Advertisement

The Physiological Background of the Electric Response Audiometry

  • Wolf D. Keidel
Part of the Handbook of Sensory Physiology book series (SENSORY, volume 5 / 3)

Abstract

In the chapter written by Professor Hallowell Davis the clinical use of ERA (Electric Response Audiometry) in audiology is described in full detail including the early response (BERA) and the perstimulatory DC-shift. Hence, this most important subtopic of the auditory evoked responses can be omitted here. We therefore feel that our contribution in this handbook should deal with all those questions and solutions — as far as they have been elaborated — which are related to explanations from a neurophysiological background. Thus, it should be obvious that a response as complex as the auditory evoked potential must be looked at under a great variety of aspects. Even then our present knowledge does not allow us to get more than a feeling about possible avenues of the basic physiological principles involved.

Keywords

Auditory Stimulus Auditory Cortex Inferior Colliculus Cortical Response Contingent Negative Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdelmoumène, M., Besson, J.-M., Aléonard, P.: Neurophysiologie. Effets des anesthésiques sur le contrôle cortical de la polarisation des fibres afférentes primaires chez le Chat. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 265, 1138–1140 (1967), Série B.Google Scholar
  2. Abraham, F.D., Marsh, J.T.: Amplitude of evoked potentials as a function of slow presenting rates of repetitive auditory stimulation. Exp. Neurol. 14, 187–198 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abrahams, V.C.: Some factors affecting the form of averaged evoked potentials. J. Physiol-(Lond.) 185, 60–61 (1966).Google Scholar
  4. Abrahams, V.C., Langworth, E.P.: The contribution of background electrical activity to the form of averaged evoked potentials in chloralose anesthetized cats. Exp. Neurol. 18, 253–266 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adamo, N.J., King, R.L.: Evoked responses in the chicken telencephalon to auditory, visual, and tactile stimulation. Exp. Neurol. 17, 498–504 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ades, H.W.: A secondary acoustic area in the cerebral cortex of the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 6, 59–63 (1943).Google Scholar
  7. Adey, W.R., Buchwald, N.A., Lindsley, D.F.: Amygdaloid, pallidal and peripheral influences on mesencephalic unit firing patterns with reference to mechanisms of tremor. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 12, 21–40 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Adey, W.R., Dunlop, C.W., Sunderland, S.: A survey of rhinencephalic interrelations with the brain-stem. J. comp. Neurol. 110, 173–204 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Adey, W. R., Lindsley, D. F.: On the role of subthalamic areas in the maintenance of brainstem reticular excitability. Exp. Neurol. 1, 407–426 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Adey, W.R., Segundo, J.P., Livingston, R. B.: Corticifugal influences on intrinsic brainstem conduction in cat and monkey. J. Neurophysiol. 20, 1–16 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Adrian, H.O., Goldberg, J.M., Brugge, J.F.: Auditory evoked cortical potentials after lesions of brachium of inferior colliculus. J. Neurophysiol. 29, 456–466 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aitkin, L.M.: Medial geniculate body of the cat: responses to tonal stimuli of neurons in medial division. J. Neurophysiol. 36, 275–283 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Aitkin, L.M., Webster, W.R.: Medial geniculate body of the cat: organization and responses to tonal stimuli of neurons in the ventral division. J. Neurophysiol. 35, 365–380 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Akiyama, Y., Schulte, F. J., Schultz, M. A., Parmelee, A.H.: Acoustically evoked responses in premature and full term newborn infants. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 26, 371–380 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Albe-Fessard, D., Fessard, A.: Thalamic integrations and their consequences at the telen-cephalic level. In: Moruzzi, G., Fessard, A., Jasper, H.H. (Eds.): Brain Mechanisms. Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1963.Google Scholar
  16. Albe-Fessard, D., Gillett, E.: Convergences d’afférences d’origines corticale at périphérique vers le centre médian du chat anesthésié ou éveillé. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 257–269 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Allison, T.: Recovery functions of somatosensory evoked responses in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 14, 331–343 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Amassian, V.E.: Studies on organization of a somesthetic association area, including a single unit analysis. J. Neurophysiol. 17, 39–58 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Andersen, P.: Rhythmic 10/sec activity in the Thalamus. In: Purpura, D.P., Yahr, M.D. (Eds.): The Thalamus. New York-London: Columbia University Press 1966.Google Scholar
  20. Andersen, P., Brooks, C. McC., Eccles, J.C.: Electrical responses of the ventro-basal nucleus of the thalamus. In: Bargmann, W., Schade, J.P. (Eds.): Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 5. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1964a.Google Scholar
  21. Andersen, P., Sears, T.A.: The ventro-basal nucleus of the thalamus: potential fields, synaptic transmission and excitability of both presynaptic and postsynaptic components. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 174, 348–369 (1964b).Google Scholar
  22. Antinoro, F., Skinner, P. H.: The effects of frequency on the auditory evoked response. J. Aud. Res. 8, 119–123 (1968).Google Scholar
  23. Antinoro, F., Skinner, P.H., Jones, J.J.: Relation between sound intensity and amplitude of the AER at different stimulus frequencies. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 46, 1433–1436 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Aran, J.-M.: L’Électro-Cochléogramme. I. Principe et Technique. Les Cahiers C.F.A., No. 12, 3–45 (1971). (Compagnie Française d’Audiologie.)Google Scholar
  25. Aran, J.-M.: L’Électro-Cochléogramme. II. Résultats. Les Cahiers de la C.F.A., No. 13, 49–98 (1971). (Compagnie Française d’Audiologie.)Google Scholar
  26. Aran, J.-M.: L’Électro-Cochléogramme. III. Essai d’Interprétation. Les Cahiers de la C.F.A., No. 14, 101–128 (1972). (Compagnie Française d’Audiologie.)Google Scholar
  27. Aran, J.M., Portmann, M.: L’électrocochléogramme. J. franc. Oto-rhino-laryng. 21, 211 (1972).Google Scholar
  28. Arduini, A., Mancia, M., Mechelse, K.: Slow potential changes elicited in the cerebral cortex by sensory and reticular stimulation. Archives ital. Biol. 95, 127–138 (1957).Google Scholar
  29. Asanuma, H.: Microelectrode studies on the evoked activity of a single pyramidal tract cell in the somato-sensory area in cats. Jap. J. Physiol. 9, 94–105 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Baer, K.E. von: Die Abhängigkeit unseres Weltbilds von der Länge unseres Moments. Reden gehalten in wissenschaftlichen Versammlungen. St. Petersburg, 1864, Verlag der Kaiserlichen Hofbuchhandlung H. Schmitzdorff. Neudruck erschienen als Beiheft zu Band 3/1962 der Grundlagenstudien aus Kybernetik und Geisteswissenschaft. Quickborn bei Hamburg. Verlag Schnelle 1962.Google Scholar
  31. Ban, T., Inoue, K., Ozaki, S., Kawashima, K., Yoshioka, T.: Cerebral cortical potential evoked by hypothalamic stimulation in cat. Med. J. Osaka Univ. 7, 859–864 (1957).Google Scholar
  32. Barlow, J. S.: An electronic method for detecting evoked responses of the brain and for reproducing their average waveforms. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 9, 340–343 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Barlow, J.S., Brazier, M.A.B.: Correlation studies of brain potentials. Ruar. Progr. Rep., MIT Cambridge, April 15, 79–82 (1955).Google Scholar
  34. Barnet, A.B., Lodge, A.: Click evoked EEG responses in normal and developmentally retarded infants. Nature (Lond.) 214, 252–255 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Batini, C., Moruzzi, G., Palestini, M., Rossi, G.F., Zanchetti, A.: Effects of complete pontine transections on the sleepwakefulness rhythm: the midpontine pretrigeminal preparation. Arch. ital. Biol. 97, 1–12 (1959).Google Scholar
  36. Baumann, H., Baumann, R.: Zur Frage einer spezifischen Signalverarbeitung der Formatio reticularis und ihrer Beziehung zur kortikalen evozierten Aktivität. Acta biol. med. germ. 19, 961–983 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Baumann, H., Baumann, R., Gurk, Ch., Wolter, F.: Electrophysiological studies of central nervous performance during monotony. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 259–273 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Baust, W., Berlucci, G., Moruzze, G.: Changas in the auditory input in wakefulness and during the synchronized and desynchronized stages of sleep. Arch. ital. Biol. 102, 657–674 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Beagley, H. A., Kellogg, S. E.: Amplitude of the auditory evoked response at high intensities. Sound 4, 86–90(1971).Google Scholar
  40. Beck, A.: Die Bestimmung der Lokalisation der Gehirn- und Rückenmarksfunktionen vermittelst der elektrischen Erscheinungen. Zbl. Physiol. 4, 473–476 (1890).Google Scholar
  41. Begleiter, H., Gross, M.M., Kissin, B.: Evoked cortical responses to affective visual stimuli. Psychophysiology 3, 336–344 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Begleiter, H., Platz, A.: Evoked potentials: Modifications by classical conditioning. Science 166, 769–771 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Békésy, G. von: Zur Theorie des Hörens. Über die eben merkbare Amplituden- und Frequenzänderung eines Tones. Die Theorie der Schwebungen. Phys. Z. 30, 721–745 (1929).Google Scholar
  44. Békésy, G. von: Experiments in hearing. New York: McGraw Hill Comp. 1960.Google Scholar
  45. Benning, C.D., Karnahl, Th., Stange, G.: ERA-Kennlinien und Latenzen bei 15 normalhörenden Kleinkindern. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 201, 222–230 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Benning, C., Stange, G.: Das Verhalten peripherer und zentraler akustischer Reizantworten des Meerschweinchens unter Sinustonbeschallung. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr-., Nas.- u. Kehl.-Heilk. 199, 529–533 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Berlucchi, G., Munson, J.B., Rizzolatti, G.: Auditory-evoked responses in cats with teno. tomized middle ear muscles during sleep. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 292, 80–82 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Berlucchi, G., Munson, J.B., Rizzolatti, G.: Changes in click-evoked responses in the auditory system and the cerebellum of free-moving cats during sleep and waking. Arch. ital. Biol. 105, 118–135 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Berlucchi, G., Munson, J. B., Rizzolatti, G.: Click-evoked responses in cats with tenotomized middle ear muscles during sleep and waking. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., Supp. 26 “The Evoked Potentials”, 1967.Google Scholar
  50. Besson, J.-M., Abdelmoumène, M., Aléonard, P.: Neurophysiologie, Répartition des aires corticales contrôlant l’inhibition présynaptique chez l’animal éveillé et anesthésié. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 265, 1412–1414 (1967), Série D.Google Scholar
  51. Bickford, R. G.: Application of central averaging. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1963).Google Scholar
  52. Bickford, R.G., Jacobson, J.L., Galbraith, R.F.: A new audio motor system in man. Eastern association of electroencephalographers No. 7. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 15, 922 (1963).Google Scholar
  53. Bickford, R.G., Jacobson, J. L., Cody, D.T.R.: Nature of average evoked potentials to sound and other stimuli in man. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 204–223 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bignall, K.E.: Effects of subcortical ablations on polysensory cortical responses and interactions in the cat. Exp. Neurol. 18, 56–67 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Bignall, K.E.: Auditory input to frontal polysensory cortex of the squirrel monkey: Possible pathways. Brain Res. 19, 77–86 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Boakes, R. J., Kerkut, G. A., Munday, K. A.: Effect of hypothermia on cortical evoked potentials. Life Sci. 6, 457–459 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Bonvallet, M., Bloch, V.: Bulbar control of cortical arousal. Science 133, 1133–1134 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Borbely, A. A.: Changes in click-evoked responses as a function of depth in auditory cortex of the rat. Brain Res. 21, 217–247 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Bostock, H., Jarvis, M. J.: Changes in the form of the cerebral evoked response related to the speed of simple reaction time. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 29, 137–145 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Botte, M.C., Cocholle, R.: Mise en évidence d’asymétries auditives par une méthode psychoacoustique et par l’enregistrement des potentiels évoqués auditifs. Rev. Acoustique 27, 227–230 (1973).Google Scholar
  61. Bowsher, D., Mallart, A., Petit, D., Albe-Fessard, D.: A bulbar relay to the centre median. J. Neurophysiol. 31, 288–300 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Brazier, M.A.B.: A study of the late response to flash in the cortex of the cat. Acta physiol. Pharmacol, neerl. 6, 692–714 (1957).Google Scholar
  63. Bremer, F.: Étude oscillographique des réponses sensorielles de l’aire acoustique corticale chez le chat. Arch. int. Physiol. 53, 53–103 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Bremer, F.: Les aires auditives de l’écorce cérébrale. Cours International d’Audiologie Clinique, Mardo 12-Février 1952.Google Scholar
  65. Bremer, F., Dow, R.S.: The acoustic area of the cerebral cortex in the cat. A combined oscillographic and cytoarchitectonic study. J. Neurophysiol. 2, 308–318 (1939).Google Scholar
  66. Brooks, V.B.: Some factors governing sensory convergence in the cat’s motor cortex. Studies in Physiology. New York-Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer 1965.Google Scholar
  67. Brooks, V.B., Enger, P.S.: Spread of directly evoked responses in the cat’s cerebral cortex. J. gen. Physiol. 42, 761–777 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Brown, F.M., Stewart, W.S., Blodgett, J.T.: EEG kappa rhythmus during transcendental meditation and possible perceptual threshold changes following. Proc. Kentucky Acad. Sci. Richmond 1971.Google Scholar
  69. Büchele, U., Seiler, C.F.: Die reizkorrelierte Gleichspannungsantwort (RGA) akustisch evozierter Potentiale und ihre Abhängigkeit von Vigilanz und Aufmerksamkeit. H.N.O. (Berl.) 22, 114–117 (1974).Google Scholar
  70. Bullock, T.H., Grinnell, A.D., Ikezono, E., Kameda, K., Katsuki, Y., Nomoto, M., Sato, O., Suga, N., Yanagisawa, K.: Electrophysiological studies of central auditory mechanisms in cetaceans. Z. vergl. Physiol. 59, 117–156 (1968).Google Scholar
  71. Bumm, P., Johannsen, H.S., Spreng, M., Wiegand, H.P.: Zur Registrierung langsamer Rindenpotentiale bei rotatorischer Reizung des Menschen. Ärztl. Forsch. 24, 59–62 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Burdick, J.A., Sugerman, A.A., Goldstein, L.: The application of regression analysis to quantitative electroencephalography in man. Psychophysiology 3, 249–254 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Burian, K.: Evoked response audiometry (ERA) — ein objectives Hörprüfungsverfahren. H.N.O. (Berl.) 17, 353–358 (1969).Google Scholar
  74. Burian, K., Gestring, G.F.: Die EEG-Computer-Audiometrie: eine objektive Hörprüfungsmethode. Image 1, 11–15 (1968).Google Scholar
  75. Burke, R.E., Nelson, P.G.: Synaptic activity in motoneurons during natural stimulation of muscle spindles. Science 151, 1088–1091 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Burke, W., Sefton, A.J.: Discharge patterns of principal cells and interneurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 187, 201–212 (1966).Google Scholar
  77. Burke, W., Sefton, A.J.: Recovery of responsiveness of cells of lateral geniculate nucleus of rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 187, 213–229 (1966).Google Scholar
  78. Burke, W., Sefton, A.J.: Inhibitory mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 187, 231–246 (1966).Google Scholar
  79. Burns, S.K., Borbely, A.A., Hall, R.D.: Evoked potentials: Three-dimensional display. Science 157, 457–459 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Buser, P., Borenstein, P.: Réponses corticales secondaires à la stimulation sensorielle chez chat curarizé non anaesthesié. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 6, 89–108 (1957).Google Scholar
  81. Buser, P., Borenstein, P.: Réponses somesthésiques, visuelles et auditives, recueillies au niveau du cortex associatif suprasylvien chez le chat curarisé non anesthésié. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 11, 285–304 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Buser, P., Borenstein, P., Bruner, J.: Étude des systèmes associatifs visuels et auditifs chez le chat anesthésié au chloralose. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 11, 305–324 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Butler, R.A.: Effect of changes in stimulus frequency and intensity on habituation of the human vertex potential. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 44, 945–950 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Butler, R.A.: The auditory evoked response to stimuli producing periodicity pitch. Psychophysiology 9, 233–237 (1972a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Butler, R.A.: Frequency specificity of the auditory evoked response to simultaneously and successively presented stimuli. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 33, 277–282 (1972b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Butler, R.A.: The influence of spatial separation of sound sources on the auditory evoked response. Neuropsychologia 10, 219–225 (1972c).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Butler, R.A.: The cumulative effects of different stimulus repetition rates on the auditory evoked response in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 35, 337–345 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Butler, R.A., Keidel, W.D., Spreng, M.: An investigation of the human cortical evoked potential under conditions of monaural and binaural stimulation. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 68, 317–326 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Butler, R.A., Kluskens, L.: The influence of phase inversion on the auditory evoked response. Audiology 10, 353–357 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Butler, R.A., Spreng, M., Keidel, W.D.: Stimulus repetition rate factors which influence the auditory evoked potential in man. Psychophysiol. 5, 665–672 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Callaway, E.: Averaged evoked responses in psychiatry. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 143, 80–94 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Calvet, J., Thieffry, M.: Analyse statistique des activités électrocorticales à type de fuseaux. J. Physiol. (Paris) 58, 485–486 (1966).Google Scholar
  93. Caspers, H.: Die Beeinflussung der corticalen Gleichspannung durch sensible und sensorische Reize beim wachen, frei beweglichen Tier. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 272, 53–54 (1960/61).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Caspers, H., Schulze, H.: Die Veränderungen der corticalen Gleichspannung während der natürlichen Schlaf-Wach-Perioden beim freibeweglichen Tier. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 270, 103–120 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Celesia, G.G., Broughton, R.J., Rasmussen, T., Branch, Ch.: Auditory evoked responses from the exposed human cortex. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 458–466 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Chaloupka, Z.: Comparison of the reproduction of cortical auditory responses to rhythmic acoustical stimulation in various species of mammals (dog, cat, rabbit, guinea-pig). Activ. nerv. sup. (Praha) 8, 176–177 (1966).Google Scholar
  97. Chaloupka, Z., Vozeh, F., Charlier, M.: Cortical evoked potentials in dependence on different levels of nutrition. Activ. nerv. sup. (Praha) 11, 283–284 (1969).Google Scholar
  98. Chatrian, G.E., Petersen, M.C., Lazarte, J.A.: Responses to clicks from the human brain: some depth electrographic observations. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 12, 479–489 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Chow, K.L., Randall, W., Morrell, F.: Effect of brain lesions on conditioned cortical electropotentials. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 357–369 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ciganek, L.: Evoked potentials in man: interaction of sound and light. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 21, 28–33 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ciganek, L.: A comparative study of visual, auditory and somatosensory EEG responses in man. Exp. Brain Res. 4, 118–125 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Clark, D.L., Butler, R.A., Rosner, B.S.: Dissociation of sensation and evoked response by a general anaesthetic in man. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 68, 315–319 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Coats, A.C., Dickey, J.R.: Nonsurgical recording of human auditory nerve action potentials and cochlear microphonics. Ann. Otol. (St. Louis) 79, 844 (1970).Google Scholar
  104. Cobb, W., Morocutti, C.: The evoked potentials. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 26, (1967).Google Scholar
  105. Cody, D.T.R., Bickford, R.G.: Cortical audiometry; an objective method of evaluating auditory acuity in man. Proc. Mayo Clin. 40, 273–287 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Collard, M., Conraux, C., Picart, P., Greiner, G.F., Rohmer, F.: Recherche de potentiels évoqués d’origine vestibulaire chez l’homme. Rev. neurol. 117, 218–221 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Commichau, R.: Adaptationszustand und Unterschieds-Schwellenenergie für Lichtblitze. Z. Biol. 108, 145–160 (1956).Google Scholar
  108. Cook, J.D., Ellinwood, E.H. Jr., Wilson, W.P.: Auditory habituation at primary cortex as a function of stimulus rate. Exp. Neurol. 21, 167–175 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Cooper, R., Winter, A.L., Crow, H. J., Greywalter, W.: Comparison of subcortical, cortical and scalp activity using chronically indwelling electrodes in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 217–228 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Cowen, M.A.: Some higher functional correlates of the transcephalic d. c. circuit. Psychiat. Quart. 42, 409–429 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Cowen, M.A., Ross, J.: Some biochemical factors that modify the transcephalic dc potential. Psychophysiology 4, 90–98 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Cowen, M.A., Ross, J., McDonald, R.: Some aspects of the transcephalic dc circuit. Psycho-physiology 4, 207–215 (1967).Google Scholar
  113. Creutzfeldt, O., Lux, D., Nacimiento, A.C.: Intracellular Reizung corticaler Nervenzellen im motorischen Cortex der Katze. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 278, 68 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Creutzfeldt, O.D., Kuhnt, U.: The visual evoked potential: Physiological, developmental and clinical aspects. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 26, 29–41 (1967).Google Scholar
  115. Creutzfeldt, O., Rosina, A., Ito, M., Probst, W.: Visual evoked response of single cells and of the EEG in primary visual area of the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 32, 127–139 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Dagnino, N., Favale, E., Loeb, C., Manfredi, M.: Sensory transmission in the geniculostriate system of the cat during natural sleep and arousal. J. Neurophysiol. 28, 443–456 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Spreng, M.: Komplexe akustisch evozierte Potentiale der wachen Katze (implantierte Elektroden-AI). Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 291, 45 (1966).Google Scholar
  118. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Reizfrequenzkorrelierte „untersetzte“ neuronale Entladungsperiodizität im Colliculus inferior und im Corpus geniculatum mediale. Pflügers Arch. 309, 11–20 (1969a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Reizkorrelierte Gleichspannungsänderungen der primären Hörrinde an der wachen Katze. Pflügers Arch. 306, 281–289 (1969b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Akustisch ausgelöste Gleichspannungspotentiale am Menschen. Pflügers Arch. 307, 137 (1969c).Google Scholar
  121. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Akustischen Reizen zugeordnete Gleichspannungsänderungen am intakten Schädel des Menschen. Pflügers Arch. 309, 362–367 (1969d).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Wechselwirkung zwischen optisch und akustisch ausgelösten Gleichspannungspotentialen am Menschen. Pflügers Arch. 312, 131 (1969e).Google Scholar
  123. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Interaction between visually and auditorily evoked DC-potentials in man. In: Drischel, H., Tiedt, N. (Eds.): Biokybernetik, Band III. Jena: VEB Gustav Fischer 1971.Google Scholar
  124. David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Korrelationsanalyse von gemittelten und ungemittelten evozierten Potentialen. Kybernetik 9, 22–26 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Davis, H.: Enhancement of evoked cortical potentials in humans related to a task requiring a decision. Science 145, 182–183 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Davis, H.: Validation of evoked-response audiometry (ERA) in deaf children. Int. Audiology—Audiologie Internationale 5, 77–81 (1966).Google Scholar
  127. Davis, H.: Averaged-evoked-response EEG audiometry in North America. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 65, 79–85 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Davis, H.: Evoked response audiometry. Trans. Amer. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng. 74, 1236–1237 (1970).Google Scholar
  129. Davis, H.: Interactions of tactile and electric stimuli with auditory V potentials. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 198, 108–109 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Davis, H.: Sedation of young children for ERA. ERA, 18th Issue, December 1971.Google Scholar
  131. Davis, H.: Is ERA ready for routine clinical use ? Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 198, 2–8 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Davis, H.: Sedation of young children for electric response audiometry (ERA). (Summary of a symposium.) Transactions, Released August 1972.Google Scholar
  133. Davis, H.: Sedation of young children for electric response audiometry (ERA). Summary of a symposium. Audiology 12, 55–57 (1973).Google Scholar
  134. Davis, H.: Classes of auditory evoked responses. Audiology 12, 464–469 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Davis, H.: Relations of peripheral action potentials and cortical evoked potentials to the magnitude of sensation. In: Moskowitz, H.R., Scharf, B., Stevens, J.C. (Eds.): Sensation and measurement. Dordrecht-Holland/Boston-USA: D. Reidel Publ. Comp. 1974.Google Scholar
  136. Davis, H.: Electric response audiometry, with special reference to the vertex potentials. In: Keidel, W.D., Neff, W.D. (Eds.): Handbook of sensory physiology, Vol. V/3. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1976.Google Scholar
  137. Davis, H., Davis, P.A., Loomis, A.L., Harvey, E.N., Hobart, G.: Electrical reactions of the human brain to auditory stimulation during sleep. J. Neurophysiol. 2, 500–514 (1939).Google Scholar
  138. Davis, H., Engebretson, M., Lowell, E.L., Mast, T., Satterfield, J., Yoshie, N.: Evoked responses to clicks recorded from the human scalp. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 224–225 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Davis, H., Hirsh, S.K., Shelnutt, J., Bowers, C.: Further validation of evoked response audiometry (ERA). J. Speech Res. 10, 717–732 (1967).Google Scholar
  140. Davis, H., Mast, T., Yoshie, N., Zerlin, S.: The slow response of the human cortex to auditory stimuli: recovery process. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 21, 105–113 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Davis, H., Niemoeller, A.F.: A system for clinical evoked response audiometry. J. Speech Dis. 33, 33–37 (1968).Google Scholar
  142. Davis, H., Osterhammel, P.A., Wier, C.C., Gjerdingen, D.B.: Slow vertex potentials: interactions among auditory, tactile, electric and visual stimuli. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 33, 537–545 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Davis, H., Yoshie, N.: Human cortical response to auditory stimuli. Physiologist 6, 164 (1963).Google Scholar
  144. Davis, H., Zerlin, S.: Acoustic relations of the human vertex potential. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 39, 109–116 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Davis, P.A.: Effects of acoustic stimuli on the waking human brain. J. Neurophysiol. 2, 494–499 (1939).Google Scholar
  146. Debecker, J., Desmedt, J.E.: Rate of intermodality switching disclosed by sensory evoked potentials averaged during signal detection tasks. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 185, 52–53 P (1966).Google Scholar
  147. Debecker, J., Desmedt, J.E.: Cerebral Evoked potential correlates in forced-paced tasks. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 234, 118–120 (1971).Google Scholar
  148. Debecker, J., Desmedt, J.E., Ectors, M.: Etude des potentiels évoqués chez l’homme. Arch. int. Physiol. Biochim. 75, 353–354 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Debecker, J., Desmedt, J. E., Manil, J.: Corrélations psychologiques des potentiels évoqués cérébraux. J. Physiol. (Paris) 57, 595 (1965).Google Scholar
  150. Delgado, J. M. R.: Prolonged stimulation of brain in awake monkeys. J. Neurophysiol. 22, 458–475 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Derbyshire, A. J., Driessen, G. J., Palmer, C. W.: Technical advances in the analysis of single, acoustically evoked potentials. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 476–481 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Desmedt, J. E., Debecker, J.: The somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials of the sleeping human newborn. In: Clemente, C.D., Purpura, D. P., Mayer, F.E. (Eds.): Sleep and the maturing nervous system. New York: Academic Press 1972.Google Scholar
  153. Desmedt, J. E., Debecker, J., Manil, J.: Mise en évidence d’un signe électrique cérébral associé à la détection par le sujet, d’un stimulus sensoriel tactile. Bull. Acad. Méd. Belg. 5, 887–936 (1965).Google Scholar
  154. Desmedt, J.E., Manil, J.: Somatosensory evoked potentials of the normal human neonate in REM sleep, in slow wave sleep and in waking. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 29, 113–126 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Desmedt, J.E., Manil, J., Chorazyna, H., Debecker, J.: Potentiel évoqué cérébral et conduction corticipète pour une volée d’influx somesthésique chez le nouveauné normal. C. R. Soc. Biol. 161, 205 (1967).Google Scholar
  156. Desmedt, J.E., Noël, P.: Average cerebral evoked potentials in the evaluation of lesions of the sensory nerves and of the central somatosensory pathway. In: Desmedt, J.E. (ed.): New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology. Basel: Karger 1973.Google Scholar
  157. Deza, L., Eidelberg, E.: Development of cortical electrical activity in the rat. Exp. Neurol. 17, 425–438 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Donchin, E.: A multivariate approach to the analysis of average evoked potentials. IEEE Transa. Bio-Med. Eng. 13, 131–139 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Donchin, E., Cohen, L.: Averaged evoked potentials and intramodality selective attention. Electroenceph. clin, Neurophysiol. 22, 537–546 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Donchin, E., Lindsley, D.B.: Average evoked potentials. Washington, D.C.: NASA SP-191 1966.Google Scholar
  161. Donchin, E., Sutton, S.: The psychological significance of evoked responses: A comment on Clark, Butler, and Rosner. Commun. Behavioral Biol. 5, 111–114 (1970).Google Scholar
  162. Dormont, J.F., Massion, J.: Étude topographique des relations entre le cortex cérébral et le noyau ventrolateral. J. Physiol. (Paris) 59, 233 (1967).Google Scholar
  163. Downman, C.B.B., Woolsey, C.N., Lende, R.A.: Auditory areas I, II and Ep: Cochlear representation, afferent paths and interconnections. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 106, 127–142 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Dumermuth, G.: Electronic data processing in pediatric EEG research. Neuropädiatrie 4, 349–374 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Dumermuth, G., Huber, P.J., Kleiner, B., Gasser, T.: Numerical analysis of electroen-cephalographic data. IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoustics AU-18, 404–411 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Dunlop, C.W., Webster, W.R., Rodger, R.S.: Amplitude changes of evoked potentials in the auditory system of unanesthetized cats during acoustic habituation. J. Aud. Res. 6, 47–66 (1966).Google Scholar
  167. Dunlop, C.W., Itzkowic, D. J., Aitkin, L.M.: Tone-burst response patterns of single units in the cat medial geniculate body. Brain Res. 16, 149–164 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Dustman, R.E., Beck, E.C.: Long-term stability of visually evoked potentials in man. Science 142, 1480–1481 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Eggermont, J. J.: Analog modelling of cochlear adaptation. Kybernetik 14, 117–126 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Eggermont, J. J.: Basic principles for electrocochleography. Acta otolaryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316, 7–16 (1974).Google Scholar
  171. Eggermont, J. J.: Electrocochleography and recruitment. IV. Biennial Symposium der International ERA Study Group, London 28.–30.7. 1975a. To be submitted to the Ann. Otol. (St. Louis).Google Scholar
  172. Eggermont, J.J.: Summating potentials in electrocochleography: Relation to hearing pathology. IV. Biennial Symposium der International ERA Study Group, London 28.–30.7. 1975b.Google Scholar
  173. Eggermont, J.J.: Compound action potential responses to tonebursts in the human and guinea pig cochlea. IV. Biennial Symposium der International ERA Study Group, London 28.–30.7. 1975c. To be submitted to JASA.Google Scholar
  174. Eggermont, J.J.: Cochlear adaptation: A theoretical description. Biol. Cybernetics 19, 181–189 (1975d).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Eggermont, J.J., Odenthal, D.W.: Methods in electrocochleography. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316, 17–24 (1974).Google Scholar
  176. Eggermont, J.J., Odenthal, D.W., Schmidt, P.H., Spoor, A.: Electrocochleography. Basis principles and clinical application. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316 (1974 a).Google Scholar
  177. Eggermont, J.J., Spoor, A., Odenthal, D.W.: Frequency specificity of tone-burst electrocochleography. To be published in: Ruben, Elberlin, Salamon(eds.): Proc. electrocochleography conference. New York: 1974b.Google Scholar
  178. Ehrenberger, K., Schöne, W., Spreng, M.: Corticogramme der somatischen Rinde SI der Katze bei beidseitiger vibratorischer Reizung der Schnurrhaare. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 286, 159–170 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Ehrenberger, K., Finkenzeller, P., Keidel, W.D., Plattig, K.H.: Elektrophysiologische Korrelation der Stevensschen Potenzfunktion und objektive Schwellenmessung am Vibrationssinn des Menschen. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 290, 114–123 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Elberling, C., Salomon, G.: Electrrical potentials from the inner ear in man, in response to transient sounds generated in a closed acoustic system. Rev. Laryng. (Bordeaux) Suppl. 691 (1971).Google Scholar
  181. Ellinwood, E. H. Jr., Cook, J. D., Wilson, W. P.: Periodic evoked response amplitude fluctuation in the auditory cortex as a function of changing interaural stimulus intervals. Brain Res. 9, 59–70 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Euler, C. von, Green, J. D., Ricci, G.: The role of hippocampal dendrites in evoked responses and after-discharges. Acta physiol. scand. 42, 87–111 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Evans, E.F., Wilson, J.P.: The frequency selectivity of cochlea. In: Møller, A.R. (ed.): Basic mechanisms in hearing. New York-London: Academic Press 1973.Google Scholar
  184. Ewertsen, H.W., Birk-Nielsen, H.: Social hearing handicap index. Audiology 12, 180–187 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Feldman, S., Heide, C.S. van der, Porter, R.W.: Evoked potentials in the hypothalamus. Amer. J. Physiol. 196, 1163–1167 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Feldtkeller, R., Zwicker, E.: Das Ohr als Nachrichtenempfänger. Stuttgart: Hirzel 1956.Google Scholar
  187. Finkenzeller, P.: Gemittelte EEG-Potentiale bei olfactorischer Reizung. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 292, 76–80 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Finkenzeller, P.: Die Mitteilung von Reaktionspotentialen. Kybernetik 6, 22–44 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Finkenzeller, P., David, E., Kallert, S., Keidel, W.D.: Die Aussagekraft gemittelter Potentiale. Pflügers Arch. 307, 136 (1969).Google Scholar
  190. Finkenzeller, P., Keidel, W.D.: Eigenschaften akustisch evozierter Potentiale bei Gleichspannungsregistrierung. Arch. Oto-Rhino-Laryng. 207, 508 (1974).Google Scholar
  191. Finkenzeller, P., Keidel, W.D.: Correlates of auditory perception in averaged perstimula-tory EEG-DC-recordings. Communication at the second symposium of the Study Group for Methodology in Electroencephalography from 30.4.–4.5. 75 in Vevey, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  192. Finkenzeller, P., Keidel, W.D.: Evoked potentials to evaluate the perception of complex sounds. IV. Biennial Symposium der International ERA Study Group in London, 28.–30.7. 1975b. To be published in: International Audiology.Google Scholar
  193. Fishman, M.C., Michael, C.R.: Integration of auditory information in the cat’s visual cortex. Vision Res. 13, 1415–1419 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Flach, M., Seidel, P.: Mikrophonpotentiale (MP) des menschlichen Ohres. Arch. klin. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 190, 229–243 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Flechsig, P.E.: Die Leitungsbahnen im Gehirn und Rückenmark des Menschen. Leipzig: W. Engelmann 1876.Google Scholar
  196. Fleischlvon Marxow, E.: Mittheilung, betreffend die Physiologie der Hirnrinde. Zbl. Physiol. 4, 537–540 (1890).Google Scholar
  197. Fox, M.W.: The effects of short-term social and sensory isolation upon behavior, EEG and averaged evoked potentials in puppies. Physiol. Behav. 2, 145–151 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Franzén, O., Offenloch, K.: Evoked response correlates of psychophysical magnitude estimates for tactile stimulation in man. Exp. Brain Res. 8, 1–18 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Freeman, W. J.: Relations between unit activity and evoked potentials in prepyriform cortex of cats. J. Neurophysiol. 31, 337–348 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. French, J.D., Hernandez-Peon, R., Livingston, R.B.: Projections from cortex to cephalic brainstem (reticular formation) in monkey. J. Neurophysiol. 18, 74–95 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Fritzsch, G.T., Hitzig, E.: Über die electrische Erregbarkeit des Großhirns. Arch. v. Reichert u. DuBois-Reymond 1870, 300–332. Referiert in: Centralbl. med. Wiss. 9, 132 (1871).Google Scholar
  202. Fromm, G.H., Bond, H.W.: The relationship between neuron activity and cortical steady potentials. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 159–166 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Fruhstorfer, H.: Der Einfluß von Reizfolgefrequenz, Reizanzahl und Reizort auf die Intensitätsabhängigkeit vibratorisch ausgelöster corticaler Antworten beim Menschen. Dissertation, Erlangen 1966.Google Scholar
  204. Fruhstorfer, H.: Habituation and dishabituation of the human vertex response. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 30, 306–312 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Fruhstorfer, H., Bergström, R.M.: Human vigilance and auditory evoked responses. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 27, 346–355 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Fruhstorfer, H., Soveri, P., Järvilehto, T.: Short-term habituation of the auditory evoked response in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 153–161 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Galambos, R.: The human auditory evoked response. In: Moskowitz, H.R., Scharf, B., Stevens, J.C. (eds.): Sensation and measurement. Dordrecht-Holland/Boston-USA: D. Reidel 1974.Google Scholar
  208. Galambos, R., Myers, R.E., Sheatz, G.C.: Extralemniscal activation of auditory cortex in cats. Amer. J. Physiol. 200, 23–28 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Gastaut, H.: Some aspects of the neurophysiological basis of conditioned reflexes and behavior. In: Wolstenholme, G.E.W., O’Connor, C.M. (eds.): Ciba foundation symposium on the neurological basis of behavior. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. 1958.Google Scholar
  210. Geisler, C.D.: Electrical responses to acoustic clicks in monkeys. Quart. Progr. Rep. No. 53, MIT Cambridge, April 15, 184–187 (1959).Google Scholar
  211. Geisler, C.D.: Electrical responses to acoustic clicks recorded from human scalp. Quart. Progr. Rep. No. 57, MIT Cambridge, April 15, 137–143 (1960).Google Scholar
  212. Geisler, C.D., Frishkopf, L.S.: Development of the K-complex with sleep. Quart. Progr. Report, MIT Cambridge, July 15, 148–150 (1957).Google Scholar
  213. Geisler, C.D., Frishkopf, L. S., Brown, R. M.: The early response to clicks in awake subjects. Quart. Progr. Rep. MIT Cambridge, July 15, 144–148 (1957).Google Scholar
  214. Geisler, C.D., Frishkopf, L.S., Rosenblith, W.A.: Extracranial responses to acoustic clicks in man. Science 128, 1210–1211 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Gerin, P., Morgon, A., Charachon, D., Munier, F., Pernier, J., Arnal, D., Lebreton, M.F.: Une methode d’audiometrie objective — l’audiometrie electroencephalographique. J. franç. Oto-rhino-laryng. 17, 547–595 (1968).Google Scholar
  216. Gerken, G.M., Neff, W.D.: Experimental procedures affecting evoked responses recorded from auditory cortex. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 15, 947–957 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Gerull, G., Giesen, M., Mrowinski, D., Rudolph, N.: Audiologie und Phoniatrie. Untersuchung eines frühen, von der Kopfhaut ableitbaren Potentials für die objektive Audiometrie. H.N.O. (Berl.) 20, 339–343 (1972).Google Scholar
  218. Gerull, G., Giesen, M., Mrowinski, D., Rudolph, N.: Properties of an early AER of 6–10 ms latency. IIIrd Symposium of the International Electric Response Audiometry Study Group, 10.–12. Sept. 1973 in Bordeaux.Google Scholar
  219. Gerull, G., Giesen, M., Mrowinski, D., Rudolph, N.: Klinischer Einsatz verschiedener ERA-Verfahren zur Untersuchung von Funktionsstörungen der Hörbahn. Laryng. Rhinol. 54, 671–676 (1975).Google Scholar
  220. Gestring, G.F., Burian, K., Innitzer, J.: Computer sweep-splitting for simultaneous ECOG and ERA display. Illrd Symposium of the International Electric Response Audiometry Study Group, 10.–12. September 1973, Bordeaux.Google Scholar
  221. Gold, A., Wilpizeski, C.R.: Studies in auditory adaptation: II. Some effects of sodium salicylate on evoked auditory potentials in cats. Laryngoscope 76, 674–685 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Goldberg, J. M., Neff, W.D.: Frequency discrimination after bilateral section of the brachium of the inferior colliculus. J. comp. Neurol. 116, 256–290 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Goldring, S., O’Leary, J.L.: Cortical d. c. changes incident to midline thalamic stimulation. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 9, 577–584 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Goldring, S., O’Leary, J. L.: Pharmacological dissolution of evoked cortical potentials. Fed. Proc. 19, 612–618 (1960).Google Scholar
  225. Goldring, S., Sheptak, P., Karahashi, Y.: Averaged responses from association areas in waking cat. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 23, 241–247 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Goldstein, M.H. Jr., Kiang, N.Y.S.: Responses at the auditory cortex to repetitive stimuli. Quart. Progr. Rep. MIT Cambridge, April 15, 135–139 (1957).Google Scholar
  227. Graziani, L.J., Weitzman, E.D., Velasco, M.S.A.: Neurologic maturation and auditory evoked responses in low birth weight infants. Pediatric 41, 483–494 (1968).Google Scholar
  228. Gross, M.M., Begleiter, H., Tobin, M., Kissin, B.: Changes in auditory evoked response induced by alcohol. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 143, 152–156 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Gumnit, R.J.: D. C. Potential changes from auditory cortex of cat. J. Neurophysiol. 23, 667–675 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Gumnit, R.J.: The distribution of direct current responses evoked by sounds in the auditory cortex of the cat. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 889–895 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Gumnit, R. J., Grossman, R.G.: Potentials evoked by sound in the auditory cortex of the cat. Amer. J. Physiol. 200, 1219–1225 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Guth, S.L.: Patterning effects with compound stimuli. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 63, 480–485 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Haider, M.: Erwartungswirkung, Antizipation und corticale evozierte Potentiale. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 88, 167–168 (1965).Google Scholar
  234. Haider, M.: Corticale evozierte Potentiale, Vigilanz und Aufmerksamkeit. In: Heckhatjsen, H.; Herausgegeben im Auftrage der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie. (Hrsg.): Bericht über den 24. Kongreß der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie. Göttingen: Verlag für Psychologie, Dr. C. J. Hogrefe 1965.Google Scholar
  235. Haider, M., Spong, P., Lindsley, D.B.: Attention, vigilance, and cortical evoked-potentials in humans. Science 145, 180–182 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Haider, M., Groll, E., Studynka, G.: Orientierungs- und Bereitschaftspotentiale bei unerwarteten Reizen. Exp. Brain Res. 5, 45–54 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Häkkinen, V., Fruhstorfer, H.: Correlation between spontaneous activity and auditory evoked responses in the human EEG. Acta neurol. scand. 43, Suppl. 31, 160–161 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Hall, R.A., Rappaport, M., Hopkins, H.K., Griffin, R.: Tobacco and evoked potential. Science 180, 212–214 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Hall, R. D.: Habituation of evoked potentials in the rat under conditions of behavioral control. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 155–165 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Hall, R.D., Mark, R.G.: Fear and the modification of acoustically evoked potentials during conditioning. J. Neurophysiol. 30, 893–910 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Harly, S., Neergaard, E.B., Harbo, A., Blegvad Andersen, O., Elbrønd, O.: Registration of acoustically evoked vertex potentials with unconventional averaging technique. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 263, 242–244 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Hassmannova, J., Spector, I.: Relations fonctionnelles entre relais acoustique (G. M.) et claustrum. J. Physiol. (Paris) 59, 427–428 (1967).Google Scholar
  243. Hassmannová, J., Mysliveček, J.: Maturation of the primary cortical response to stimulation of medial geniculate body. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 547–555 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Hawkins, J.E. Jr.: Disturbances of vestibular function produced in animals by streptomycin. Fed. Proc. 6, 125 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Hawkins, J. E. Jr.: Cochlear signs of streptomycin intoxication. J. Pharmacol, exp. Ther. 100, 38–44 (1950).Google Scholar
  246. Hawkins, J.E. Jr.: The Ototoxicity of Hydrostreptomycin. Transactions of the 10th Conference on the Chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (Streptomycin Conference), held on 25. to 28. Jan. 1951 at the Fulton County Medical Society, Atlanta Georgia.Google Scholar
  247. Hay, I.S., Davis, H.: Slow cortical evoked potentials: Interactions of auditory, vibro-tactile and shock stimuli. Audiology 10, 9–17 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Heninger, G.R., McDonald, R.K., Goff, W.R., Sollberger, A.: Diural Variations in the cerebral evoked response and EEG. Arch. Neurol. 21, 330–337 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Hermans, J., Eggermont, J.J., Hagedooren, J., Odenthal, D.W.: Probabilistic differential diagnosis of auditory dysfunction on the basis of electrocochleography. Meth. inform. Med. 14, 87–95 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Hilger, J.A., Boies, L.R. Jr., Roth, N.A.: Percutaneous recording of cochlear microphonics in cats. Arch. Otolaryng. 82, 591–593 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Hillyard, S.A., Galambos, R.: Effects of stimulus and response contingencies on a surface negative slow potential shift in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 297–304 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Hirsch, J.-C.: Électrophysiologie. Variations selon les modalités d’enregistrement de Télectro-corticogramme d’un gyrus cortical isolé. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 263, 778–780 (1966), Série D.Google Scholar
  253. Hirsch, J.-C., Hirsch, J.-F., Landau-Ferey, J., Huguenard, P., Scherrer, J.: Modifications du tracé électrique du cortex isolé par les anesthésiques. J. Physiol. (Paris) 59, 429 (1967).Google Scholar
  254. Hirsh, S.K.: Vertex potentials associated with an auditory discrimination. Psychon. Sci. 22, 173–175 (1971).Google Scholar
  255. Hoffman, J.P., Walker, J.V. Jr., Wolin, L.R., Kadoya, S., Massopust, L.C. Jr.: Evoked responses in the auditory cortex of the cebus monkey. J. Aud. Res. 9, 89–99 (1969).Google Scholar
  256. Holm, C., Stange, G.: Pathologische ERA-Kennlinien als Kriterien zur Wirkungsweise von Hörtrainern. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 202, 471–476 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Holm, C., Stange, G.: Überschwellige ERA-Befunde als therapeutische Basis zur Versorgung innenohrgeschädigter Kinder. H.N.O. (Berl.) 21, 163–166 (1973).Google Scholar
  258. Holmes, O., Short, A.D.: Correlation between evoked potentials and spontaneous activity in the cortex cerebri of rats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 204, 84P (1969).Google Scholar
  259. Horn, G., Hill, R.M.: Effect of removing the neocortex on the response to repeated sensory stimulation of neurones in the mid-brain. Nature (Lond.) 211, 754–755 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Horvath, F., Buser, P.: Facteurs affectant la répartition corticale des fuseaux évoqués chez le chat. J. Physiol. (Paris) 58, 534 (1966).Google Scholar
  261. Horvath, R.S.: Variability of cortical auditory evoked response. J. Neurophysiol. 32, 1056–1063 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Hotta, T., Kameda, K.: Interactions between somatic and visual or auditory responses in the thalamus of the cat. Exp. Neurol. 8, 1–13 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Hotta, T., Terashima, S.: Audiovisual interaction and its correlation with cortical stimulation in the lateral thalamus. Exp. Neurol. 12, 146–158 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Houchin, J.: Cortical potentials evoked by pairs of peripheral stimuli. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 204, 75–77P (1969).Google Scholar
  265. Hrbek, A., Hrbkova, M., Lenard, H.-G.: Somato-sensory, auditory and visual evoked responses in newborn infants during sleep and wakefulness. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 26, 597–603 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Hugelin, A., Bonvallet, M.: Tonus cortical et controle de la facilitation motrice d’origine reticulaire. J. Physiol. (Paris) 49, 1171–1200 (1957).Google Scholar
  267. Hutt, S.J., Hutt, C., Lenard, H.G., Bernuth, H.v., Muntjewerff, W.J.: Auditory responsivity in the human neonate. Nature (Lond.) 218, 888–890 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Irwin, D.A., Knott, J.R., McAdam, D.W., Rebert, C.S.: Motivational determinants of the contingent negative variation. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 21, 538–543 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Jacobson, J.L., Cody, D.T., Lambert, E.H., Bickford, R.G.: Physiological properties of the postauricular responses (sonomotor) in man. Physiologist 7, 167 (1964).Google Scholar
  270. Jaffe, S.L., Bourlier, P.F., Hagamen, W.D.: Adaptation of evoked auditory potentials: A midbrain through frontal lobe map in the unanesthetized cat. Brain Res. 15, 121–136 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Jane, J.A., Masterton, R.B., Diamond, I.T.: The function of the tectum for attention to auditory stimuli in the cat. J. comp. Neurol. 125, 165–192 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Järvilehto, T., Fruhstorfer, H.: Differenciation between slow cortical potentials associated with motor and mental acts in man. Exp. Brain Res. 11, 309–317 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Järvilehto, T., Fruhstorfer, H.: Is the sound-evoked DC potential a contingent negative variation? Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., Suppl. 33, 105–108 (1973).Google Scholar
  274. Jauhiainen, T.: Objektiivinen audiometria. Eripainos Akustinen Aikakauslehti 4, 12–13 (1966).Google Scholar
  275. Jauhiainen, T., Plattig, K. H.: Reizsynchrone langsame Rindenpotentiale beim Menschen nach elektrischer Reizung der Zunge. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 289, R 27 (1966).Google Scholar
  276. Jewett, D.L., Romano, M.N., Williston, J.S.: Human auditory evoked potentials: Possible brain stem components detected on the scalp. Science 167, 1517–1518 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Johannsen, H.S., Keidel, W. D., Spreng, M.: Der Einfluß von Intensität und Dauer der Beschallung auf den Off-Effekt des akustisch evozierten Potentials. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 201, 208–221 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Jung, R., Kornhuber, H.D., DaFonesca, J.D.: Multisensory convergence on cortical neurons. In: Moruzzi, G., Fessard, A., Jasper, H.H. (eds.): Brain mechanisms. Progress in brain research, Vol. 1. Amsterdam-London-New York: Elsevier 1963.Google Scholar
  279. Kado, R.T., Adey, W.R.: Electrode problems in central nervous monitoring in performing subjects. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 148, 263–278 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Kallert, S.: Über die Reizantwort einzelner Zellen im Corpus geniculatum mediale der Katze bei Untersuchung mit Mikroelektroden. Dissertationsarbeit, Erlangen 1972.Google Scholar
  281. Kallert, S.: Telemetrische Mikroelektrodenuntersuchungen am Corpus geniculatum mediale der wachen Katze. Habilitationsschrift, Erlangen 1973.Google Scholar
  282. Kallert, S., David, E., Finkenzeller, P.: Reizintensitätsabhängige Aktivitätsänderungen einzelner Neurone in den höheren Kerngebieten der spezifischen Hörbahn. Pflügers Arch, ges. Physiol. 297, R29 (1967).Google Scholar
  283. Kallert, S., David, E., Finkenzeller, P., Keidel, W.D.: Two different neuronal discharge periodicities in the acoustical channel. In: Plomp, R., Smoorenburg, G.F. (eds.): Frequency analysis and periodicity detection in hearing. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff 1970.Google Scholar
  284. Karnahl, Th., Benning, C. D.: Effect of sedation upon evoked response audiometry: Amplitude and latency vs sound pressure level. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 201, 181–188 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Karnahl, Th., Stange, G.: Ergebnisse bei der Standardisierung der Electric Response Audiometry (ERA). Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 202, 452–457 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Karnahl, Th., Benking, C.-D., Stange, G.: Akustisch evozierte, aus dem EEG gemittelte Potentiale beim Erwachsenen unter dem Einfluß von Sedativa und Psychopharmaka. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 97, 1102–1103 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Karnahl, Th., Benning, C.-D., Stange, G.: Acoustically evoked, EEG-derived potentials in adults under the influence of sedatives and psychoactive drugs. Germ. Med. 2, 101–102 (1972).Google Scholar
  288. Karnahl, Th., Spreng, M., Stange, G.: Calculations of ERA-potentials (CAT 1000 and PDP-12). Rev. Laryng. 95, 554–559 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Kaufman, L., Price, R.: The detection of cortical spike activity at the human scalp. IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. Vol. BME-14, 84–90 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Keidel, W.D.: Vibrationsreaction. Der Erschütterungssinn des Menschen. Erlanger Forschungen, Reihe B: Naturwissenschaften, Bd. 2. Erlangen: Universitätsbund 1956.Google Scholar
  291. Keidel, W.D.: Periphere und corticale Komponenten der Adaptation bei Reizung des Ohres und der Haut der Katze mit Impulsfolgen. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 268, 34–35 (1958).Google Scholar
  292. Keidel, W.D.: Rankes Adaptationstheorie. Z. Biol. 112, 411–425 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Keidel, W.D.: Nachrichtenübermittlung und Nachrichtenverarbeitung in Organismen. Vortrag auf Einladung der Carl-Friedrich-von-Siemens-Stiftung, München-Nymphenburg 1962 a.Google Scholar
  294. Keidel, W.D.: Elektronisch gemittelte langsame Rindenpotentiale des Menschen bei akustischer Reizung. Collegium ORLAS in Athen, 16.–21.9. 1962b.Google Scholar
  295. Keidel, W.D.: Kybernetische Systeme des menschlichen Organismus. (Hrsg.: Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung des Landes Nordrhein/Westf.). Westdeutscher Verlag, Köln und Opladen: 118, 31–71 (1963a).Google Scholar
  296. Keidel, W.D.: Tuning between central auditory pathways and the ear. IEEE Transactions on Military Electronics MIL-7, 131–143 (1963b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Keidel, W.D.: Physiologie der Hautsinne. In: Marchionini, A. (Hrsg.): Handbuchartikel. Ergänzungsband zu Jadassohn: Handbuch der Dermatologie. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: 1963c.Google Scholar
  298. Keidel, W.D.: Rindenpotentiale beim Menschen und Hörvermögen. Tagung der Deutschen Audiologen in Bremen, 5.–8. 3. 1964a.Google Scholar
  299. Keidel, W.D.: Audiometric aspects and multisensory power functions of electronically averaged slow evoked cortical responses in man. Tagung des Collegium ORLAS in Würz-burg, 30. 8.–3. 9. 1964b (gemeinsame mit Spreng, M.).Google Scholar
  300. Keidel, W. D.: Objective audiometry in man. 7th International Congress of Audiology in Copenhagen, 25.–28. 8. 1964 c.Google Scholar
  301. Keidel, W.D.: Biophysical aspects of auditory information processing. International Biophysics Meeting at Paris, June 1964d.Google Scholar
  302. Keidel, W.D.: Kybernetische Leistungen des menschlichen Organismus. Elektrotechn. Z. 24, 769–808 (1964f).Google Scholar
  303. Keidel, W.D.: Die Physiologie der Informationsverarbeitung. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 281, 5–7 (1964g).Google Scholar
