The Classification of Soil Silicates and Oxides

  • R. C. Mackenzie


Soils may be developed on either sedentary or transported materials, but irrespective of which of these is involved, all soils may be traced back to parent rocks. Hence all rock-forming minerals can occur in soils, in addition to minerals formed as a result of pedogenic processes.


English Translation Group Type Clay Mineralogy Polar Liquid Soil Silicate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agricola, G., 1546. De Natura Fossilium. English translation by M. C. Bandy and J. A. Bandy, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am. 63 (1955).Google Scholar
  2. —, 1556. De Re Metallica. English translation by H. C. Hoover and L. H. Hoover. London: Mining Mag. 1912.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, V. T., J. J. Fahey, and M. Ross, 1969. Kaolinite and anauxite in the lone Formation, California. Am. Mineral. 54:206.Google Scholar
  4. Battey, M. H., and S. I. Tomkeieff, eds., 1964. Aspects of Theoretical Mineralogy in the U.S.S.R. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  5. Bentor, Y. K., S. Gross, and L. Heller, 1963. Some unusual minerals from the “mottled zone” complex, Israel. Am. Mineral. 48:924.Google Scholar
  6. Betekhtin, A. G., 1950. Mineralogiya [Mineralogy]. Moscow: Gosgeolizdat.Google Scholar
  7. Bradley, W. F., 1940. The structural scheme of attapulgite. Am. Mineral. 25:405.Google Scholar
  8. —, and R. E. Grim, 1961. Mica clay minerals. In The X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals. G. Brown, ed., p. 208. London: Mineralogical Society.Google Scholar
  9. Bragg, Sir L., and G. F. Claringbull, 1965. Crystal Structures of Minerals. London: Bell.Google Scholar
  10. Brauner, K., and A. Preisinger, 1956. Struktur und Entstehung des Sepioliths. Tschermaks miner. Petrogr. Mitt. 6:120.Google Scholar
  11. Breithaupt, A., 1836–1847. Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Dresden-Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung.Google Scholar
  12. Bricker, O. P., 1965. Some stability relations in the system Mn-O2-H2O at 25° and one atmosphere total pressure. Am. Mineral. 50:1296.Google Scholar
  13. Brindley, G. W., 1955a. Structural mineralogy of clays. In Clays Clay Tech. J. A. Pask and M. D. Turner, eds. Bull. Div. Mines Calif. 169:33.Google Scholar
  14. —, 1955b. Stevensite, a montmorillonite-type mineral showing mixed-layer characteristics. Am. Mineral. 40:239.Google Scholar
  15. —, 1961. Kaolin, serpentine and kindred minerals. In The X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals. G. Brown, ed., p. 51. London: Mineralogical Society.Google Scholar
  16. —, D. M. C. MacEwan, S. Caillère, C. W. Correns, J. C. L. Favejee, and R. E. Grim, 1951. The nomenclature of clay minerals. Am. Mineral. 36:370.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, G., 1955. Report of the Clay Minerals Group subcommittee on nomenclature of clay minerals. Clay Min., Bull. 2:294.Google Scholar
  18. —, ed., 1961. The X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals. London: Mineralogical Society.Google Scholar
  19. —, 1965. Significance of recent structure determinations of layer silicates for clay studies. Clay Min. 6:73.Google Scholar
  20. —, and K. Norrish, 1952. Hydrous micas. Mineral. Mag. 29:929.Google Scholar
  21. Caesalpinus, A., 1596. De Metallicis. Rome: Aloysuis Zennetti.Google Scholar
  22. Caesius, B., 1636. Mineralogia, sive Naturalis Philosophiae Thesauri University of Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  23. Caillère, S., 1960. Compte-rendu de la réunion du CIPEA à Copenhague en 1960. Bull Groupe Franc. Argiles 12:97.Google Scholar
  24. Caillère, S., and S. Hénin, 1957a. Propositions pour normaliser la nomenclature des minéraux argileux. Bull Groupe Franc. Argiles 9:77.Google Scholar
  25. —, and S. Hénin, 1957b. The chlorite and serpentine minerals. In The Differential Thermal Investigation of Clays. R. C. Mackenzie, ed., p. 207. London: Mineralogical Society.Google Scholar
  26. Chandy, K. C., 1961. Indian Mineralogist 15:197.Google Scholar
  27. —, 1962. A natural occurrence of beta form of iron oxy hydroxide. Indian J. Phys. 36:484.Google Scholar
  28. —, 1965. An occurrence of wüstite. Mineral Mag. 35:664.Google Scholar
  29. Chao, E. C. T., E. M. Shoemaker, and B. M. Madsen, 1960. First natural occurrence of coesite. Science 132:220.Google Scholar
  30. —, J. J. Fahey, J. Littler, and D. J. Milton, 1962. Stishovite, SiO2, a very high-pressure new mineral from Meteor Crater, Arizona. J. Geophys. Res. 67, no. 1:419.Google Scholar
  31. Chukhrov, F. V., (ed.), 1961–1972. Mineraly: Spravochnik [Minerals: Handbook]. Vols. I, II(1), II(2), … Moscow: Izd. Nauka.Google Scholar
  32. —, (ed.), 1965. Mineraly: Spravochnik [Minerals: Handbook]. Vol. II(2). Moscow: Izd. Nauka.Google Scholar
  33. —, (ed.), 1967. Mineraly: Spravochnik [Minerals: Handbook] Vol. II (3). Moscow: Izd. Nauka.Google Scholar
  34. —, I. I. Ginzburg, V. P. Petrov, and A. P. Nikitina, 1961. Materialy k Klassifikatsii Glinistykh Mineralov [Data on the Classification of Clay Minerals]. Inf. Byull. Kom. Isuch. Glin Otdel. Geol.-Geogr. Nauk Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow.Google Scholar
  35. Cradwick, P. D. G., V. C. Farmer, J. D. Russell, C. R. Masson, K. Wada, and N. Yoshinaga, 1972. Imogolite, a hydrated aluminium silicate of tubular structure. Nature phys. Sci. 240:187.Google Scholar
  36. Dana, E. S., 1894. The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana; Descriptive Mineralogy, 6th ed. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner.Google Scholar
  37. Deer, W. A., R. A. Howie, and J. Zussman, 1962–1963. Rock-Forming Minerals. Vols. 1–5. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  38. Dixon, J. B., and M. L. Jackson, 1959. Dissolution of interlayers from intergradient soil clays after preheating to 400° C. Science 129:1616.Google Scholar
  39. Dufrénoy, A., 1856. Traité de Minéralogie, 2nd ed. Vols. 1–5. Paris: Dalmont.Google Scholar
  40. Egawa, T., 1964. A study on coordination number of aluminum in allophane. Clay Sci. (Tokyo) 2:1.Google Scholar
  41. Encelius, C., 1557. De Re Metallica. Frankfurt: Christianus Egenolphus.Google Scholar
  42. von Engelhardt, W., G. Müller, and H. Kromer, 1962. Dioktaedrischer Chlorit (“Sudoit”) in Sedimenten des Mittleren Keupers von Württemberg. Naturwissenschaften 49:205.Google Scholar
  43. Faust, G. T., J. C. Hathaway, and G. Millot, 1959. A restudy of stevensite and allied minerals. 44:342.Google Scholar
  44. Fieldes, M., 1955. Clay mineralogy of New Zealand soils; Part II: Allophane and related mineral colloids. N. Z. J. Sci. Technol. B37:336.Google Scholar
  45. —, and N. H. Taylor, 1961. Clay mineralogy of New Zealand soils; Part V: Mineral colloids and genetic classification. N.Z. Jl. Sci. 4:679.Google Scholar
  46. Follett, E. A. C., W. J. McHardy, B. D. Mitchell, and B. F. L. Smith, 1965. Chemical dissolution techniques in the study of soil clays: Part II. Clay Min. 6:35.Google Scholar
  47. Frank-Kamenetskii, V. A., 1958. Rentgenograficheskii metod izuchenii glin [The investigation of clays by means of X-rays]. In Issledovanie i Ispolzovanie Glin [The Investigation and Utilization of Clays]. D. P. Bobrovnik, ed., p. 713. L’vov: Izd. L’vovsk. Univ. English translation in Aspects of Theoretical Mineralogy in the U.S.S.R. M. H. Battey and S. I. Tomkeieff, eds., p. 309. Oxford: Pergamon (1964).Google Scholar
  48. —, 1960. A crystallochemical clsssification of simple and interstratified clay minerals. Clay Min. Bull. 4:161.Google Scholar
  49. Friedrich, W., P. Knipping, and M. Laue, 1912. Interferenzerscheinungen bei Röntgenstrahlen. Sitzber. bayer. Akad. Wiss. 303.Google Scholar
  50. Frondel, C., 1962. The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana. Vol. III—Silica Minerals. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Grim, R. E., 1953. Clay Mineralogy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  52. Hathaway, J. C., and S. O. Schlanger, 1962. Nordstrandite from Guam. Nature (Lond.) 196:265.Google Scholar
  53. —, and S. O. Schlanger, 1965. Nordstrandite (A12O3-3H2O) from Guam. Am. Mineral. 50:1029.Google Scholar
  54. Heller, L., V. C. Farmer, R. G Mackenzie, B. D. Mitchell, and H. F. W. Taylor, 1962. The dehydroxylation and rehydroxylation of triphormic dioctahedral clay minerals. Clay Min. Bull. 5:56.Google Scholar
  55. Hendricks, S. B., and W. H. Fry, 1930. The results of X-ray and microscopic examinations of soil colloids. Soil Sci. 29:457.Google Scholar
  56. Hey, M. H., 1954. A new review of the chlorites. Mineral. Mag. 30:277.Google Scholar
  57. Hintze, C., 1897. Handbuch der Mineralogie. Leipzig: Veit & Comp.Google Scholar
  58. Hofmann, U., K. Endell, and D. Wilm, 1933. Kristallstruktur und Quellung von Montmorillonit. Z. Kristallogr. Kristallgeom. 86:340.Google Scholar
  59. Hosking, J. S., 1957. The clay minerals. 2nd Amt. Conf. Soil Sci. 1, part 1: p. 6.1.Google Scholar
  60. Hurlbut, C.S., 1952. Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy, 16th ed. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  61. Jackson, M. L., 1963a. Aluminum bonding in soils: a unifying principle in soil science. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 27:1.Google Scholar
  62. —, 1963b. Interlayering of expansible layer silicates in soils by chemical weathering. Clays Clay Min. 11:29.Google Scholar
  63. Jones, L. H. P., and A. A. Milne, 1956. Birnessite, a new manganese oxide mineral from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Mineral Mag. 31:283.Google Scholar
  64. Kirkman, J. H., B. D. Mitchell, and R. C. Mackenzie, 1966. Distribution in some Scottish soils of an inorganic gel system related to allophane. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 66:393.Google Scholar
  65. Kirwan, R., 1794. Elements of Mineralogy, 2nd ed. London: Elmsly.Google Scholar
  66. König, E., 1687. Regnum Minerale. Basle: König.Google Scholar
  67. Kostov, I., 1954. A note on a more rational classification of minerals. Zap. vses. miner. Obshch. 83:328. English translation in Aspects of Theoretical Mineralogy in the U.S.S.R. M. H. Battey and S. I. Tomkeieff, eds., p. 101. Oxford: Pergamon (1964).Google Scholar
  68. —, 1956, O klasifikatsii okis [The classification of oxides]. Mineralog. Sb. L’vov. 10:105. English translation in Aspects of Theoretical Mineralogy in the U.S.S.R. M. H. Battey and S. I. Tomkeieff, eds., p. 221. Oxford: Pergamon (1964).Google Scholar
  69. —, 1968. Mineralogy. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.Google Scholar
  70. Lachmund, D. F., 1669. Hildesheimensis. Hildesheim: Müller.Google Scholar
  71. Langston, R. B., and J. A. Pask, 1969. The nature of anauxite. Clays Clay Min. 16:425.Google Scholar
  72. Laue, M., 1912. Eine quantitative Prüfung der Theorie für die Interferenzerscheinungen bei Röntgenstrahlen. Sitzber. bayer. Akad. Wiss. 363.Google Scholar
  73. Lazarenko, E. K., 1958. O nomenklature i klassifikatsii glinistykh mineralov [The nomenclature and Classification of clay minerals]. In Issledovanie i Ispolzpvanie Glin [The Investigation and Utilization of Clays]. D. P. Bobrobnik, ed., p. 34. L’vov: Izd. L’vovsk. Univ. English translation in Aspects of Theoretical Mineralogy in the U.S.S.R. M. H. Battey and S. I. Tomkeieff, eds., p. 323. Oxford: Pergamon (1964).Google Scholar
  74. —, 1963. Kurs Mineralogii [Course in Mineralogy]. Moscow: Gosudarst. Izd. “Vysshaya Shkola”.Google Scholar
  75. Léonard, A., S. Suzuki, J. J. Fripiat, and C. de Kimpe, 1964. Structure and properties of amorphous silicoaluminas. I. Structure from X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. J. phys. Chem. (Ithaca) 68:2608.Google Scholar
  76. MacEwan, D. M. C., 1949. Some notes on the recording and interpretation of X-ray diagrams of soil clay. J. Soil Sci. 1:90.Google Scholar
  77. —, 1961. Montmorillonite minerals. In The X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals. G. Brown, ed., p. 143. London: Mineralogical Society.Google Scholar
  78. Mackay, A. L., 1962. β-Ferric oxyhydroxide-akaganéite. Mineral. Mag. 33:270.Google Scholar
  79. Mackenzie, R. C., 1957. Modern methods for studying clays. Agrochimica 1:305.Google Scholar
  80. —, 1959. The classification and nomenclature of clay minerals. Clay Min. Bull. 4:52.Google Scholar
  81. —, 1963. De natura lutorum. Clays Clay Min. 11:11.Google Scholar
  82. —, 1965. Nomenclature sub-committee of CIPEA. Clay Min. 6:123.Google Scholar
  83. —, and B. D. Mitchell, 1966. Clay mineralogy. Earth-Sci. Rev. 2:47.Google Scholar
  84. Martin Vivaldi, J. L., and D. M. C. MacEwan, 1960. Corrensite and swelling chlorite. Clay Min. Bull. 4:173.Google Scholar
  85. Mitchell, B. D., V. C. Farmer, and W. J. McHardy, 1964. Amorphous inorganic materials in soils. Adv. Agron. 16:327.Google Scholar
  86. Mukherjee, B., 1965. Crystallography of psilomelane, A3X6Mn8O16. Mineral. Mag. 35:643.Google Scholar
  87. Müller, G., 1963. Zur Kenntnis dioktaedrischer Vierschicht-Phyllosilikate (Sudoit Reihe der Sudoit-Chlorit Gruppe). International Clay Conference 1963 1:121. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  88. Muñoz Taboadela, M., and V. Aleixandre Ferrandis, 1957. The mica minerals. In The Differential Thermal Investigation of Clays. R. C. Mackenzie, ed., p. 165. London: Mineralogical Society.Google Scholar
  89. Naumann, C. F., 1850. Elemente der Mineralogie, 2nd ed. Leipzig: Engelmann.Google Scholar
  90. Nelson, B. W., and R. Roy, 1954. New data on the composition and identification of chlorites. Clays Clay Min. 2:335.Google Scholar
  91. —, and R. Roy, 1958. Synthesis of chlorites and their structural and chemical constitution. Am. Mineral. 43:707.Google Scholar
  92. Nicol, J., 1849. Manual of Mineralogy. Edinburgh: A. and C. Black.Google Scholar
  93. Norrish, K., and R. H. Taylor, 1961. The isomorphous replacement of iron by aluminum in soil goethites. J. Soil Sci. 12:294.Google Scholar
  94. Palache, C., H. Berman, and C. Frondel, 1944, 1951. The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana. 7th, ed. Vols. I, II. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  95. Parfenova, E. I., and E. A. Yarilova, 1962. Mineralogicheskie Issledovaniyav Pochvovedenii [Mineralogical Investigations in Soil Science]. Moscow: Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR.Google Scholar
  96. Pauling, L., 1930a. Structure of the micas and related minerals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 16:123.Google Scholar
  97. —, 1930b. Structure of chlorites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 16:578.Google Scholar
  98. Pedro, G., 1965. La Classification des Minéraux Argileux. Paris: Inst. Nat. Recherche Agron.Google Scholar
  99. Phillips, W., 1823. An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. London: Phillips.Google Scholar
  100. Phillips, W. R., 1963. A differential thermal study of the chlorites. Mineral. Mag. 33:404.Google Scholar
  101. Pliny, the Elder, 79 A.D. Natural History. English translation: The Elder Pliny’s Chapters on Chemical Subjects, by K. C. Bailey. London: Arnold (1932).Google Scholar
  102. Poldervaart, A., and H. H. Hess, 1951. Pyroxenes in the crystallization of basaltic magma.J. Geol. 59:472.Google Scholar
  103. Povarennykh, A. S., 1972. Crystal Chemical Classification of Minerals. 2 Volumes. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  104. Preisinger, A., 1965. Prehnit—ein neuer Schichtsilikattyp. Tschermaks Miner. Petrogr. Mitt. 10:491.Google Scholar
  105. Radoslovich, E. W., 1963. Celldimension studies on layer-lattice silicates: A summary. Clays Clay Min. 11:225.Google Scholar
  106. Rayner, J. H., and G. Brown, 1966. Structure of pyrophyllite. Clays Clay Min. 13:73.Google Scholar
  107. —, and G. Brown, 1966. The structure of talc. Circ. Clay Min. Grp. Mineralog. Soc. No. 79.Google Scholar
  108. Rich, C.I., and G. W. Thomas, 1960. The clay fraction of soils. Advan. Agron. 12:1.Google Scholar
  109. Robertson, R. H. S., 1949. The fuller’s earths of the Elder Pliny. Classical Rev. 63:51.Google Scholar
  110. —, 1958. The earths of Theophrastus. Classical Rev. 72:222.Google Scholar
  111. —, 1963. Perlite and palygorskite in Theophrastus. Classical Rev. 13:132.Google Scholar
  112. Rosenqvist, I. T., 1963. Studies in the position and mobility of the H atoms in hydrous micas. Clays Clay Min. 11:117.Google Scholar
  113. Ross, C. S., 1927. The mineralogy of clays. Trans. I Int. Congr. Soil Sci. Commission V:555.Google Scholar
  114. —, and P. F. Kerr, 1930. The kaolin minerals. Prof. Pap. U.S. Geol. Surv. No. 165-E.:151Google Scholar
  115. Sato, M., 1965. Structure of interstratified (mixed-layer) minerals. Nature (Lond.) 208:70.Google Scholar
  116. Sobolev, V., 1949. Vvedeniya v Mineralogiyu Silikatov [Introduction to the Mineralogy of the Silicates]. L’vov: Izd. L’vovsk. Univ.Google Scholar
  117. Strunz, H., 1957. Mineralogische Tabellen, 3rd ed. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  118. —, 1966. Mineralogishe Tabellen, 4th ed. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  119. Sudo, T., 1954. Clay mineralogical aspects of the alteration of volcanic glass in Japan. Clay Min. Bull. 2:96.Google Scholar
  120. Sudo, T., 1956. X-ray and thermal data for clay minerals formed by the alteration of volcanic materials. Sci. Rep. Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku, Sect. C, 5:39.Google Scholar
  121. Tamura, T., M. L. Jackson, and G. D. Sherman, 1953. Mineral content of low humic, humic and hydrol humic latosols of Hawaii. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 17:343.Google Scholar
  122. van Tassel, R., 1959. Strengite, phosphosiderite, cacoxenite and radiating fibrous apatite from Richelle. Bull. Soc. belge Geol., Paleont. Hydrol. 68:360.Google Scholar
  123. Theophrastus, ca. 300 b.c. περὶ λίθον [On Stones]. English translation: Theophrastus on Stones by E. R. Caley and J. F. C. Richards. Colombus: Ohio State University Press (1956).Google Scholar
  124. Tschermak, G., 1888. Lehrbuch der Mineralogie. Wien: Hölder.Google Scholar
  125. Walker, G. F., 1961. Vermiculite minerals. In The X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals. G. Brown, ed. London: Mineralogical Society.Google Scholar
  126. Wall, J. R. D., E. B. Wolfenden, E. H. Beard, and T. Deans, 1962. Nordstrandite in soil from West Sarawak, Borneo. Nature (Lond.) 196:264.Google Scholar
  127. Warshaw, C. M., and R. Roy, 1961. Classification and a scheme for the identification of layer silicates. Bull Geol. Soc. Am. 72:1455.Google Scholar
  128. Yoshinaga, N., and S. Aomine, 1962. Imogolite in some Ando soils. Soil Sci. Pl. Nutr. 8:114.Google Scholar
  129. Zwicker, W. K., W. O. J. G. Meijer, and H. W. Jaffe, 1962. Nsutite—a widespread manganese oxide mineral. Am. Mineral 47:246.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Mackenzie

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations