Listing of Important Observational Statements and Related Logical Problems

  • Petr Hájek
  • Tomáš Havránek
Part of the Universitext book series (UTX)


Let us begin with a quotation from Novalis, which stands as a motto in [Popper]: Hypothesen sind Netze; nur der fängt, wer auswirft. The reader found in Part A an analysis of observational and theoretical languages of science that resulted in a study of classes of some observational and theoretical calculi and their relationships. But he may object that the study of Part A was too static in character and thus ignored hypothesis formation, i.e. “the process of discovery” [Buchanan]. This is indeed the case and corresponds to our notion of a logic of induction as an answer to the questions (LO)-(L2) in Chapter 1. Bear in mind questions (L3)-(L4) (cf. 1.1.5), we are now going to develop a logic of suggestion as a possible answer to the latter questions. Since our investigation belongs to A1 rather than to the psychology of scientific thinking we shall not be forced to simulate the process of the scientist’s guessing hypotheses but will feel free to respect and utilize the differences between human and computer skills. Furthermore, we shall not attempt to mechanize the whole process of arriving at hypotheses but only one of its substantial parts, namely the process of intelligent observation of data. Our aims are explained in detail in Section 1 of this Chapter; the main notions are of a problem and its solution. This is in accordance with the concept of scientific discovery as the solution of problems sui generis. “We speak of a problem, or a problem-solving situation, if there is something undecided, something which is an obstacle to activity and is to be overcome, etc. One important thing is that a problem is not just anything unknown, but something unknown, undiscovered, undecided... etc. Accordingly, a problem is the question which for one reason or other we want, need or have to answer”. [Tondl].


Inference Rule Relevant Question Hypothesis Formation Elementary Conjunction Deduction Rule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petr Hájek
    • 1
  • Tomáš Havránek
    • 2
  1. 1.Mathematical InstituteCzechoslovak Academy of SciencesPrahaCzechoslovakia
  2. 2.Department of BiomathematicsCzechoslovak Academy of SciencesPrahaCzechoslovakia

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