  304. Keidel, W.D.: Neuere Ergebnisse der Physiologie des Hörens. Arch. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 185, 548–575 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Keidel, W.D.: Electrophysiology of vibratory perception. In: Neff, W.D. (ed.): Contributions to sensory physiology, Vol. 3. New York-London: Academic Press 1968.Google Scholar
  306. Keidel, W.D.: Informationsphysiologische Aspekte des Hörens. Studium Generale 22, 49–82 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Keidel, W.D.: Neuere Ergebnisse der akustischen Informationsverarbeitung. In: Präsidium der Deutschen Gesellschaft für experimentelle Medizin. (Hrsg.): Ergebnisse der experimentellen Medizin, Bd. 3. Berlin: VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit 1970.Google Scholar
  308. Keidel, W.D.: Information processing in the higher parts of the auditory pathway. In: Proceedings of the International Union of Physiological Siences, Volume VIII. (Ed.: German Physiological Society, Munich 1971a). XXV. International Congress, Munich 1971.Google Scholar
  309. Keidel, W.D.: What do we know about the human cortical evoked potential after all ? Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 198, 9–37 (1971b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Keidel, W. D.: The use of quick correlators in electro-cochleography both in oto-audiography (OAG) and in neuro-audiography (NAG). In: Portmann, G. (Ed.): Rev. Largng. Supplementen 1971c.Google Scholar
  311. Keidel, W.D.: D.C.-potentials in the auditory evoked response in man. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 71, 242–248 (1971 d).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Keidel, W.D.: The dc-potential in the human cortical evoked response, a new contribution to the objective audiometry. J. franc. Oto-chino-laryng. 21, 153–158 (1972a).Google Scholar
  313. Keidel, W.D.: Intermodale Spezifität elektrophysiologischer Reizkorrelate. In: Janzen, R., Keidel, W.D., Herz, A., Steichele, C. (Hersg.): Schmerz. Grundlagen — Pharmakologie — Therapie. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme 1972b.Google Scholar
  314. Keidel, W.D.: The use of fast correlators in electro-cochleography in man. In: Taylor, W. (ed.): Disorders of auditory function. London-New York: Academic Press 1973.Google Scholar
  315. Keidel, W.D.: Recent advances in information processing within the auditory system. In: Keidel, W.D., Händler, W., Spreng, M. (Hrsg.): Kybernetik und Bionik — Cybernetics and bionics. München: Olbenbourg 1974a.Google Scholar
  316. Keidel, W.D.: Information processing in the higher parts of the auditory pathway. In: Zwicker, E., Terhardt, E. (eds.): Psychophysical models and physiological facts in hearing. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1974b.Google Scholar
  317. Keidel, W.D.: Anatomische und kommunikationstheoretische Grundlagen des Gehörs. In: Keidel, W.D. (Hrsg.): Physiologie des Gehörs. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme 1975a.Google Scholar
  318. Keidel, W.D.: Physiologie des Gehörs. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme 1975b.Google Scholar
  319. Keidel, W.D.: Slow potentials, in man to voluntary motor intentions, computed by autocorrelation. In preparation (1976).Google Scholar
  320. Keidel, W.D., Keidel, U.O., Kiang, N.Y.S., Frishkopf, L.S.: Time course of adaptation of evoked responses from the cat’s somesthetic and auditory systems. Quart. Progr. Rep. Massachusetts Inst. Technol. RLE 48, 121–124 (1958).Google Scholar
  321. Keidel, W.D., Spreng, M.: Elektronisch gemittelte langsame Rindenpotentiale des Menschen bei akustischer Reizung. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 56, 318–328 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Keidel, W.D., Spreng, M.: Objektive Audiometrie. Arbeitstagung Deutscher Audiologen in Erlangen am 9.–10. 4. 1965.Google Scholar
  323. Keidel, W.D., Spreng, M.: Neurophysiological evidence for the Stevens power function in man. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 38, 191–195 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Keidel, W.D., Spreng, M.: Computed audio-encephalograms in man (a technique of objective audiometry). Int. Audiology 4, 56–60 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Keidel, W. D., Spreng, M.: Recent status results and problems of objective audiometry in man. 1st Part. J. franc. Oto-rhino-laryng. 14, 45–53 (1970).Google Scholar
  326. Keidel, W.D., Engelen, S., Rix, R.: Versuch einer systemtheoretischen Erklärung des Alpha-Rhythmus im menschlichen Elektroencephalogramm. Naturwissenschaften 58, 91–93 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Keidel, W.D., Innitzer, J., Neuhäuser, G., Plattig, K.-H.: Electroencephalographical audiometry of the new-born. J. franç. Oto-rhino-laryng. 22, 671–683 (1973).Google Scholar
  328. Keidel, W.D., Finkenzeller, P.: Simultaneous computation of ECG, early response and ERA. IV. Biennial Symposium der International ERA Study Group in London, 28.–30. 7. 1975, to be published in: International Audiology.Google Scholar
  329. Keidel, W.D., Kallert, S.: Auditory nervous system. In: Harrison, D.F.N., Hinchcliffe, R. (eds.): Scientific basis of otolaryngology. London: William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd. (to be published).Google Scholar
  330. Kern, E. B., Cody, D. T. R., Bickford, R. G.: Neurogenic components of the averaged response evoked by clicks in guinea pigs. Mayo Clin. Proc. 44, 886–899 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Kern, E.B., Cody, D.T.R., Bickford, R. G.: Vertex-response thresholds to pure tones in guinea pigs. Arch. Otolaryng. 90, 79–89 (1969).Google Scholar
  332. Key, B.J.: Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide on potentials evoked in the specific sensory pathways. Brit. med. Bull. 21, 30–35 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Khechinashvili, S.N., Kevanishvili, Z.Sh., Kadjaia, O.A.: Evoked potentials of the auditory system in man. Sechenov physiol. J. U.S.S.R. 58, 527–533 (1972).Google Scholar
  334. Kiang, N. Y. S.: Discharge patterns of single fibres in the cats’ auditory nerve. Res. Monogr. 35. Cambridge: MIT Press 1965.Google Scholar
  335. Kiang, N.Y.S., Crist, A.H., French, M.A., Edwards, A.G.: Postauricular electric response to acoustic stimuli in humans. Quart. Progr. Rep. No. 68, MIT Cambridge, January 15, 218–225 (1963).Google Scholar
  336. Klang, N.Y.S., Goldstein, M.H. Jr.: Evoked cortical responses and anesthesia. Ruart. Progr. Rep. MIT Cambridge, July 15, 142–144 (1957).Google Scholar
  337. Kiang, N.Y.S., Peake, W.T.: Studies of the auditory nervous system by using combined acoustic and electric stimulation. Quart. Progr. Rep. MIT Cambridge, January 15, 124–128 (1958).Google Scholar
  338. Kiang, N.Y.S., Sandel, T.T.: Cortical “off” responses to bursts of noise in unanesthetized cats. Quart. Progr. Rep. MIT Cambridge, July 15, 139–142 (1957).Google Scholar
  339. Kietzell, H.R. von: Vibratorisch evozierte Hirnrindenpotentiale bei wachen Katzen. Dissertation, Erlangen 1971.Google Scholar
  340. Kimmel, H.D., Goldstein, A. J.: Retention of habituation of the GSR to visual and auditory stimulation. J. exp. Psychol. 73, 401–404 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Kitasato, H.: The change in the surface negative cortical response during nembutal anesthesia and firing level of neurons in the cortex of rabbit. Jap. J. Physiol. 15, 71–91 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Klass, D.W.: Central association of electroencephalographers. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 15, 720–725 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Klee, M.R., Offenloch, K., Tigges, J.: Cross-correlation analysis of electroencephalographic potentials and slow membrane transients. Science 147, 519–521 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Klinger, K.-P.: Amplituden Variationen akustisch evozierter Potentiale in Abhängigkeit von der Signalinformation und belastungsbedingter Ermüdung. Int. Z. angew. Physiol. 31, 269–278 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Klinke, R., Fruhstorfer, H., Finkenzeller, P.: Evoked responses as a function of external and stored information. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 119–122 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Klivington, K. A., Galambos, R.: Resistance shifts accompanying the evoked cortical response in the cat. Science 157, 211–213 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Kobal, G.: Amplituden und Latenzen evozierter Hirnpotentiale nach elektrischer Zungenreizung beim Menschen in Abhängigkeit von der Ableiteposition. Dissertation, Erlangen 1973.Google Scholar
  348. Kobal, G., Wandhoefer, A., Plattig, K.-H.: EEG power spectra and auditory evoked potentials in transcendental meditation (TM). Pflügers Arch. 359, R96 (1975).Google Scholar
  349. Köhler, W., Held, R., O’Connell, D.N.: An investigation of cortical currents. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 96, 290–330 (1952).Google Scholar
  350. Köhler, W., Wegener, J.: Currents of the human auditory cortex. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 45, Suppl. 1, 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Köhler, W., Neff, W.D., Wegener, J.: Currents of the auditory cortex in the cat. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 45, Suppl. 1, 1–24 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Köhler, W., O’Connell, D.N.: Currents of the visual cortex in the cat. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 49, Suppl. 2, 1–43 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Kornhuber, H.H., Deecke, L.: Hirnpotentialänderungen bei Willkürbewegungen und passiven Bewegungen des Menschen: Bereitschaftspotential und reafferente Potentiale. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 284, 1–17 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Kornmüller, A.E.: Bioelektrische Erscheinungen architektonischer Felder. Eine Methode der Lokalisation auf der Großhirnrinde. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 130, 44–60 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Kryter, K., Ades, H.: Studies on the function of the higher acoustic nervous centers in the cat. Amer. J. Psychol. 56, 501–536 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. La Grutta, V., Amato, G., Militello, L.: The responsiveness of acoustic area after stimulation of the caudate nucleus. Experimentia (Basel) 26, 259–260 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Lamb, L.E., Graham, J.T.: Influence of signal variables on evoked response to sound. J. Speech Res. 10, 257–267 (1967).Google Scholar
  358. Landau, W.M., Bishop, G.H., Clare, M.H.: Analysis of the form and distribution of evoked cortical potentials under the influence of polarizing currents. J. Neurophysiol. 27, 788–813 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Larsson, L.-E.: Correlation between the psychological significance of stimuli and the magnitudes of the startle blink and evoked EEG potentials in man. Acta physiol. scand. 48, 276–294 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Lehmann, D., Fender, D.H.: Component analysis of human averaged evoked potentials: dichoptic stimuli using different target structure. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 542–553 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Lehnhardt, E.: Audiometrische Topodiagnostik im Hirnstamm. Z. Laryng. Rhinol. 52, 11–21 (1973).Google Scholar
  362. Lenard, H.G., Bernuth, H. Von, Hutt, S. J.: Acoustic evoked responses in newborn infants: The influence of pitch and complexity of the stimulus. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 27, 121–127 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Lettich, E., Margerison, J.H.: The use of data from low frequency analysis to illustrate serial EEG changes in depressed patients during tratment with iproniazid. J. ment. Sci. 106, 1111–1114 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Levonian, E.: Evoked potential in relation to subsequent alpha frequency. Science 152, 1280–1282 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Libet, B., Kahn, J.B. Jr.: Steady potentials and neurone activity in mammals. Fed. Proc. 6, 152 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Lickey, M.E., Fox, S.S.: Localization and habituation of sensory evoked DC responses in cat cortex. Exp. Neurol. 15, 437–454 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Lilly, J.C., Cherry, R.B.: Surface movements of click responses from acoustic cerebral cortex of cat: leading and trailing edges of a response figure. J. Neurophysiol. 17, 521–532 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Lindsley, D.F., Morton, T.H., Zaroodny, T.: Effects of subthalamic stimulation on sensoryevoked potentials in the reticular formation and cortex. Exp. Neurol. 17, 439–450 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Lindsley, D.F., Zaroodny, T., Morton, T.H.: Effects of subthalamic lesions on sensory-evoked potentials in the reticular formation and sensorimotor cortex. Exp. Neurol. 17, 210–220 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Loewenich, V. von: Leistungsfähigkeit und Grenzen elektroencephalographischer Hörprüfung bei Säuglingen und Kleinkindern. Mschr. Kinderheilk. 118, 400–403 (1970).Google Scholar
  371. Loewenich, V. von: Methodische Voraussetzungen zur diagnostischen Verwertung auditorisch evozierter Potentiale bei Kleinkindern und Säuglingen. Pädiat. Fortbildk. Praxis 34, 39–48 (1972).Google Scholar
  372. Loewenich, V. von, Finkenzeller, P.: Reizstärkenabhängigkeit und Stevenssche Potenzfunktion beim optisch evozierten Potential des Menschen. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 293, 256–271 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Loftus-Hills, J.J., Johnstone, B. M.: Auditory function, communication, and the brain-evoked response in anuran amphibians. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 47, 1131–1138 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Lombroso, C.T., Merlis, J.K.: Suprasylvian auditory responses in the cat. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 9, 301–308 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Low, M.D., Borda, R.P., Kellaway, P.: Contingent negative variation in rhesus monkeys: An EEG sign of a specific mental process. Percept. Motor Skills 22, 443–446 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Low, M.D., Borda, R.P., Frost, J.D. Jr., Kellaway, P.: Surface-negative, slow-potential shift associated with conditioning in man. Neurology 16, 771–782 (1966).Google Scholar
  377. Maoni, F., Moruzzi, G., Rossi, G.F., Zanchetti, A.: EEG arousal following inactivation of the lower brain-stem by selective injection of barbiturate into vertebral circulation. Arch. ital. Biol. 97, 33–46 (1959).Google Scholar
  378. Majkowski, J.: Wplyw niszczenia dróg sluchowych kota na oroces uczenia się odowiedzi na bodźce dźwiękowe. Rozpr. Wydz. Nauk. med. pol. Akad. Nauk 9, 59–108 (1964).Google Scholar
