Advertisement

X-Ray Microanalysis in Biogenic Amine Detection in the Sympatho-Chromaffin System

  • R. M. Santer
  • J. D. Lever
  • T. W. Davies
Conference paper

Abstract

According to Coupland and Hopwood (1966), during glutaraldehyde fixation, certain biogenic amines form stable Schiff monobases whilst others do not. For example, in biological tissues noradrenaline reacts in this way and is retained in situ. Adrenaline, on the other hand, does not form a stable residue and is eluted during glutaraldehyde fixation. Wood (1974) and Nemes (1975) have shown that such Schiff monobase residues will bind hexavalent metals such as chromium. Thus postchromation with potassium dichromate after initial glutaraldehyde fixation forms the basis of the differential chromaffin reaction by which, for example in the adrenal medulla, noradrenaline (NA) cells can be clearly differentiated from adrenaline (A) cells by the presence of a yellow cytoplasmic colouration (Coupland and Hopwood, 1966). By the same sequential technique a yellow cytoplasmic colouration has also been observed in a proportion of the smallcell population of sympathetic ganglia in the rat (Santer et al. , 1975; Lever et al. , 1976). At a fine–structure level we have observed a morphological comparability between the specific membrane-bounded inclusion granules of adrenomedullary NA cells and those of a type (type II, Lu et al. , 1976) of sympathetic small–granulated (SG) cells in the rat.

Keywords

Biogenic Amine Adrenal Medulla Sympathetic Ganglion Glutaraldehyde Fixation Amine Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Coupland, R.E., Hopwood, D.: The mechanisms of the differential staining reaction for adrenaline– and noradrenaline–storing granules in tissues fixed in glutaraldehyde. J. Anat. 100, 227–243 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Euler, U.S., Lishajko, F.: Effect of reserpine on the uptake of catecholamines in isolated nerve storage granules. Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 2, 127–134 (1963).Google Scholar
  3. Lever, J.D., Santer, R.M., Lu, K–S., Presley, R.: “Chromaffin–positive” and small intensely fluorescent cells in normal and amine–depleted sympathetic ganglia. In: Chromaffin, Enterochromaffin and Related Cells. Coupland, R.E., Fujita, T. (eds.), pp. 83–93. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Lever, J.D., Santer, R.M., Lu, K–S., Presley, R.: Electron probe X–ray microanalysis of small granulated cells in rat sympathetic ganglia after sequential aldehyde and dichromate treatment. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 275–279 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lu, K–S., Lever, J.D., Santer, R.M., Presley, R.: Small granulated cell types in rat superior cervical and coeliac–mesenteric ganglia. Cell Tissue Res. 172, 331–343 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Malmfors, T.: Studies on adrenergic nerves. The use of rat and mouse iris for direct observations on their physiology and pharmacology at cellular and subcellular levels. Acta Physiol. Scand. 64, suppl. 248, 1–93 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. Nemes, Z.: The mechanism of metal binding to glutaraldehyde–fixed noradrenalinestoring adrenomedullary granules. Histochem. J. 6, 611–620 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Norberg, K.–A.: Transmitter histochemistry of the sympathetic adrenergic nervous system. Brain Res. 5, 125–170 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Reynolds, E.S.: The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17, 208–212 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Russ, J.C.: X–ray microanalysis in the biological sciences. J. Submicr. Cytol. 6, 55–79 (1974).Google Scholar
  11. Santer, R.M., Lu, K–S., Lever, J.D., Presley, R.: A study of the distribution of chromaffin–positive (CH+) and small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells in sympathetic ganglia of the rat at various ages. J. Anat. 119, 589–599 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Wood, J.G.: Positive identification of intracellular biogenic amine reaction product with electron microscope X–ray analysis. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 1060–1063 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wood, J.G.: Use of the analytical electron microscope (AEM) in cytochemical studies of the central nervous system. Histochemistry 44, 233–240 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. Wood, J.G., Seelig, L.L., Benjamin, C.P.: Cytochemistry of epinephrine and norepinephrine adrenomedullary cells. Histochemie 28, 183–197 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Santer
  • J. D. Lever
  • T. W. Davies

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations