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The present volume contains the lectures given at the Engström Respirator Symposium, Aachen, 197o. In the theoretical session, KALFF enumerated the basic prerequisites of artificial ventilation that must be fulfilled under all circumstances: volume constancy, uniform volume distribution, unimpaired diffusion and even distribution of pulmonary blood flow in all lung segments. Optimal air humidification is of particular importance here, and much attention was devoted to this in the discussion. The time constant, which is mathematically derived and explained here, ist very significant for the efficacy of ventilation.