Many of the theoretical problems encountered in seismology do not permit a simple and easily understood type of solution directly in terms of rays as given in the previous chapter. This is because certain constraints, or boundary conditions, are imposed on the propagation. This, then, involves interference effects from multiple reflections and refractions and conversion effects from P to SV, or vice versa, which at a distance from the source determine the characteristics of the propagation. We arrive at normal mode effects, that is, preferred modes of vibration for the system and at wave guide effects, that is, propagation constrained for certain frequencies and incident angles to a given layer by the boundary conditions imposed by the upper and lower surfaces of the layer.
KeywordsFree Surface Surface Wave Phase Velocity Group Velocity Rayleigh Wave
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