Classification of Surfaces

  • Gerhard Ringel
Part of the Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften book series (GL, volume 209)


In this chapter we will present material that is well known; however we need not only the results, but also parts of the proofs as we shall see in later chapters. For more details of this theory see H. Seifert and Threlfall [81] or M. Fréchet and Ky Fan [22].


Normal Form Euler Characteristic Symbolic Representation Simple Normalization Orientable Surface 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Ringel
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

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