  379. Majkowski, J., Morgades, P. P.: Primary auditory evoked potentials after section of brachium of the inferior colliculus. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 27, 587–593 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Manil, J., Desmedt, J.-E., Debecker, J., Chorazyna, H.: Les potentiels cérébraux évoqués par la stimulation de la main chez le nouveau-né normal. Rev. Neurol. 117, 53–61 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Marczynski, T. J., Rosen, A. J., Hackett, J.T.: Post-reinforcement electrocortical synchronization and facilitation of cortical auditory evoked potentials in appetitive instrumental conditioning. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 227–241 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Mark, R.G., Hall, R.D.: Acoustically evoked potentials in the rat during conditioning. J. Neurophysiol. 30, 875–892 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Marsh, J.T., Worden, F.G.: Auditory potentials during acoustic habituation: Cochlear nucleus, cerebellum and auditory cortex. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 685–692 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Massopust, L.C. Jr., Wolin, L.R., Kadoya, S.: Evoked responses in the auditory cortex of the squirrel monkey. Exp. Neurol. 21, 35–40 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Mast, T.E.: Short-latency human evoked responses to clicks. J. appl. Physiol. 20, 725–730 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Mast, T.E., Watson, C.S.: Attention and auditory evoked responses to low-detectability signals. Percept. Psychophys. 4, 237–240 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. McAdam, D.W., Irwin, D.A., Rebert, C.S., Knott, J.R.: Conative control of the contingent negative variation. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 21, 194–195 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. McCandless, G.A., Best, L.: Summed evoked responses using pure-tone stimuli. J. Speech Res. 9, 266–272 (1966).Google Scholar
  389. Mendel, M.I., Goldstein, R.: The effect of test conditions on the early components of the averaged electroencephalic response. J. Speech Res. 12, 344–350 (1969).Google Scholar
  390. Mendel, M.I., Goldstein, R.: Stability of the early components of the averaged electroen-cephalic response. J. Speech Res. 12, 351–361 (1969).Google Scholar
  391. Mettlders, M., Gybels, J., Bergmans, J., Gerebtzoff, M.A., Goffart, M.: Sensory projections of somatic, auditory and visual origin to the cerebral cortex of the sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni Peters). J. comp. Neurol. 126, 535–546 (1966).Google Scholar
  392. Miller, G.A.: The magical number seven, plus-or-minus two. Some limits of our capacity for processing information. Psychol. Rev. 63, 81–97 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Millichap, J.G., Egan, R. W., Hart, Z.H., Sturgis, L. H.: Auditory perceptual deficit correlated with EEG dysrhythmias. Neurology 19, 870–872 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Mimura, K., Sato, K., Ozaki, T., Honda, N., Masuya, S.: On the physiological significance of the EEG changes caused by sonic stimulation. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 14, 683–696 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Molnar, C.E., Weiss, T.F.: Repetitive cortical responses to acoustic clicks. Quart. Progr. Rep. No. 57, MIT Cambridge, April 15, 143–150 (1960).Google Scholar
  396. Monod, N., Garma, L.: Auditory responsivity in the human premature. Biol. Neonate 17, 292–316 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Montandon, P.B., Megill, N.D., Kahn, A.R., Peake, W.T., Kiang, N.Y.S.: Recording auditory-nerve potentials as an office procediure. Ann. Otol. 84, 2–10 (1975).Google Scholar
  398. Montandon, P.B., Shepard, N.T., Marr, E.M., Peake, W.T., Kiang, N.Y.S.: Auditory-nerve potentials from ear cannais of patients with otologic problems. Ann. Otol. 84, 164–173 (1985).Google Scholar
  399. Moore, E.J. II, Rose, D.E.: Variability of latency and amplitude of acoustically evoked responses to pure tones of moderate to high intensity. Int. Audiol. 8, 172–181 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Mori, K., Winters, W.D., Spooner, C.E.: Comparison of reticular and cochlear multiple unit activity with auditory evoked responses during various stages induced by anesthetic agents. II. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 242–248 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Morrell, F.: An anatomical and physiological analysis of electrocortical conditioning. Proc. IV. Congr. Int. Electroenceph., Brussels, 377–391 (1957).Google Scholar
  402. Morrell, F.: Some electrical events involved in the formation of temporary connections. In: Henry Ford Hospital Symposium: Reticular formation of the brain. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. 1958.Google Scholar
  403. Morrell, F., Barlow, J.S., Brazier, M.A.B.: Analysis of conditioned repetitive response by means of the average response computer. Recent Advanc. Biol. Psychiat. 2, 123–137 (1960)Google Scholar
  404. Morrell, F., Jasper, H.H.: Electrographic studies of the formation of temporary connections in the brain. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 201–215 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Morrell, F., Naquet, R., Gastaut, H.: Evolution of some electrical signs of conditioning: Part I. Normal cat and rabbit. J. Neurophysiol. 20, 574–587 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Morrell, L.K., Morrell, F.: Evoked potentials and reaction times: A study of intra-individual variability. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 567–575 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Moruzzi, G., Magoun, H.W.: Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 1, 455–473 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Moskowitz, H.R., Scharf, B., Stevens, J. C.: Sensation and measurement. Papers in honor of S. S. Stevens. Dordrecht-Holland/Boston-USA: D. Reidel 1974.Google Scholar
  409. Näätänen, R.: Selective attention and evoked potentials. Ann. Acad. Sci. fenn. Sarja-Ser. B, Nide-Tom. 151 (1967).Google Scholar
  410. Nakahama, H.: Cerebral response of anterior sigmoid gyrus to ipsilateral posterior sigmoid stimulation in cat. J. Neurophysiol. 22, 573–589 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Narikashvili, S. P.: Association area of the cerebral cortex and its interaction with the sensory zones. Zh. vyssh. nerv. Deyat. Pavlova 19, 110–123 (1969) Russ.Google Scholar
  412. Neergaard, E.B., Harly, S.: Instrumentation for acoustically evoked potentials using a photographic averaging technique. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 263, 145–146 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Neff, W.D.: On the relationships between physical, physiological, and psychological variables. In: Rosenblith, W.A. (ed.): Sensory communication. New York: MIT Press 1961.Google Scholar
  414. Nelson, D.A.: Human auditory electrical responses. Reviews of scientific literature 1970 continuing Education Program American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, 1971. S. 81–97.Google Scholar
  415. Nelson, D.A., Lassman, F.M.: Effects of intersignal interval on the human auditory evoked response. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 44, 1529–1532 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Niaussat, M.-M.: Audiométrie comparée, par potentiel évoqué auditif et par réflexe de Preyer de souris normales et de souris sensibles à la crise audiogène. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 163, 2503 (1969).Google Scholar
  417. Nieder, P.C., Randall, W.: Sound-evoked potentials in neocortex of unanesthetized opossum. Science 144, 429–430 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Nieder, P.C., Strominger, N.L.: Evoked potentials in auditory cortex after bilateral transection of the brachium of the inferior colliculus in the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 28, 1185–1194 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Nodar, R.H., Graham, J.T.: An investigation of auditory evoked responses of mentally retarded adults during sleep. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 73–76 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. Noël, P., Desmedt, J.E.: Les potentiels évoqués cérébraux dans l’hémiplégie infantile. Revue E. E. G. (Paris) 2, 189–194 (1972).Google Scholar
  421. Ochs, S., Clark, F. J.: Tetrodotoxin analysis of direct cortical responses. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 101–107 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Ochs, S., Clark, F. J.: Interaction of direct cortical responses — a possible dendritic site of inhibition. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 108–115 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Odenthal, D.W., Eggermont, J. J.: Clinical electrocochleography. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316, 62–74 (1974).Google Scholar
  424. Ojemann, G. A., Henkin, R.I.: Steroid dependent changes in human visual evoked potentials. Life Sci. 6, 327–334 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Onishi, S., Davis, H.: Effects of duration and rise time of tone bursts on evoked V potentials. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 44, 582–591 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Ornitz, E.M., Ritvo, E.R., Carr, E.M., Panman, L.M., Walter, R.D.: The variability of the auditory averaged evoked response during sleep and dreaming in children and adults. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 514–524 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Ornitz, E.M., Ritvo, E.R., Tanguay, P.E., Walter, R.D.: EEG spikes and the averaged evoked response to clicks and flashes. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 27, 387–391 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Ornitz, E.M., Lee, J.C.M., Tanguay, P.E., Sivertsen, B., Wilson, C.: The effect of stimulus interval on the auditory evoked response during sleep in normal children. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 33, 159–166 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. Osterhammel, P. A., Davis, H., Wier, C.C., Hirsh, S.K.: Adult auditory evoked vertex potentials in sleep. Audiology 12, 116–128 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Owens, E.: Audiologic evaluation in cochlear versus retrocochlear lesions. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 283 (1971).Google Scholar
  431. Pasztor, E., Tomka, I., Deak, Gy.: The effect of local cerebral hypothermia on the electro-corticogram and on experimental epileptic activity. J. Neurosurg. 23, 49–53 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Perez-Borja, C., Tyce, F.A., McDonald, C., Uihlein, A.: Depth electrographic studies of a focal fast response to sensory stimulation in the human. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 695–702 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Petrek, J., Golda, V., Lisonek, P.: Changes in cortical acoustic responses in cats during long-lasting rhythmical stimulation. Activ. nerv. sup. (Praha) 9, 284–286 (1967).Google Scholar
  434. Petrek, J., Golda, V., Lisonek, P.: Relation between cortical acoustic evoked responses and amplitude of the EEG. Activ. nerv. sup. (Praha) 9, 289–290 (1967).Google Scholar
  435. Petrek, J., Golda, V., Lisoněk, P.: Changes in EEG and cardiac activity elicited by irregularly repeated acoustical stimulation in intact animals and in cats with bilateral orbital ablation. Activ. nerv. sup. (Praha) 11, 273 (1969).Google Scholar
  436. Pfurtscheller, G.: Änderungen in der evozierten und spontanen Hirnaktivität des Menschen bei extracranialer Polarisation. Z. ges. exp. Med. 152, 284–293 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Picton, T.W., Hillyard, S.A., Krausz, H.I., Galambos, R.: Human auditory evoked potentials. I: Evaluation of components. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 36, 179–190 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Pimonow, L.: La parole synthétique et son application dans la correction auditive. Ann. Télécommun. 20, 151–187 (1965).Google Scholar
  439. Plattig, K. H.: Über den elektrischen Geschmack. Reizstärkeabhängige evozierte Hirnpotentiale nach elektrischer Reizung der Zunge des Menschen. Z. Biol. 116, 161–211 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. Podvoll, E.M., Goodman, S.J.: Averaged neural electrical activity and arousal. Science 155, 223–225 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Poliakova, A. G.: Origin of the early component of the evoked response in the association cortex of the cat. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 32, 129–138 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Portmann, M., Aran, J.M.: Relations entre pattern cochléographique et pathologie retro-labyrinthique. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 73, 190–196 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Portmann, M., Aran, J. M., Le Bert, G.: Électro-cochléogramme en dehors de toute intervention chirurgicale. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 65, 105 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Portmann, M., Aran, J.M., Lagourge, P.: Testing for recruitment by electrocochleography. Ann. Otol. 82, 36–43 (1973).Google Scholar
  445. Portmann, M., le Bert, G., Aran, J. M.: Potentiels cochléaires obtenues chez l’homme en dehors de toute intervention chirurgicale. Rev. Laryngol. (Bordeaux) 88, 157–164 (1967).Google Scholar
  446. Portmann, M., Negrevergne, M.: Apport de l’electrocochleographie dans l’examen audio-metrique de l’enfant. Rev. Laryngol. 94, 359–379 (1973).Google Scholar
  447. Pribram, K.H., Spinelli, D.N., Kamback, M.C.: Electrocortical correlates of stimulus response and reinforcement. Science 157, 94–96 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Purpura, D. P., Cohen, B.: Intracellular recording from thalamic neuron during recruiting responses. J. Neurophysiol. 25, 621–635 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Purpura, D. P., Pool, J. L., Ransohoff, J., Frumin, M.J., Housepian, E.M.: Observations on evoked dendritic potentials of human cortex. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 9, 453–459 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Purpura, D.P., Shofer, R. J.: Intracellular recording from thalamic neurons during reticulo-cortical activation. J. Neurophysiol. 26, 493–505 (1963).Google Scholar
  451. Raab, D., Ades, H.: Cortical and midbrain mediation of a conditioned discrimination of acoustic intensities. Amer. J. Psychol. 59, 59–83 (1946).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Ranke, O.F.: Physiologie des Gehörs. In: Trendelenburg, W., Schütz, E. (Hrsg.): Lehrbuch der Physiologie. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1953.Google Scholar
  453. Rapin, I.: Evoked responses to clicks in a group of children with communication disorders. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 182–203 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Rapin, I., Graziani, L. J.: Auditory-evoked responses in normal, brain-damaged, and deaf infants. Neurology 17, 881–894 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Rapin, I., Schimmel, H., Tourk, L.M., Krasnegor, N.A., Pollak, Ch.: Evoked responses to clicks and tones of varying intensity in waking adults. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 21, 335–344 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Rau, R.M.: Über die Abhängigkeit der objektiv ermittelten Intensitätsfunktion des menschlichen Gehörs von der Tonfolgefrequenz. Arch. klin. exp. Ohren-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 190, 133–145 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. Reenpää, Y.: Axiomatische Darstellung des phänomenal-zentralnervösen Systems der sinnesphysiologischen Versuche Keidels und Mitarbeiter. S.-B. Heidelberger Akad. Wissensch. Math.-naturwiss. Kl. 5. Abh. S. 235–247. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966.Google Scholar
  458. Regan, D.: Evoked potentials and sensation. Perception & Psychophys. 4, 347–350 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Regan, D.: Evoked potentials in psychology, sensory physiology and clinical medicine. London: Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1972.Google Scholar
  460. Remond, A.: Level of organization of evoked responses in man. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 143–159 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Rhoton, A., Goldring, S., O’Leary, J. L.: Comparison of direct cerebral and cerebellar cortical responses in the cat. Amer. J. Physiol. 199, 677–682 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Rietveld, W. J.: The occipitocortical response to lightflashes in man. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 12, 373–407 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Rietveld, W. J., Tordoir, W.E.M.: The influence of flash intensity upon the visual evoked response in the human cortex. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 13, 160–170 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Rietveld, W. J., Tordoir, W.E.M., Hagenouw, J.R.B.: Influence of attentiveness, of vigilance task difficulty, and of habituation on cortical evoked responses and on artifacts. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 14, 18–37 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Robinson, B.W.: Head-mounted electrode platform: Construction and error analysis. Physiol. Behavior 2, 455–457 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Rosen, A.J., Marczynski, T.: Effects of alpha-methyl-meta-tyrosine on operant behavior, auditory evoked potentials and postreinforcement electrocortical synchronization in the cat. Physiol. Behavior 2, 413–419 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Rosenzweig, M.R., Rosenblith, W.A.: Responses to successive auditory stimuli at the cochlea and at the auditory cortex. Gen. appl. Psychol. Monogr. 67, 1 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. Roth, J. G., Macpherson, C.H., Milstein, V.: The use of carbon electrodes for chronic cortical recording. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 21, 611–615 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Roth, W.T., Kopell, B.S., Bertozzi, P.E.: The effect of attention on the average evoked response to speech sounds. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 29, 38–46 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Rothenberg, S., Davis, H.: Auditory evoked response in chinchilla: Application to animal audiometry. Perception & Psychophys. 2, 443–447 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Rothman, H. H.: Effects of high frequencies and intersubject variability on the auditory-evoked cortical response. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 47, 569–573 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Rothman, H.H., Davis, H., Hay, I.S.: Slow evoked cortical potentials and temporal features of stimulation. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 29, 225–232 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Ruchkin, D.S.: An analysis of average response computations based upon aperiodic stimuli. IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. Volume BME-12, 87–94 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. Ruchkin, D.S., John, E.R.: Evoked potential correlates of generalization. Science 153, 209–211 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Rudomin, P., Malliani, A., Zanchetti, A.: Microelectrode recording of slow wave and unit responses to afferent stimuli in the hypothalamus of the cat. Arch. ital. Bio. 103, 90–118 (1965).Google Scholar
  476. Ruhm, H., Walker, E. Jr., Flanigin, H.: Acoustically-evoked potentials in man: Mediation of early components. Laryngoscope 77, 806–822 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Ruhm, H.B., Jansen, J.W.: Rate of stimulus change and the evoked response: I. Signal rise-time. J. Auditory Res. 3, 211–216 (1969).Google Scholar
  478. Sakabe, N., Arayama, T., Suzuki, T.: Human fetal evoked response to acoustic stimulation. Acta oto-laryng. Suppl. 252, 29–36 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Salomon, G.: Electric response audiometry (ERA) based on rank correlation. Audiology 13, 181–194 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Salomon, G., Beck, O., Elberling, C.: The role of sedation in ERA from the vertex. Audiology 12, 150–166 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Sances, A. Jr., Larson, S. J., Jacobs, J.E.: Electronarcosis and evoked cortical responses. Science 141, 733–735 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Sato, K.: On the transforming action related to the threshold, Chronaxie and accommodation constant of a living excitable system. Jap. J. Physiol. 9, 327–335 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Sato, K., Ozaki, T., Mimura, K., Yamamoto, Y., Masuya, S., Honda, N.: The effects of auditory stimulation on the electroencephalogram. — In the sight of frequency power spectra and frequency characteristics. Proc. VIIth Ann. Meet. Jap. EEG Soc. and XIth Ann. Meet. Jap. EMG Soc. 1958.Google Scholar
  484. Sato, K., Ozaki, T., Mimura, K., Masuya, S., Honda, N.: On the frequency response of EEG activity obtained by the intermittent click stimulation. Proc. VIIIth Ann. Meet. Jap. EEG Soc. and XIIth Ann. Meet. Jap. EMG Soc. Held in Hirosaki on July 6th and 7th, 1959.Google Scholar
  485. Sato, K., Ozaki, T., Mimura, K., Masuya, S., Honda, N., Nishikawa, T., Sonoda, T.: On the physiological significance of the average time- and frequency-patterns of the electroencephalogram. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 208–215 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Sato, K., Mimura, K., Sata, H., Ochi, N., Ishino, T.: On random fluctuations in EEG and evoked potentials. Jap. J. Physiol. 21, 167–185 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Satterfield, J. H.: A system for selection of responses for averaging. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 21, 86–88 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Saunders, J. C.: Cochlear nucleus and auditory cortex correlates of a click stimulus-intensity discrimination in cats. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 72, 8–16 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Sayers, B.McA., Beagley, H.A.: Objective evaluation of auditory evoked EEG responses. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 251, 608–609 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Sayers, B.McA., Beagley, H.A., Henshall, W.R.: The mechanism of auditory evoked EEG responses. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 247, 481–483 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Scheibel, M.E., Scheibel, A.B.: Coupling a sensory artefact to the brain. Nature (Lond.) 213, 605–606 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Schmidt, P. H., Eggermont, J.J., Odenthal, D.W.: Study of Menière’s disease by electro-cochleography. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316, 75–84 (1974).Google Scholar
  493. Schmidt, P.H., Spoor, A.: The place of electrocochleography in clinical audiometry. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316, 5–6 (1974).Google Scholar
  494. Scholl, H.: Das dynamische Verhalten des Gehörs im Bereich der Hörschwellen. Dissertation, T.H. Stuttgart 1961.Google Scholar
  495. Schulman-Galambos, C., Galambos, R.: Recording the brainstem evoked response: A manual. IV. Biennial Symposium of the International ERA Study Group, 28.–30. 7. 1975 in London.Google Scholar
  496. Schwartz, M., Shagass, C.: Effect of different states of alertness on somatosensory and auditory recovery cycles. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 14, 11–20 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. Schwartz, M., Hall, O.W.: Selected trial averaging of sensory evoked brain responses. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 23, 480–482 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Sem-Jacobsen, C.W., Petersen, M.O., Dodge, H.W., Lazarte, J.A., Holman, C.B.: Electroencephalographic rhythms from the depths of the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 263–278 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Shevrin, H., Rennick, P.: Cortical response to a tactile stimulus during attention, mental arithmetic and free associations. Psychophysiology 3, 381–388 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. Skinner, P. H., Antinoro, F.: Critical-band theory and the auditory-evoked slow-ware V potential. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 48, 557–560 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. Skinner, P.H., Antinoro, F., Shimota, J.: An evaluation of linear extrapolation to threshold in electroencephalic response audiometry. J. Aud. Res. 12, 26–31 (1974).Google Scholar
  502. Skinner, P.H., Jones, H.C.: Effects of signal duration and rise time on the auditory evoked potential. J. Speech Res. 11, 301–306 (1968).Google Scholar
  503. Smith, M.C.: Stimulus-response compatibility and parallel response selection. Canadian J. Psychol./Rev. Canad. Psychol. 21, 496–502 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. Smith, M.C.: Theories of the psychological refractory period. Psychol. Bull. 67, 202–213 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. Sohmer, H., Feinmesser, M.: Cochlear action potentials recorded from the external ear in man. Ann. Otol. 76, 427–435 (1967).Google Scholar
  506. Sohmer, H., Feinmesser, M.: Routine use of electrocochleography (cochlear audiometry) on human subjects. Audiology 12, 167–173 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Sohmer, H., Feinmesser, M., Bauberger-Tell, L., Lev, A., Davis, S.: Routine use of electrocochleography in infants with uncertain diagnosis. Ann. Otol. 81, 72 (1972).Google Scholar
  508. Sparks, D.L., Powell, E. W.: Interaction of evoked potentials in the anterior thalamus of the cat. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 470–474 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Speckmann, E.-J., Caspers, H.: Les modifications du potentiel continu cortical pendant l’arrêt respiratoire. Rev. Neurol. 117, 5–19 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Speckmann, E.-J., Caspers, H.: Verschiebungen des corticalen Bestandpotentials bei Veränderungen der Ventilationsgröße. Pflügers Arch. 310, 235–250 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Spiegel, E. A., Szekely, E.G., Moffet, R.: Cortical responses to rotation. I. Responses recorded after cessation of rotation. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 66, 81–88 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. Spiegel, E.A., Egyed, J., Szekely, E.G.: Cortical responses to rotation. II. Responses recorded at the onset of rotation from the second somatic sensory and posterior areas. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 66, 261–272 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Spoendlin, H.: The innervation of the cochlear receptor. In: Moller, A.R. (ed.): Basic mechanisms in hearing. New York-London: Academic Press 1973.Google Scholar
  514. Spoendlin, H.: Neuroanatomical basis of cochlear coding mechanisms. Audiology 14, 383–407 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Spong, P., Haider, M., Lindsley, D. B.: Selective attentiveness and cortical evoked responses to visual and auditory stimuli. Science 148, 395–397 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Spoor, A.: Apparatus for electrocochleography. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316, 25–36 (1974).Google Scholar
  517. Spreng, M.: Über die Messung der Frequenzgruppe und der Integrationszeit des menschlichen Gehörs durch vom Schall abhängige Hirnspannungen längs der Kopfhaut. Dissertation, Stuttgart 1967.Google Scholar
  518. Spreng, M.: Problems in objective cerebral audiometry using short sound stimulation. Int. Audiol. — Audiol. Internationale 8, 424–429 (1969).Google Scholar
  519. Spreng, M.: Objektivierende Messungen am Schmerzsinn des Menschen. Habilitationsschrift, Erlangen 1970.Google Scholar
  520. Spreng, M.: Small computers in evoked response audiometry (ERA). Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 198, 50–70 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Spreng, M.: Artefact recognition and diazepam in electric response audiometry. Audiology 12, 137–149 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Spreng, M.: Neuere Hinweise zu ERA und ECOG — aus physiologischer Sicht. Arch. Oto-Rhino-Laryng. 206, 191–215 (1974a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Spreng, M.: Objective electrophysiological measurements of ear-characteristics, intelligibility of vowels and judgement of the stage of attention. Proceedings of the 31. Aerospace Medical Panel Meeting, Neapel 1974. AGARD publication, AGARD-CPP-152 A6, A6–10 (1974b).Google Scholar
  524. Spreng, M.: Langsame Rindenpotentiale, objektive Audiometrie und Psychoakustik. In: Keidel, W.D. (Hrsg.): Physiologie des Gehörs. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme 1975a.Google Scholar
  525. Spreng, M.: Short sound stimulation and temporal integration model of evoked responses. Biennial Symposium of the International ERA Study Group, London 1975b.Google Scholar
  526. Spreng, M.: Grenzen der sensorischen Informationsverarbeitung des Menschen. Naturwissenschaften (in press) (1976).Google Scholar
  527. Spreng, M., Keidel, W.D.: Human evoked cortical responses to auditory stimuli: interaction, time course of adaptation, influence of stimuli parameters. In: Duyff, J. W. (ed.): Abstracts of free communications, films, and demonstrations presented at the XXIInd international congress of physiological sciences, Leyden. Int. Congr. Ser. 48. Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam 1962 (S. 1010).Google Scholar
  528. Spreng, M., Keidel, W.D.: Neue Möglichkeiten der Untersuchung menschlicher Informationsverarbeitung. Kybernetik 1, 243–249 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. Spreng, M., Keidel, W.D.: Objektive Audiometrie. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 281, 82 (1964).Google Scholar
  530. Spreng, M., Ichioka, M.: Langsame Rindenpotentiale bei Schmerzreizung am Menschen. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 279, 121–132 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. Spreng, M., Keidel, W.D.: Separierung von Cerebroaudiogramm (CAG), Neuroaudiogramm (NAG) und Otoaudiogramm (OAG) in der objektiven Audiometrie. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 189, 225–246 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. Spreng, M., Keidel, W.D.: Recent status results and problems of objective audiometry in man. 2nd Part. J. franç. Oto-Rhino-Laryng. 19, 55–60 (1970).Google Scholar
  533. Spreng, M., Keidel, W.D.: Problems of simple averaging of electro-physiological recordings and the use of additional methods. In: Portmann, G. (ed.): Revue de Laryngologie, Suppl. Bordeaux: 1971.Google Scholar
  534. Spreng, M., Bumm, P., Keidel, W.D., Wiegand, H.P.: Elektrophysiologische Untersuchungen am peripheren Teil des menschlichen Ohres unter Benützung geeigneter Rechnerprogramme. Pflügers Arch. 307, R 134 (1969).Google Scholar
  535. Spychala, P., Rose, D.E., Grier, J.B.: Comparison of the “On” and “Off” characteristics of the acoustically evoked response. Int. Audiology 3, 416 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Stange, G.: The relation between functional parameters of subjective and objective audiometry. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 198, 85–101 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. Stange, G.: The effect of sedative agents in psychotropic drugs on acoustically evoked responses. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 201, 294–308 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Stange, G.: Diagnostik überschwelligen Hörvermögens bei innenohrgeschädigten Kindern mittels ERA. H. N. O. (Berl.) 21, 83–87 (1973).Google Scholar
  539. Stange, G., Soda, T.: Quantitative Untersuchungen zur Hörschwelle, Adaptation und Lautheitsempfindung am gesunden und hörgeschädigten Menschen mittels der „Objektiven Audiometrie“. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 190, 210–228 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Stange, G., Holm, C.: Gemittelte zentrale akustische Reizantworten — eine Erweiterung pädaudiologischer Gesichtspunkte?. H. N. O. (Berl.) 18, 27–28 (1970).Google Scholar
  541. Stange, G., Spreng, M., Keidel, U.O.: Die Wirkung von Streptomycinsulfat auf Erregung und Adaptation der Haarzellen des Cortischen Organs. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 279, 99–120 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. Starzl, T.E., Whitlock, D. G.: Diffuse thalamic projection system in monkey. J. Neuro-physiol. 15, 449–468 (1952).Google Scholar
  543. Stein, L.: Habituation and stimulus novelty: A model based on classical conditioning. Psychol. Rev. 73, 352–356 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Steinbuch, K.: Automat und Mensch. Heidelberger Taschenbücher, Bd. 81. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1971.Google Scholar
  545. Stevens, S.S.: Neural events and the psychophysical law. Science 170, 1043–1050 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Stevenson, G.C., Collins, W.F., Randt, C.T., Saurwein, T.D.: Effects of induced hypothermia on subcortical evoked potentials in the cat. Amer. J. Physiol. 194, 423–426 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. Suga, N.: Echo-location and evoked potentials of bats after ablation of inferior colliculus. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 203, 707–728 (1969).Google Scholar
  548. Sutton, S.: Recent eddies in brain currents. Bull. Atomic Sci. 24, 23–27 (1968).Google Scholar
  549. Sutton, S.: The specification of psychological variables in an average evoked potential experiment. In: Donchin, E., Lindsley, D.B. (eds.): Average evoked potentials. Washington, D.C.:NASASP-191 1969.Google Scholar
  550. Sutton, S.: Correspondence between psychological and physiological thresholds. Presented to Amer. Psychol. Ass. Miami 1970.Google Scholar
  551. Sutton, S.: The sensitivity of the evoked potential to psychological variables. Presented at meeting of EEG Soc, Washington, D. C. 1970.Google Scholar
  552. Sutton, S., Braren, M., Zubin, J., John, E.R.: Evoked-potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 150, 1187–1188 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Sutton, S., Tueting, P., Zubin, J., John, E.R.: Information delivery and the sensory evoked potential. Science 155, 1436–1439 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Suzuki, H., Taira, N.: Regional difference of the direct cortical response. Jap. J. Physiol. 8, 365–377 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Suzuki, H., Taira, N.: An analysis of direct cortical response. Tohoku J. exp. Med. 70, 1–10 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. Suzuki, T.: Problems in electric response audiometry (ERA) during sedation. Audiology 12, 129–136 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  557. Suzuki, T., Asawa, I.: Evoked potential of waking human brain to acoustic stimuli. Acta otolaryng. (Stockh.) 48, 508–515 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. Suzuki, T., Origuchi, K.: Averaged evoked response audiometry (ERA) in young children during sleep. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 252, 19–28 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Symmes, D., Anderson, K. V.: Reticular Modulation of higher auditory centers in monkey. Exp. Neurol. 18, 161–176 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Taguchi, K., Picton, T.W., Orpin, J.A., Goodman, W.S.: Evoked response audiometry in newborn infants. Acto oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 252, 5–17 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. Taguchi, K., Goodman, W.S., Brummitt, W.M.: Evoked response audiometry in mentally retarded children. Acta Otolaryng. 70, 190–196 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  562. Teas, D.C., Kiang, N.Y-S.: Evoked cortical responses as a function of state variables. Quarterly Progress Report No. 63, MIT Cambridge, October 15, 171–176 (1961).Google Scholar
  563. Teas, D.C., Kiang, N.Y.S.: Evoked Responses from the auditory cortex. Exp. Neurol. 10, 91–119 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. Theissing, J.: Objektive Hörprüfung im Kindesalter. Akt. Oto-Rhino-Laryng. 4, 1–38 (1970).Google Scholar
  565. Thompson, R., Sindberg, R.: Auditory response fields in association and motor cortex of cat. J. Neurophysiol. 23, 88–105 (1960).Google Scholar
  566. Thompson, R.F., Patterson, M.M.: Bioelectric recording techniques. Part B: Electroencephalography and human brain potentials. New York-London: Academic Press 1974.Google Scholar
  567. Thornton, A. R.D.: Distortion of averaged post-auricular muscle responses due to system bandwidth limits. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 195–197 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. Thornton, A. R. D.: The diagnostic potential of surface recorded electrocochleography. Brit. J. Audiology 9, 7–13 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. Thornton, A.R.D.: The measurement of surface-recorded electrocochleographic responses. Scand. Audiol. 4, 51–58 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Thornton, A. R.D.: Statistical properties of surface-recorded electrocochleographic responses. Scand. Audiol. 4, 91–102 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. Toman, W.: Einführung in die Allgemeine Psychologic Bd. I: Biologische Grundlagen, Wahrnehmung, Gedächtnis, Intelligenz. Freiburg: Rombach 1973a.Google Scholar
  572. Tueting, P., Sutton, S.: The relationship between pre-stimulus negative shifts and post-stimulus components of the averaged evoked potential. In: Kornblum, S. (ed.): Attention and performance IV. New York: Academic Press 1972.Google Scholar
  573. Tueting, P., Sutton, S., Zubin, J.: Quantitative evoked potential correlates of the probability of events. Psychophysiology 7, 385–394 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Tunturi, A.R.: Statistical analysis of afferent potential in the auditory cortex. Am. J. Physiol. 213, 597–612 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. Uttal, W.R.: Evoked brain potentials: Signs or codes? Perspect. Biol. Med. 10, 627–639 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Vatter, O., Müller, J., Rischmaui, B.: Das DC-Potential des Schädels und seine Beziehungen zum EEG. Elektromedizin 13, 89–98 (1968).Google Scholar
  577. Vatter, O., Rischmaui, B.: DC-Potentiale der Hirnrinde. Naturwissenschaften 54, 286 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. Vaughan, H.G. Jr., Ritter, W.: The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 360–367 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. Verzeano, M., Dill, R.C., Vallecalle, E., Groves, P., Thomas, J.: Evoked responses and neuronal activity in the lateral geniculate. Experientia (Basel) 24, 696–698 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  580. Wallace, R. K., Benson, H., Wilson, A. F.: A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. Amer. J. Physiol. 221, 795–799 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  581. Walter, W. Grey: The convergence and interaction of visual, auditory and tactile responses in human nonspecific cortex. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 320–361 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  582. Walter, W. Grey, Cooper, R., Aldridge, V.J., McCallum, W.C., Winter, A.L.: Contingent negative variation: An electric sign of sensorimotor association and expectancy in the human brain. Nature (Lond.) 203, 380–384 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Wandhofer, A., Plattig, K.-H.: Stimulus-linked dc-shift and auditory evoked potentials in transcendental meditation (TM). Pflügers Arch. 343, R 79 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. Wandhofer, A., Kobal, G., Plattig, K.-H.: Decrease of latency of human auditory evoked potentials during transcendental meditation (TM). In preparation (1976).Google Scholar
  585. Webster, W.R., Aitkin, L.M.: Evoked potential and single unit studies of neural mechanisms underlying the effects of repetitive stimulation in the auditory pathway. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 31, 581–592 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Weinberger, N.M., Goodman, D.A., Kitzes, L.M.: Is behavioral habituation a function of peripheral auditory system blockade? Cummun. Behav. Biol. Part A, 3, 111–116 (1969).Google Scholar
  587. Wiegand, H.P., Bumm, P., Spreng, M.: Extracranial gemessene Ohrcharakteristiken und gestörte Informationsaufnahme. Pflügers Arch. 307, 134 (1969).Google Scholar
  588. Wiesendanger, M., Tarnecki, R.: Der tonische Einfluß der Pyramidenbahn auf corticale evoked potentials. Helv. physiol. Acta 23, C111–C112 (1965).Google Scholar
  589. Williams, H.L., Tepas, D.I., Morlock, H.C. Jr.: Evoked responses to clicks and electroen-cephalographic stages of sleep in man. Science 138, 685–686 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. Williams, H.L., Morlock, H.C. Jr., Morlock, J.V., Lubin, A.: Auditory evoked responses and the EEG-stages of sleep. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 172–181 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. Wilsmann, K.: Evozierte Hirnrindenpotentiale nach Schmerzreizung am Zahn der Katze. Dissertation, Erlangen 1969.Google Scholar
  592. Winters, W.D., Mori, K., Spooner, C.E., Kado, R.T.: Correlation of reticular and cochlear multiple unit activity with auditory evoked responses during wakefulness and sleep. I. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 23, 539–545 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. Woolsey, C.N.: Organization of cortical auditory system: A review and a synthesis. In: Rasmussen, G.L., Windle, W.F. (eds.): Neural mechanisms of the auditory and vestibular systems. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas 1960.Google Scholar
  594. Woolsey, C.N., Walzl, E.M.: Topical projection of nerve fibers from local regions of the cochlea to the cerebral cortex of the cat. Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull. 71, 315 (1942).Google Scholar
  595. Worden, F.G., Marsh, J.T.: Frequency-following (microphonic-like) neural responses evoked by sound. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 42–52 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  596. Worden, F. G., Marsh, J.T., Abraham, F.D., Whittlesey, J.R.B.: Variability of evoked auditory potentials and acoustic input control. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 524–530 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. Yoshie, N.: Auditory evoked responses in man recorded by scalp electrodes. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 113, 418–419 (1965).Google Scholar
  598. Yoshie, N.: Auditory nerve action potentials in man recorded from the external auditory meatus. Audiology 9, 129–131 (1966).Google Scholar
  599. Yoshie, N.: Adaptation of the AP in man. Audiology 3, 274–275 (1967).Google Scholar
  600. Yoshie, N.: Auditory nerve action potential responses to clicks in man. Laryngoscope 78, 198–215 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. Yoshie, N., Ohashi, T.: Auditory nerve action potentials in man. Jap. J. Otol. Tokyo 70, 920–931 (1967).Google Scholar
  602. Yoshie, N., Ohashi, T.: Clinical use of cochlear nerve action potential responses in man for differential diagnosis of hearing losses. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 252, 71–87 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. Yoshie, N., Ohashi, T., Suzuki, T.: Non-surgical recording of auditory nerve action potentials in man. Laryngoscope 77, 76–85 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. Yoshie, N., Okudaira, T.: Myogenic evoked potential responses to clicks in man. Acta otolaryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 252, 89–103 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. Zerlin, S., Davis, H.: The variability of single evoked vertex potentials in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 23, 468–472 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. Zerlin, S., Naunton, R. F.: Early and late averaged electroencephalic responses at low sensation levels. Audiology 13, 366–378 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. Zöllner, Ch., Karnahl, Th.: Elektrokochleographisches Potentialmuster, an verschiedenen Ableitungsorten registriert. Laryng. Rhinol. 54, 681–688 (1975).Google Scholar
  608. Zschocke, St., Speckmann, E.-J.: Verschiebungen des corticalen Bestandpotentials durch Veränderungen der Ventilationsgröße bei verschiedenen CO2-Ausgangsdrucken. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 297, R 40 (1967).Google Scholar
  609. Zvonar, M., Zvonar-Kuhndl, B., Odenthal, D.W.: Anaesthesia and sedation for electro-cochleography. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) Suppl. 316, 37–38 (1974).Google Scholar
  610. Zwicker, E.: Über psychologische und methodische Grundlagen der Lautheit. Acustica 8, 237 (1958).Google Scholar
  611. Zwicker, E.: Ein Beitrag zur Lautstärkemessung impulshaltiger Schalle. Acustica 17, 11–22 (1966).Google Scholar
  612. Zwislocki, J.: Analysis of some auditory characteristics. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 32, 1046–1060 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolf D. Keidel
    • 1
  1. 1.ErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations