Advertisement

Uric Acid pp 347-364 | Cite as

Role of Proteoglycans in the Development of Gouty Arthritis

  • W. A. Katz
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 51)

Abstract

Gout is defined as the deposition of urate crystals, clinically expressed by acute arthritis or tophi. It is well accepted that hyperuricemia, or at least an abnormally high total uric acid pool, is a critical precursor to the deposition phenomenon and that urate crystals, once precipitated in the joint, give rise to an intense phlogistic reaction. The mechanism of urate deposition remains enigmatic and controversial. Garrod (1876) was one of the first to recognize that gouty arthritis was caused by the precipitation of sodium urate crystals in the joints or neighboring tissues:

“Gouty inflammation is invariably attended with the deposition of urate of soda... This fact I wish to impress forcibly upon my readers because in the constancy of such deposition lies the clue that has long been wanting; the occurrence of the deposit is at once pathognomonic and separates gout from every other disease which at first sight might appear allied to it.”

Keywords

Uric Acid Synovial Fluid Chondroitin Sulfate Gouty Arthritis Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adlersberg, D., Grisham, E., Sobotka, H.: Uric acid partition in gout and hepatic disease. Arch. intern. Med. 70, 101–120 (1942)Google Scholar
  2. Alvsaker, J.O.: Uric Acid in human plasma IV. Investigations on the interactions between urate and the macromolecular fraction in plasma from healthy individuals and patients with diseases associated with hyperuricemia. Scand. J. clin. Lab. Invest. 18, 227–239 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bitter, T., Muir, H.M.: A modified uronic acid carbazole reaction. Anal. Biochem. 4, 330–334 (1962)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bryant, J.H., Leder, I.G., Stetten, D.: The release of chondroitin sulfate from rabbit cartilage following the intravenous injection of crude papain. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 76, 122–130 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bunim, J. J., McEwen, C.: Tophus of mitral valve in gout. Arch. Path. 29, 700–704 (1940)Google Scholar
  6. Calatroni, A., Donnelly, P.V., Di Ferrante, N.: The glycosaminoglycans of human plasma. J. clin. Invest. 48, 332–343 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheyne, G.: An essay of the true nature and due method of treating the gout. London: Strahan 1724Google Scholar
  8. Copeman, W.S.C.: Textbook of rheumatic diseases. Edinburgh: Livingstone 1969Google Scholar
  9. Dingle, J.T.: Synthesis and degradation of connective tissue in organ cultures. In: Structure and Function of Connective and Skeletal Tissue. London: Butterworths 1965Google Scholar
  10. Einbinder, J., Schubert, M.: Separation of chondroitin sulfate from cartilage. J. biol. Chem. 185, 725 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Faires, J.S., McCarty, D.J.: Acute arthritis in man and dog produced by intrasynovial injection of sodium urate crystals. Clin. Res. 9, 329 (1961)Google Scholar
  12. Farber, S.J., Cohen, G.L., Castor, J. A.: The chemical and metabolic properties of acid mucopolysaccharides of renal papillae. Trans. Ass. Amer. Physcns. 75, 154–159 (1962)Google Scholar
  13. Frazier, P.D., Seegmiller, J.E.: Characterization of crystalline deposits in kidney tissue of patients with gout. Arthr. and Rheum. 9, 504 (1966)Google Scholar
  14. Garrod, A.B.: Treatise on gout and rheumatic gout (rheumatoid arthritis), 3rd Ed. London: Longmans, Green and Company, Inc. 1876Google Scholar
  15. Howell, P.S.: Preliminary observations on local pH in gouty tophi and synovial fluid. Arthritis Rheum. 8, 736–739 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Katz, W.A.: Deposition of urate crystals in gout. Altered connective tissue metabolism. Arthr. and Rheum. 19 (Suppl.), 275–285 (1975)Google Scholar
  17. Katz, W.A., Ehrlich, G.E.: The solubility of monosodium urate in serum and connective tissue components (Abstr.), Arthr. and Rheum. 11, 492 (1968)Google Scholar
  18. Katz, W.A., Schubert, M.: The interaction of monosodium urate with connective tissue components. J. clin. Invest. 49, 1783–1789 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kerby, G.P.: The effect of inflammation on the hexuronate-containing polysaccharides of human plasma. J. clin. Invest. 37, 962–965 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klinenberg, J.R., Bluestone, R., Schlosstein, L., Waisman, J., Whitehouse, M.W.: Urate deposition disease. How is it regulated and how can it be modified? Ann. intern. Med. 78, 99–111 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Klinenberg, J.R., Kippen, I.: The binding of urate to plasma proteins determined by means of equilibrium dialysis. J. Lab. clin. Med. 75, 503–510 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Laurent, T.C.: Solubility of sodium urate in the presence of chondroitin-4-sulfate. Nature (Lond.) 202, 1334–1335 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Loeb, J.N.: The influence of temperature on the solubility of monosodium urate. Arthr. and Rheum. 15, 189–192 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McCarty, D.J.: The inflammatory reaction to microcrystalline sodium urate. Arthr. and Rheum. 8, 726–734 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCarty, D. J.: The gouty toe—A multifactorial condition. Ann. intern. Med. 86, 234–236 (1977)Google Scholar
  26. McCarty, D.J., Hollander, J.L.: Identification of urate crystals in gouty synovial fluid. Ann. intern. Med. 54, 452–460 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Morris, J. E.: The transport of uric acid in serum. Amer. J. Med. Sci. 235, 43–49 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pal, S., Doganges, P.T., Schubert, M.: The separation of new forms of the proteinpolysaccharides of bovine nasal cartilage. J. biol. Chem. 241, 4261–4266 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Peters, J.P., Van Slyke, D.D.: Quantitative clinical chemistry, Vol. 1. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkens 1946Google Scholar
  30. Roberts, W.: The chemistry and therapeutics of uric acid gravel and gout. Brit. med. J. 1892II, 61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rodnan, G.P.: Early theories concerning etiology and pathogenesis of the gout. Arthr. and Rheum. 8 (Suppl.), 599–609 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sajdera, S. W., Hascall, V.C.: Proteinpolysaccharide complex from bovine nasal cartilage. J. biol. Chem. 244, 77–87 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schubert, M., Hamerman, D.: Metabolism of connective tissue. In: A primer of connective tissue biochemistry. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger 1968Google Scholar
  34. Seegmiller, J.E.: The acute attack of gouty arthritis. Arthr. and Rheum. 8, 714–723 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Seegmiller, J.E., Howell, R.R., Malawista, S. E.: The inflammatory reaction to sodium urate. J. Amer. med. Ass. 180, 469–475 (1962)Google Scholar
  36. Shetlar, M.R., Shetlar, C.L., Richmond, V., Everett, M.R.: The polysaccharide content of serum fractions: carcinoma, arthritis, and infection. Cancer Res. 10, 681–683 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Simkin, P.A.: Local concentration of urate in the pathogenesis of gout. Lancet 1973II, 1295– 1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Simkin, P.A.: The pathogenesis of podagra. Ann. intern. Med. 86, 230–233 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Simkin, P.A., Pizzorno, J.E.: Transynovial exchange of small molecules in normal human subjects. J. appl. Physiol. 36, 581–587 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sokoloff, L.: The pathology of gout. Metabolism 6, 230–243 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Spilberg, J., Tanphaichitr, K., Kantor, O.: Synovial fluid pH in acute gouty arthritis (Letter). Arthr. and Rheum. 20, 142 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thomas, L.L.: Reversible collapse of rabbit ears after intravenous papain and prevention of recovery by cortisone. J. exp. Med. 104, 245–252 (1956)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Von Greiling, H., Herbertz, T.H., Schuler, B., Stuhlsatz, H.W.Z.: Biochemical studies on the cause of uric acid deposition in the connective tissue of gout. Z. Rheumaforsch. 21, 50–55 (1962)Google Scholar
  44. Yü, T.F., Gutman, A.B.: Ultrafilterability of plasma urate in men. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 84, 21–24 (1953)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Katz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations