Optical Properties of Vertebrate Eyes

  • Gerald Westheimer
Part of the Handbook of Sensory Physiology book series (SENSORY, volume 7 / 2)


Starting with a simple photodetector in protozoa and some of the earliest multicellular invertebrates, evolution has fashioned very elaborate visual organs. For an understanding of these organs and of the way they tie in with the rest of the organism, it needs to be considered at the outset what kind of information they extract from the photic energy impinging on them.


Spatial Frequency Retinal Image Modulation Transfer Function Pupil Diameter Light Distribution 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin · Heidelberg 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald Westheimer
    • 1
  1. 1.BerkeleyUSA

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