nordin,B.E.C., Smith,D.A., Wayne,D.J., Rae,S.L.: Effect of variations in dietary calcium on plasma concentration and urinary excretion of calcium. Br. Med. J. I, 161 (1963)Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    McCance,R.A.: Bread (Finlayson Memorial Lecture). Lancet I, 77 (1946)Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    McCance,R.A., Widdowson,E.M., Lehman,H.: The effect of protein intake on the absorption of calcium and magnesium. Biochem. J. 36, 686 (1942)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    McDonald,D.F., Orallo,M.D.: Dissolution of experimentally induced vesical calculi in rats by sodium phytate and sodium neutral phosphate treatment. J. Urol. 81, 534 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    McGeown,M.G.: The causes of kidney stones. Ir. J. Med. Sci. 451, 301 (1963)Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Malm,O.J.: Calcium requirements and adaptation in adult men. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (Suppl. 36) 10, (1958)Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Marshall,D.H., Nordin,B.E.C.: Kinetic analysis of plasma radioactivity after oral ingestion of radiocalcium. Nature (London) 222, 797 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Marshall,R.W., Cochran,M., Robertson,W.G., Hodgkinson,A., Nordin,B.E.C.: The relation between the concentration of calcium salts in the urine and renal stone composition in patients with calcium-containing renal stones. Clin. Sci. 43, 433 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Mellanby,E.: Special Report Series. Med. Res. Council, London. No. 93 (1925)Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Moore,C.A., Bunce,G.E.: Reduction in frequency of renal calculus formation by oral magnesium administration. A preliminary report. Invest. Urol. 2, 7 (1964)Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Nassim,J.R., Higgins,B.A.: Control of idiopathic hypercalciuria. Br. Med. J. I, 675 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Nordin,B.E.C., Hodgkinson,A., Peacock,M., Robertson,W.G.: The medical treatment of renal stone disease. In: Xth Congres International de Therapeutique, p. 191 Paris: Doin 1971Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Nordin,B.E.C., Peacock,M., Wilkinson,R.: Hypercalciuria and calcium stone disease. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1, 169 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Novello,F.C., Sprague,J.M.: Benzothia-diazine dioxides as novel diuretics. J. Am. Chem.Soc. 79, 2028 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Oliver,I., Weinberger,A., Bar-Meir,S.: Orthophosphate treatment of calcium lithi-asis associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Urol. Int. 29,414 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Pak,Y.C., Delea,C.S., Bartter,F.O.: Successful treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis (calcium stone) with cellulose phosphate. N.Engl. J. Med. 290, 175 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Parfitt,A.M., Higgins,B.A., Nassim,J.R., Collins,J.A., Hilb,A.: Metabolic studies in patients with hypercalciuria. Clin. Sci. 27, 463 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Peacock,M., Nordin,B.E.C.: Tubular reab-sorption of calcium in normal and hyper-calciuric subjects. J. Clin. Pathol. 21, 353 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Peacock,M., Hodgkinson,A., Nordin,B.E.C.: Importance of dietary calcium in the definition of idiopathic hypercalciuria. Br. Med. J. II, 469 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Peacock,M., Knowles,F., Nordin,B.E.C.: Effect of calcium administration and deprivation on serum and urine-calcium in stone-forming and control subjects. Br. Med. J. II, 729 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Phang,J.M., Kales,A.N., Harn,T.J.: Effect of divided calcium intake on urinary calcium excretion. Lancet II, 84 (1968)Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Phillips,MJ., Cooke,M.J.C.: Relation between urinary calcium and sodium in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Lancet I, 1354 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Pietrek,J., Kokof,F.: Treatment of patients with calcium containing renal stones with cellulose phosphate. Br. J. Urol. 45, 136 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Pittman,M.S., Kunerth,B.L.: Long-term study of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism on medium-protein diet. J. Nutr. 17, 175 (1939)Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Shieber,W., Birge,S.J., Avioli,L., Teitel-baum,S.L.: Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism with ‘normal’ parathyroid glands. Arch. Surg. 103, 259 (1971)Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Teotia,M., Singh,R.K.: Treatment of idiopathic hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis with sodium cellulose phosphates. J. Assoc. Phys. India. 22, 709 (1974)Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Thomas,W.C.: Quoted by Howard, J.E.: Urinary stone. Can. Med. Ass. J. 86, 22 (1968)Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Thomas,W.C. jr.: Effectiveness and mode of action of orthophosphates in patients with calcareous renal calculi. Trans. Am. Clin. Assoc. 83, 113 (1972)Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Vermeulen,C.W., Grove,W.J., Goetz,R., Raggins,H.D., Carroll,N.O.: Experimental lithiasis I. Development of calculi upon foreign bodies introduced into bladders of rats. J. Urol. 64, 541 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Vermeulen,C.W., Lyon,E.S., Gill,W.B, Chapman,W.H.: Prevention of phosphate stone by phytate, phosphate and hexa-metaphosphate: experimental urolithiasis XV. J. Urol. 82, 249 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Williams,H.E.: Editorial. Calcium nephrolithiasis and cellulose phosphate. N. Engl. J. Med. 290,224 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Wills,M.R., Zisman,E., Wortsman,J., Evens,R.G., Pak,C.Y.C., Bartter,F.C.: The measurement of intestinal calcium absorption by external radio-isotopic counting: application to the study of nephrolithiasis. Clin. Sci. 39, 95 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Wilson,D.R., Siddiqui,A.A., Eheig,U.: The effect of thiazide diuretics on carbohydrate-induced calciuria in patients with recurrent renal calculi. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 86, 118 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Yendt,E.R.: Drugs used in the management of renal calculi. Can. Med. Ass. J. 93, 315 (1965a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Yendt,E.R.: The effect of thiazides in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 77, 96 (1965b)Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Yendt,E.R.: Renal calculi. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 102,479 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Yendt,E.R., Gagne,RJ.A., Cohanim,M.: The effects of thiazides in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Am. J. Med. Sci. 251, 449 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Yendt,E.R., Guay,G.R., Garcia,D.A.: The use of thiazides in the prevention of renal calculi. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 102, 614 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Yendt,E.R. et al.: Ten-year experience with the use of thiazides in the prevention of kidney stones. Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 85, 65 (1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie N. Pyrah
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of LeedsUK
  2. 2.LeedsGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations