Getting Started in Carbonate Petrography: Methodology and Applications

  • Alan Stanley Horowitz
  • Paul Edwin Potter

Abstract

An introductory text on the petrography of fossils would be incomplete without mention of its uses as well as informing the reader how to begin the study of carbonate rocks in thin section.

Keywords

Sandstone Sedimentation Jurassic Gypsum Breccia 

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Selected Chronologie, Annotated References

  1. Sorby, H. C., 1851, On the microscopical structure of the calcareous grit of the Yorkshire coast: Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour., v. 7, p.1–6.First use of a petrographic microscope to examine limestone in thin section and first use of insoluble residue technique.Google Scholar
  2. — 1853, On the microscopical structure of some British Tertiary and post-Tertiary freshwater marls and limestones (abstract): Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour., v. 9, p. 344–346. Probably the first published modal analysis made from thin section study of carbonate rocks.Google Scholar
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  4. Bornemann, J. G., 1885, Beiträge zur Kenntniβ des Muschelkalks, insbesondere der Schichtenfolge und der Gesteine des unteren Muschelkalks in Thüringen: Jahrb. Kgl. preuss. geol. Landesanstalt Bergakademie (1885), v. 6, p. 267–321, pls. 7-14, fig. A.One of the first petrographic studies of a carbonate. Excellent plates with identifications. Six major rock types recognized. Petrography integrated with several vertical profiles. Faunal lists. Discusses classification of Muschelkalk in Thüringen. Classical paper.Google Scholar
  5. Cayeux, Lucien, 1897, Contribution à l’étude micrographique des terrains sédimentaires I. Étude de quelques dépôts siliceux secondaires et tertiaires d u Bassin de Paris et de la Belgique II. Craie du Bassin de Paris: Lille, Le Bigot Frères, Imprimeurs-Editeurs, 589 p., 10 pls., 20 figs.This volume summarizes the author’s early work (starting in the 1880’s) on the petrographic study of sedimentary rocks. In Part II the Cretaceous chalk is studied in detail coneluding with an analysis of depositional environment (chapter 15). Interesting bibliography of 312 items arranged in sequential order. The first systematic petrography. Classical paper.Google Scholar
  6. Bleicher, M., 1898, Contribution àl’etude lithologique, microscopique et chimique des roches sédimentaires secondaires et tertiaries du Portugal: Communicações da Direcçãao dos Trabalhos geológicos de Portugal, v. 3, p. 251–289, 7 pls.Early description of carbonates in Portugal, particularly dolomites. Only one reference.Hovelacque, Maurice, and Kilian, C. C. W., 1900, Album de microphotographies des roches sedimentaires: Paris, Gauthier-Villars, Imprimeur-Librarie, 14 p., 69 pls.Good quality photomicrographs at moderate to low magnifications of Jurassic, Triassic, and Cretaceous limestones of the French calcareous Alps. Virtually no text but two to six photomicrographs per plate, each photograph with a very brief description. Some identifications to species. Appears to be the first microfacies album, although the term is not used.Google Scholar
  7. Skeats, E. W., 1903, The chemical composition of limestones from upraised coral islands, with notes on their microscopical structures: Bull. Mus. Compo Zoology (Harvard), V. 42 (GeoL Ser., V. 6), 126 p., 10 figs.Chemical analyses and plots thereof against depth plus some petrography from a variety of tropical islands. Eight drawings of microscopic views. Good review of earlier studies.Google Scholar
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  10. Gaub, Friedrich, 1910, Die jurasischen Oolithe der schwabischen Alb: GeoL U. Palaeont. Abh., n. ser., v. 13, 80 p., 10 pls.Considers oolites and their nuclei and the Schwabischen Alps in particular. Many references and sixty photomicrographs.Google Scholar
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  12. Archangelsky, A. D., 1912, RuVerkhnemelovye otlozheniya vostoka Europeiskoi Rossii (Upper Cretaceous deposits of eastern European Russia): Materali dlya geologii Rossii (Izd. Imperatorskago Mineralogischeskago Obshchestva), v. 25, 631 p., 10 pls, 20 figs.A comprehensive monographic report in four parts in which petrography plays only a small role. There are 4 plates of photomicrographs with short descriptions. More extended are descriptions of fossils and their paleoecology (paleooceanography) and chronologie zonation. A good example of an early Russian carbonate study. Author aware of relevant non-Russian literature (see also ai]Von bubnoff’s long review in Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Geol. Palaont., Jahrg. 1914 (1), p.456–471).Google Scholar
  13. Blanchet, F., 1918, Etude micrographique des calcaires urgoniens: Univ. Grenoble lab. geologie fac. sci. Travaux, v. 9 (1916-1917), p. 29–86, 2 pls., 14 figs.Four major parts: brief description of 200 thin sections, practical information on how to identify fossils in thin section, and petrographic characteristics of Cretaceous and Jurassic limestones in the Jura region. Largely descriptive.Google Scholar
  14. Gilard, P., 1926, Recherche sur la constitution des craies du Limbourg: Acad. royale de Belgique Mem. cl. sci., 2nd ser., v. 8, fasc. 1, 73 p., 4 pls., 8 figs.An integrated stratigraphic-petrographic study using chemical analyses, insoluble residues, and thin sections. Suggests a shallow water origin for the chalk but with strand line far away. Sparingly referenced.Google Scholar
  15. Goldman, M. I., 1926a, Petrology of the contact of the Ordovician Ellenburger Limestone and the Mississippian limestone of Boone age in San Saba County, Texas, in Mississippian formations of San Saba County, Texas, Pt. IV: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 146, p. 44–59, pls. 7-33, 1 fig.One of the most remarkable carbonate petrographic studies ever made—and based on only 2 specimens! The starting point of the investigation was microstratigraphic-whether to assign a 2 em layer to the Mississippian or Ordovician. Among topics treated are pelleted limestones, “echinoderm breccia”, soft-sediment microfolding, envelopes around calcite fragments, and silicification. Concise interpretation. Excellent plates. Don't pass it by.Google Scholar
  16. Goldman, M. I., 1926b, Proportions of detrital organic calcareous constituents and their chemical alteration in a reef sand from the Bahamas: Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 344 (Papers from the Dept. of Marine Biology, v. 23), p. 39–66, 1 fig., 13 tables.An elaboration of GOLDMAN’S earlier 1918 studies in Publication 213, Carnegie Institute of Washington. Fifteen petrographic constituents recognized in different size grades down to fine sand. Chemical composition of constituents for different size fractions unusual. Diagenesis. Relative solubilities of calcium and magnesium carbonates. Careful description and interpretation by the master, the most versatile American sedimentary petrographer of his day, one who was equally at home studying ancient and modern carbonates as well as terrigeneous and chemical sediments.Google Scholar
  17. Kaisin, Felix, 1927, FrContribution à l—études des caractères lithologiques et du mode de formation des roches calcaires de Belgique: Acad. royale de Belgique Mém. cl. sci., ser. 2, v. 8, fasc. 5, 118 p., 20 pls, 1 fig.A monograph in the CAYEUX style. Begins with descriptions of Belgium limestones in stratigraphic order. Of most interest are chapters 4, 5, and 6 which contain carbonate petrography, including classification, diagenesis, and stratification. Over 200 references. The high quality plates contain 92 figures. An outstanding study for its day.Google Scholar
  18. Zil’bermints, V. A., and Maslov, V. P., 1928, RuK litologii kamennougol’nykh izvestnyakov donetskogo basseina (On the lithology of the Carboniferous limestones of the Donetz Basin):Moscow, Institut Pribladnoi Mineralogii i Metallurgii Trudy no. 35, Nauchno-Teknicheskoe Upravlenie, no. 222, 215 p., 87 figs., 20 tables.Systematic study of Carboniferous limestones in Donetz coal basin. Includes megascopic and microscopic examination, classification, and geographic and stratigraphic distribution of four major limestone types. Muddy limestones predominate. Many thin sections individually described and biotic constituents (mostly foraminifers) are identified to generic and specific level. English summary.Google Scholar
  19. Sujkowski, Z., 1931, RuPetrografja kredy Polski. Kreda z glebokiego wiercenia w Lublinie w porownaniu z kreda niektorych innych obszarow Polski (Etude petrographique du Cretace de Pologne. La serie de Lublin a sa comparaison avec la craie blanche): Sprawozdania polskiego Instytutu Geologicznego (Bull. Service geol. Pologne), v. 6, p. 483–628, pls 6-13, 4 figs.An early systematic petrographic study of a core (855 m) in Cretaceous carbonates. Detailed description of facies and constituents via lithology, thin sections, and study of residues. Has a plot of composition versus depth for all 855 m-the first of its kind? Origin of chalk is prime concern. Strongly influenced by CAYEUX and aware of all the important literature of the day. Sixty-five references. Faunal lists. French resume.Google Scholar
  20. Pia, Julius, 1933, Die rezenten Kalksteine: Zeitschr. für Kristallographie, Mineralogie u. Petrographie. Abt. B: Mineralog. u. petrog. Mitt., n. ser., Erganzungsband, 420 p., 4 pls, 22 figs., 64 tables.All aspects of modern limestones: their chemistry, character of precipitating waters, lime muds and lime sands, and ecology of modern, shell-forming animals. Marine and fresh water environments. No thin section petrography but some chemistry. Many references.Google Scholar
  21. Black, Maurice, 1933, The algal sediments of Andros Island, Bahamas: Royal Soc. London Philos. Trans., ser. B., v. 222, p. 165–192, pls 21-22, 16 figs., 1 table.Ecology, description of some types of algal mats, discussion of lamination and its relationship to environment. Eight photomicrographs of algal sediments. Early modern carbonate sediment study. Classic.Google Scholar
  22. Cayeux, Lucien, 1935, Les roches sedimentaires de France. Roches carbonatees (calcaires et dolomies): Paris, Masson et Cie, 447 p., 26 pls, 9 figs.Classic, descriptive petrography of limestones and dolomites. Begins with the modern and then turns to the many different, ancient lithologies. Treatment of lacustrine carbonates unusual. Volume contains the basis for all the later mapping applications. Superb plates. One hundred and one figures on the platesGoogle Scholar
  23. Sander, K, 1936, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Anlagerungsgefiige (Rhythmische Kalke und Dolomit aus der Trias); II. Siidalpine Beispiele, Hauptdolomit, Allgemeines: Mineralog. u. petrog. Mitt., v. 48, p. 141–209, 10 figs., 16 tables (translated by au]E. B. KNOPF, 1951, Contributions to the study of depositional fabric: Tulsa, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists).Primarily concerned with the textural relations (fabrics) of Triassic limestones and dolomites in the Alps and as such is a milestone in the study of carbonates even through little mention is made of fossils. Compare with Bosellini (1965).Google Scholar
  24. Krestovnikov, V., and Teodorovich, G. I., 1938, K petrographii paleozoiskikh otlozhenii iuzhnogo urala (Petrography of the Paleozoic deposits of the southern Urals): Leningrad, Neftianyi Geologo-Razvedochnyi Institut, Trudy, ser. A., fasc. 93, 47 p., 8 pls, 13 tables.Considers classification, grain size, and chemical analysis, along with mineralogical and biological constituents in a predominantly carbonate sequence. Fossil identifications (mostly foraminifers) to generic level. HATCH, F. H., et at., 1938, The petrology of the sedimentary rocks, 3rd ed.: London, Thomas Murby and Co., 383 p., 75 figs., 16 tables. Chapter 8 (p. 152-197) treats limestones and dolomites. The first English language text to consider the petrology of carbonate rocks. Revised by M. BLACK, a carbonate specialist. Mostly historical interest.Google Scholar
  25. Hadding, Assar, 1941, The pre-Quaternary sedimentary rocks of Sweden VI. Reef limestones: Lunds Univ. Arrsk. N.F., Avd. 2, v. 37, no. 10, 137 p., 88 figs.General occurrence, form and size, building materials, diagenesis, relation to enclosing sediments and paleogeography of Silurian reefs. Descriptive, qualitative petrography well-illustrated.Google Scholar
  26. Crickmay, G. W., 1945, Petrography of limestones, in Geology of Lau, Fiji: Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 181, p. 211–250, 4 figs., 6 tables.Evaluation of the various fossil groups as rock makers in Cenozoic limestones, some of which are tuffaceous. Twelve line drawings of microscopic views of limestones. Many modal analyses. Diagenesis and cementation.Google Scholar
  27. Henson, F. R. S., 1950, Cretaceous and Tertiary reef formations and associated sediments in Middle East: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 34, p. 215–238, 14 figs., 1 table.Under ideal conditions back-reef, reef and forereef (basinward) facies of a reef complex can be differentiated by petrographic and micropaleontologic criteria recognizable in thin sections and even in cuttings.Google Scholar
  28. Link, T. A., 1950, Theory of transgressive and regressive reef (bioherm) development and origin of oil: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 34, p. 263–294, 2 pls., 18 figs.Not much petrography but essential stratigraphic framework of regression and transgression and their significance for reef development on the craton. Many informative diagrams. Compares Devonian reefs of Alberta to Permian reefs of Texas and New Mexico. Hydrocarbons and porosity within bioherms. “Big picture” thinking very well done.Google Scholar
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  30. Teodorovich, G. I., 1950, Litologia karbontnych porod paleozoia Uralo-Volzhskoi oblasti (Lithology of Paleozoic carbonate rocks of the Ural-Volga region): Akad. Nauk SSSR, Inst. Nefti, 215 p., 93 figs.Uses the carbonate rocks of a particular region to write a monograph of general interest: mineralogy, classification, origin, and lithic associations. Many photomicrographs with identified biotic debris. Comprehensive Russian bibliography.Google Scholar
  31. Bonet, Federico, 1952, La facies Urgoniana del Cretacico Medio de la region de Tampico: Asoc. Mexicana de Geologos Petroleros Bol., v. 4, p. 153–262, 50 figs.Stratigraphy and petrography integrated with paleoecological comparison of coralline and rudistid reefs. Paleogeographic map and cross section summarize results.Google Scholar
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  33. Newell, N. D., et al., 1953, The Permian reef complex of the Guadalupe Mountains region, Texas and New Mexico: San Francisco, W. H. Freeman and Co., 236 p., 32 pls., 85 figs.Analysis and description from many points of view, well-done in 8 chapters. An early classic.Google Scholar
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  42. Lecompte, Marius, 1958, Les recifs paleozoiques en Belgique: Geol. Rundschau, v. 47, p. 384–401, 7 figs.Careful lithologic description details the internal zoning of a reef and its relation to offreef sediments. Informative illustrations.Google Scholar
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  49. Baxter, J. W., 1960, Salem Limestont in southwestern Illinois:. Illinois Geol. Survey Circ. 284, 32 p., 3 pls., 6 figs., 3 tables.A famous Mississippian limestone studied in outcrop in a county bordering the Mississippi River. Stratigraphy, vertical profiles of constituents, 29 chemical analyses, and brief inquiry into depositional history.Google Scholar
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  52. Rukhin, L. B., and Rukhina, E. V. L., 1961, Melovye otlozhenia Ferganskoi kotloviny (Cretaceous chalk deposits of the Fergana basin): Leningrad, Leningradskii ordena Lenina gosudarstvennyi Universitet, 163 p., 70 figs., 8 tables.Four well-illustrated chapters include stratigraphy, lithology and petrology, origin, and petroleum significance. Directional structures and paleogeographic maps. One page English summary.Google Scholar
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  56. Kornicker, L. S., and Boyd, D. W., 1962, Shallow-water geology and environments of Alacran reef complex, Campeche Bank, Mexico: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull, v.46, p. 640–673, 34 figs., 4 tables.Prime emphasis on processes and qualitative zonation of frame builders plus sediment contributors and binders. More ecology than petrology.Google Scholar
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  66. Terriere, R. T., 1963, Petrography and environmental analysis of some Pennsylvanian limestones from central Texas: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 315-E, p. 79–126, pls. 31-38, 35 figs., 3 tables.Limestones, a small part of the shaly Upper Pennsylvanian section, belong to four types. Detailed presentation of organic and inorganic constituents. Geologic history.Google Scholar
  67. Bosellini, Alfonso, 1964, Stratigrafia, petrografia, e sedimentologia delle facies carbonatiche al limite permiano-trias nelle Dolomiti occidentali: Mem. Mus. Storia Naturale Venezia Tricentina, Anno 37–38 (1964-1965), v. 15, fasc. 2, 105 p., 57 figs.Thorough study of the Permian-Triassic boundary in a carbonate sequence. Many photomicrographs. Eleven paragenetic events recognized. English abstract.Google Scholar
  68. Folk, R. L., and Robles, Rogelio, 1964, Carbonate sands of Isla Perez, Alacran Reef complex, Yucatan: Jour. Geology, v. 72, p. 255–292, 4 pls., 19 figs., 2 tables.Petrography of beach sands with emphasis on composition versus size, texture, and the sorting of carbonate debris. Suggests a “Sorby principle” for sizing of biotic debris.Google Scholar
  69. Fuchtbauer, Uchtbauer, 1964, Fazies, Porositat und Gasinhalt der Karbonatgesteine des norddeutschen Zechsteins: Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesell. Jahrg., 1962, v. 114, p. 484–531,3 pls., 19 figs., 3 tables.Detailed petrography and lithology in a sparingly fossiliferous evaporite dolomite sequence. Algae, foraminifers, and ostracods are the principal fossils.Google Scholar
  70. Harbaugh, J. W., and Demirmen, Ferruh, 1964, Application of factor analysis to petrologic variations of Americus Limestone (Lower Permian), Kansas and Oklahoma: Kansas Geol. Survey Spec. Distrib. Pub. 15, 41 p., 15 figs., 13 tables.A 1 to 5 foot limestone is sampled with 97 hand specimens at 29 localities along a 300 mile outcrop. Q-mode factor analysis helps digest data. Unusual plots of vertical position of data in bed. Paleogeographic map integrates data. Compare with TOOMEY (1966).Google Scholar
  71. Klovan, J. E., 1964, Facies analysis of the Redwater reef complex, Alberta, Canada: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 12, p. 1–100, 9 pls., 20 figs., 8 tables.Geometry (maps and cross-sections) and clear informative petrography of a Devonian reef. Geographic and bathymetric zonation of reef building organisms. Seven lithologic facies recognized and 11 lithologies. Petrographic description forms recommended (Table 6). Sets the style for reef studies in western Canada.Google Scholar
  72. Lucchi, F. R., 1964, Ricerche sedimentologiche sui lembi alloctoni della Val Marecchia: Giornale di Geologia, sere 2a, V. 32, p. 545–626, 12 pls., 2 figs.Using 170 thin sections from 12 sections, seven microfacies are recognized in Miocene carbonates in allochthonous blocks of the “argille scagliosa” of the Marecchia valley. Biostromes. Principal biotics are bryozoans, coralline algae, and foraminifers. Excellent plates.Google Scholar
  73. Mamet, Bernard, 1964, Sédimentologie des facies “Marbles Noirs” du Paléozoïque FrancoBelge: Inst. royale Sci. Nat. Belgique Mem. 151, 131 p., 5 pls., 54 figs.Good integration of paleontology and petrography with much quantitative data and 172 references. Five chapters: local and regional setting, petrographic classification, ecology of the black marbles, and chemical aspects.Google Scholar
  74. Passerini, Pietro, 1964, II Monte Cetona (Provincia di Siena): Bull. Soc. Geol. Italiana, v. 83, p. 219–338, 58 figs.Stratigraphy, sedimentary structures, microfacies, tectonics and geologic history of the Monte Cetona area from Triassic to present. Many photomicrographs. Some sandstone petrography. English abstract.Google Scholar
  75. Peszat, Czeslaw, 1964, Litologia jurajskich skal węglanowychmiędzy Tokarnią Chmielnikiem (Lithology of the Jurassic carbonate rocks, southeastern margin of Holy Cross Mts., Poland): Acta Geol. Polonica, v. 14, p. 1–78, 6 pls., 10 figs., 12 tables.Carbonate sedimentation in an epicontinental basin: chemical and petrographic analysis plus porosity and permeability. Oolitic limestones conspicuous. English summary.Google Scholar
  76. Pitcher, Max, 1964, Evolution of Chazyan (Ordovician) reefs of eastern United States and Canada: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 12, p. 632–691, 3 pls., 49 figs.Small reefs and enclosing sediments studied in outcrop with principal emphasis on primary deposition rather than diagenesis. Bryozoans are the major constituents of the reefs. Portable core used to obtain samples from glaciated surfaces.Google Scholar
  77. Schlanger, S. 0., 1964, Petrology of the limestones of Guam: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 403-D, 52 p., 21 pls., 5 figs., 11 tables.Tertiary reef complex detailed by study of thin-sections, insoluble residues and chemical analyses. Very good photomicrographs. Volcanic debris admixed with skeletal material.Google Scholar
  78. Textoris, D.A., and Carozzi, A.V., 1964, Petrography and evolution of Niagaran (Silurian) reefs, Indiana: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 48, p. 397–426, 2 pls., 24 figs.Eight major microfacies were delimited via 800 thin sections from five selected reefs. Numerous vertical profiles and field relations are integrated into an “ideal” Niagaran reef.Google Scholar
  79. Behrens, E. W., 1965, Environment reconstruction for a part of the Glen Rose Limestone, central Texas: Sedimentology, v. 4, p. 65–111, 10 pls., 11 figs., 8 tables.One hundred and ninety-nine samples of a 50-foot thick limestone were studied and stratigraphically divided into five major facies based on 19 constituents. Facies and isopach maps summarize results. Thin sections, x-ray data, and insoluble residues supplied the data.Google Scholar
  80. Bluck, B. J., 1965, Sedimentation of Middle Devonian carbonates, southeastern Indiana: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 35, p. 656–682, 3 pls., 18 figs., 1 table.Lacustrine, mudflat, lagoonal and off-shore environments recognized plus several microfacies. Quantitative petrographic profiles plus an interpretive, diagrammatic cross section.Google Scholar
  81. Bosellini, Alphonso, 1965, Analisi petrografica della “Dolomia Principale” nel Gruppo di Sella (Regione Dolomitica): Mem. Geopaleontogiche, Univ. Ferrara, v. 1, fasc. 2, no. 3, p. 49–112, 5 pls., 37 figs.A 300 meter section through the dolomite sequence studied by SANDER (1936). Seven petrographic types. Cycles considered intertidal rather than deep water. Good photomicrographs. English summary.Google Scholar
  82. Carss, B. W., and Carozzi, A. V., 1965, Petrology of Upper Devonian pelletoidallimestones, Arrow Canyon Range, Clark County, Nevada: Sedimentology, v. 4, p. 197–224, 2 pls., 12 figs., 3 tables.Twelve hundred feet of Devonian limestones examined by thin and polished sections (plus some x-ray studies) at 2-foot intervals. Seven microfacies were recognized based on eight variables. Two ideal cycles defined. Horizontal interpretation of microfacies is made and related to water depth. Identical style as in Heath et al. (1967).Google Scholar
  83. Demirmen, Ferruh, and Harbaugh, J. W., 1965, Petrography and origin of Permian McCloud Limestone of northern California: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 35, p. 136–154, 15 figs., 1 table.A lense (100 to about 2500 feet thick and about 24 miles long) with graywackes and tuffs above and below. Small scale sedimentary structures are described plus allochems and depositional history. Geosynclinal setting makes deposit unusual.Google Scholar
  84. Harbaugh, J. W., et al., 1965, Pennsylvanian marine banks in southeastern Kansas: Geol. Soc. America Assoc. Soc., Field Conf. Guidebook for Ann. Meeting, Kansas City, 54 p., 48 figs.Stratigraphic and polished sections help define marine banks in the Desmoinesian and Missourian stages (Pennsylvanian) of Kansas. Isopach maps and cross sections. Includes a short, well-illustrated article by J. L. Wray on algae.Google Scholar
  85. Murray, J. W., 1965, Stratigraphy and carbonate petrology of the Waterways Formation, Judy Creek, Alberta Canada: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 13, p. 303–326, 5 pls., 4 figs., 2 tables.The basin facies that envelops an oil producing, reef-fringed bank in west Alberta is studied by 70 thin sections, x-ray, and organic carbon determinations. See Murray (1966).Google Scholar
  86. Nichols, R. A. H., 1965, Petrology of a Lower Carboniferous bryozoan limestone and adja cent limestones in North Wales, Great Britain: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 35, p. 887–899, 10 figs.Detailed mapping and sampling of limestones from a small area plus qualitative petrography. Recognizes shoal and flank limestones and their varieties. Bryozoan limestones believed to have formed as prominences on the sea floor.Google Scholar
  87. Pel, J., 1965, Étude du Givetien à sédimentation rythmique de la région de Hotton-Hampteau: Ann. Soc. Geol. Belgique, v. 88, p. 471–521, 10 pls., 2 figs.Vertical profiles studied by 300 thin sections suggest an ideal cycle. Six megasequences. Clasticity indices help classify faunal variations. Two plates of photomicrographs and eight of vertical profiles. Petrography in the Carozzi style.Google Scholar
  88. Pumpin, V. F., 1965, Riffsedimentologische Untersuchungen im Rauracien von St. Ursanne und Umgebung (Zentraler Schweizer Jura): Eclogae geol. Helvetia, v. 58, p. 799–876, 1 pl., 36 figs.Bioherms (30 to 40 m thick) and associated calcarenites including algal-ball limestones, oolites, and chalky limestones. Numerous fossil lists and some chemical data. English summary.Google Scholar
  89. Wolf, K. H., 1965, Petrogenesis and paleoenvironment of Devonian algal limestones of New South Wales: Sedimentology, v. 4, p.113–178, 40 figs., 7 tables.An algal reef complexsuperbly documented. Informative tables. Full discussion of paleoecology.Google Scholar
  90. Wolf, K. H., and Conolly, J. R., 1965, Petrogenesis and paleoenvironment of limestone lenses in Upper Devonian red beds of New South Wales: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology, v. 1, p. 69–111, 18 pls., 6 figs., 4 tables.Lenses of algal limestones in a fluvial or lacustrine red bed sequence. One of the few petrographic studies of a fresh-water limestone.Google Scholar
  91. Krebs, Wolfgang, 1966, Der Bau des oberdevonischen Langenaubach-Breitscheider Riffes und seine weitere Entwicklung im Unterkarbon (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge): Abh. Seckenbergischen Natur. Gesell. no. 511, 105 p., 13 pls., 18 figs., 3 tables.A 1200 meter Upper Devonian reef complex dissected by means of petrology, sedimentary structures, and constituents. Reef complex divided into 10 microfacies (forereef, 4; core, 1; backreef, 5). Figure 74 is an excellent summary diagram. Many drawings of megascopic organic constituents.Google Scholar
  92. Matthews, R. K., 1966, Genesis of Recent lime mud in southern British Honduras: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 36, p. 428–454, 8 figs., 5 tables.Petrographic study of Recent lime mud illustrates the problems of fossil identification with very small detritus. Mineralogical and strontium data.Google Scholar
  93. Murray, J. W., 1966, An oil producing reeffringed carbonate bank in the Upper Devonian Swan Hills Member, Judy Creek, Alberta: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 14, p. 1–103, 23 pls., 12 figs., 2 tables.Nine major rock types defined by different combinations of organic framebuilders (massive and tabular stromatoporids plus some solenoporid algae and tabulate corals), skeletal and pelletal grains, micrite, sparry calcite, and void space. Tables 1 and 2 nicely define textural elements and rock types. Geometry and areal distribution of biofacies. Compare with Klovan (1964).Google Scholar
  94. Payton, C. E., 1966, Petrology of the carbonate members of the Swope and Dennis Formations (Pennsylvanian), Missouri and Iowa: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 36, p. 576–601, 26 figs., 3 tables.Integrated study including texture and crossbedding of some 200 miles of outcropping shelf limestones. Statistical analysis (Kendall coefficient of rank correlation) helps digest data gathered from 725 samples that were studied by polished and thin section, x-ray, and acid-insoluble residues. Four paleogeographic maps summarize results.Google Scholar
  95. Stanley, S. M., 1966, Paleoecology and diagenesis of Key Largo Limestone, Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 50, p. 1927–1947, 1 pl., 12 figs., 1 table.A homogeneous Pleistocene reef consists of about 30 percent framebuilders, the rest interstitial calcarenite. Oolites formed behind the reef in shallower water. Diagenetic history emphasized.Google Scholar
  96. Textoris, D. A., and Carozzi, A. V., 1966, Petrography of a Cayugan (Silurian) stromatolite mound and associated facies (Ohio): Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 50, p. 1375–1388, 1 pl., 4 figs., 2 tables.Five closely spaced sections and 143 samples studied by polished surface and thin section reveal eight major microfacies. Explicit discussion and use of Walther’s Law.Google Scholar
  97. Toomey, D. F., 1966, Application of factor analysis to a facies of the Leavenworth Limestone (Pennsylvanian-Virgilian)of Kansas and environs: Kansas Geol. Survey Spec. Distrib. Pub. 27, 28 p., 13 figs., 6 tables.A thin, widespread limestone is studied in 32 outcrop sections and comprehensively described. Resulting data digested by a variant of factor analysis called vector analysis. Compositional cross sections are unusual. A good paper to read for statistical facies mapping.Google Scholar
  98. Bissell, H. J., and Chilingar, G. V., 1967, Classification of sedimentary carbonate rocks, in G. V. Chilingar et al., eds., Carbonate rocks (Developments in Sedimentology, v. 9A): Amsterdam, Elsevier Publishing Co., p. 87–168, 16 pls., 4 figs., 9 tables.Compact, well-documented review with 96 photomicrographs, good bibliography and a useful glossary of petrographic terminology relevant to carbonates.Google Scholar
  99. Bonet, Federico, 1967, Biogeologia subsuperficial del arrecife Alacranes, Yucatan: Univ. Nac. Auton. de Mexico, Inst. Geologia, Bol. 80, 192 p., 17 pls., 31 figs., 105 tables.Ecology and sedimentation including unconsolidated sediments and immediately underlying consolidated ones. Diagenesis. Geologic history. Six of the plates contain photomicrographs.Google Scholar
  100. Bonet, Federico, 1967, Biogeologia subsuperficial del arrecife Alacranes, Yucatan: Univ. Nac. Auton. de Mexico, Inst. Geologia, Bol. 80, 192 p., 17 pls., 31 figs., 105 tables.Ecology and sedimentation including unconsolidated sediments and immediately underlying consolidated ones. Diagenesis. Geologic history. Six of the plates contain photomicrographs.Google Scholar
  101. Colacicchi, Roberto, 1967, Geologia della Marsica orientale: Geologica Romana, v. 6, p. 189–316, 72 figs.Primarily a study of a shelf edge in a small part of central Italy (Marsica) from lower Lias to Tertiary. Recognition of turbidite limestones. Many excellent, well-described photomicrographs and some 250 references. Discusses tectonics and concludes by summarizing paleogeography. English summary.Google Scholar
  102. Dooge, J., 1967, The stratigraphy of an upper Devonian carbonate-shale transition between the North and South Ram Rivers of the Canadian Rocky Mountains: Leidse Geol. Mededeel., v. 39, p. 1–53, 56 figs., 7 appendices.Comprehensive study of a shallow shelf (carbonate) to deep water (shale) transition. Careful field and microscopic descriptions. Depositional history. Outstanding discussion of carbonate model (Chapter 9) and its worldwide application.Google Scholar
  103. D&x2019;ARGenio, Bruno, 1967, Geologia del Gruppo Taburno-Camposauro (Appennino Campano): Accad. Sci. Fische Matematiche (Napoli), sere 3a, V. 6, 218p., 39 figs., 19 pls.Stratigraphy, tectonics, and geomorphology. Stratigraphy section has much data on sedimentation and microfacies. Table 2 is an unusual reconstruction (in a cross section) of Triassic and Cretaceous environments across central Italy (Adriatic to Mediterranean).Google Scholar
  104. Eto, J0ji, 1967, A lithofacies analysis of the lower portion of the Akiyoshi limestone group: Akiyoshi-dai Sci. Mus. Bull. 4, p. 7–42, 5 pls., 11 figs., 2 tables.Petrography of tuffaceous fossiliferous limestones in a geosynclinal setting. Paleogeographical interpretations. Vertical petrographic profiles. Thirty photomicrographs. English abstract, captions, and summary.Google Scholar
  105. Garrison, R. W., 1967, Pelagic limestones of the Oberalm Beds (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous), Austrian Alps: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 15, p. 21-49, 4 pls., 8 figs., 3 tables.Very fine-grained limestones in a linear alpine trough studied by the optical and electron microscopes. Some allodapic or bioturbidite limestones also present.Google Scholar
  106. Heath, C. P., et al., 1967, Petrography of a carbonate transgressive-regressive sequence: The Bird Spring Group (Pennsylvanian), Arrow Canyon Range, Clark County, Nevada: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 37, p. 377–400, 10 figs.A vertical profile (1846 ft.) of some 2095 samples yielded 11 microfacies and 78 complete cycles. Idealized and quartz rich cycles are illustrated. Bathymetric and horizontal interpretation of microfacies. Closely spaced samples are typical of Carozzi style.Google Scholar
  107. Land, L. S., Mackenzie, F. T., and Gould, S. J., 1967, Pleistocene history of Bermuda: Geol. Soc. America Bull., V. 78, p. 993-1006, 4 pls., 5 figs., 4 tables.Topics of general interest include: distinguishing eolianites from marine biocalcarenites, paleosoils, and diagenesis.Google Scholar
  108. Laporte. F., 1967, Carbonate deposition near mean sealevel and resultant facies mosaic: Manlius Formation (Lower Devonian) of New York State: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 51, p. 73–101, 34 figs., 3 tables.A study, based on detailed sampling of 24 sections along some 375 miles of outcrop, discriminates three major facies. Degree of submergence and water energy are considered the prime environmental factors that control major lithologies. Good illustrations of lithologies. Nice work on the outcrop.Google Scholar
  109. Monty, C. L. V., 1967, Distribution and structure of Recent stromatolitic algal mats, eastern Andros Island, Bahamas: Ann. Soc. Geol. Belgique, v. 90 (Bull. 3), p. 55–100, 19 pls., 10 figs., 1 table.The sedimentation, mineralogy and petrology of stromatolitic algal mats in marine intertidal, brackish intertidal, and supratidal settings. Excellent. Compare with Black (1933).Google Scholar
  110. Murray, R. C., and Lucia, F. J., 1967, Cause and control of dolomite distribution by rock selectivity: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 78, p. 21–36, 5 pls., 7 figs.Lithology, sedimentary structures, and petrography of carbonate muds and sands help explain selective dolomitization. Paleoecology plays an important role in clarifying dolomitization.Google Scholar
  111. Roehl, P.O., 1967, Stony Mountain (Ordovician) and Interlake (Silurian) facies analogs of Recent low-energy marine and subaerial carbonates, Bahamas: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., V. 51, p. 1979–2032, 48 figs.The ancient appraised by careful comparison with the modern. Infratidal, intertidal, supratidal and subaerial diagenetic terrains are basis for comparing the ancient with modern (in the vicinity of Andros Island). Informative illustrations plus a brief appendix of petrographic types and their petrophysical characteristics. More sedimentation than petrography.Google Scholar
  112. Rossi, Daniele, 1967, Dolomitizzazione delle formazioni anisiche e ladino-carniche delle Dolomiti: Memorie Mus. Tridentino di Sci. Nat. Trento, Anno 29-30, v. 16, fasc. 3, 89 p., 19 pls., 27 tables.Dolomitization of middle Triassic reefs in the Italian Dolomites. Many chemical analyses and good photomicrographs. English summary (6 p.).Google Scholar
  113. Van Andel, T. H., and Veevers, J. J., 1967, Morphology and sediments of the Timor Sea: Australian Dept. Nat. Devel., Bur. Min. Res., Geology and Geophysics Bull. 83, 173 p., 5pls., 55 figs., 11 tables, 5 appendices.An outstanding, comprehensive study of the morphology, structure, and setting of Timor Sea and adjacent areas, including sediments and depositional facies. Petrography includes texture, color, and CaC03 content as well as study of terrigeneous materials and detailed petrographic consideration of carbonates. A hierarchcial diagram and Q-mode factor analysis are used to find compositional assemblages and their distribution. Sedimentary facies delimited and compared with other modern carbonate basins. Much quantitative data.Google Scholar
  114. Wilson, J. L., 1967a, Carbonate-evaporite cycles in Lower Duperow Formation of Williston Basin: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 15, p. 230–312, 22 pls., 14 figs., 2 tables.Integrated stratigraphy, petrology, and sedimentation in part of an intracratonic basin. Twelve widespread cycles in lower part of formation studied in detail. Deposition was largely back-reef. Thorough description of the basic cycle and its variant as well as paleontology and environmental summary. Informative plate descriptions. Well-recommended.Google Scholar
  115. Wilson, J. L., 1967b, Cyclic and reciprocal sedimentation in Virgilian strata of southern New Mexico: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 78, p. 805–817, 4 pls., 4 figs., 1 table.Shelf and basin carbonate cycles documented in a narrow, elongate basin. Informative summary table.Google Scholar
  116. Cassinis, Giuseppe, 1968, Stratigrafia e tettonica dei terreni Mesozoici compresi tra Brescia e Serle: Atti. 1st. Geol. Univ. Pavia, v. 19, p. 50–152, 9 pls., 30 figs.The Italian mix of stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, and tectonics is used to decipher the paleogeography of a small area in the southern Alps. Good illustrations. Italian, French, German, and English summaries.Google Scholar
  117. Fischbuch, N. R., 1968, Stratigraphy, Devonian Swan Hills reef complexes of central Alberta: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 16, p. 446–556, 23 pls., 38 figs., 1 table.Four major facies and nine stages of reef growth. Detailed reef geometry and zonation. Numerous plates of stromatoporoids.Google Scholar
  118. Jenik, A. J., and Lerbekmo, J. F., 1968, Facies and geometry of Swan Hills Reef Member of Beaverhill Lake Formation (Upper Devonian), Goose River Field, Alberta, Canada: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 52, p. 2156, 7 pls., 10 figs., 1 table.Geometry, paleontology and petrography of a reef. Twenty-two rock types and eight environmental facies are distinguished and related to reef geometry.Google Scholar
  119. Langton, J. R., and Chin, G. E., 1968, Rainbow Member facies and related reservoir properties, Rainbow Lake, Alberta: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 16, p. 104–143, 3 pls., 19 figs.Fourteen facies related to reef geometry. Influence of diagenesis on reservoir properties. Correlation of facies, depositional environment and bathymetric zonation. Illustrates reservoir facies and corresponding capillary pressure curves.Google Scholar
  120. Leavitt, E. M., 1968, Petrology, paleontology, Carson Creek North reef complex, Alberta: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 16, p. p, 22 pls., 15 figs., 3 tables.Geometry, petrology, and paleontology of a 24-square mile Devonian reef complex. Stromatoporoids and algae are most important reef builders. Five facies, 11 microfacies, and 32 rock types. Diagenesis has not greatly changed original sedimentary features. Informative and clear classification of reef-complex limestones. Main growth of reef complex outlined.Google Scholar
  121. Lefeld, Jerzy, 1968, Stratygrafia i paleogeografia dolnej Kredy Wierchowej Tatr (Stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the HighTatric Lower Cretaceous in the Tatra Mountains): Studia Geologica Polonica, v. 24, 116p., 18 pls., 13 figs., 2 tables.Cretaceous carbonates of the High-Tatric zones in the Tatra Mountains belong to five microfacies: Calpionella, Saccocoma, globigerinids, pseudooolitic, and oolitic facies as well as reef and nonreef facies. Paleoecology. English summary and subtitles.Google Scholar
  122. Macqueen, R. W., and Bamber, E. W., 1968, Stratigraphy and facies relationships of the Upper Mississippian Mount Head Formation, Rocky Mountains and foothills, southwestern Alberta: Bull. Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 16, p. 225–287, 12 pls., 11 figs., 1 table.Unit is 500 to 1000 feet thick, widespread, and divisible into four major facies: supratidal, subtidal, shallow but open sea, and echinodermal and bryozoan banks.Google Scholar
  123. Ota, Masamichi, 1968, The Akiyoshi Limestone Group: A geosynclinal organic reef complex: Akiyoshi-dai Sci. Mus. Bull. 5, 44 p., 31 pls., 17 figs., 6 tables.Effective documentation of a Carboniferous-Permian reef complex believed to have been initiated by a volcanic rise in a geosynclinal setting. Five major facies. Several interesting flow diagrams. Stress on paleoecology and comparison with modern. Good illustrations and tables with English subtitles. Compare with DEMIRMEN and HARBAUGH (1965). Japanese with English abstract.Google Scholar
  124. Pirlet, H., 1968, La sédimentation rythmique et la stratigraphie du Viséen supérieur V3b, V3c inférieur dans les synclinoriums de Namur et de Dinant: Acad. royale Belgique Mém. cl. sci., 2nd ser., v. 17, 98 p., 18 pls., 3 figs., 6 tables.Nine short chapters with emphasis on petrography, rhythmic sedimentation, and depositional environment as well as detailed stratigraphy. Recommended for those looking for data on carbonate cycles.Google Scholar
  125. Radwanski, A., 1968, Studium petrograficzne i sedymentologiczne Retyku Wierchowegs Tatr (Petrographical and sedimentological studies of the High-Tatric Rhaetic in the Tatra Mountains): Studia Geologica Polonica, v. 25, 146 p., 54 pls., 6 figs., 9 tables.Rhaetic (Triassic) of the central Carpathians consists of terrigenous and carbonate sediments. Thorough description of skeletal debris. Vertical profiles. Environmental analysis and paleogeography. Well-referenced. English summary and subtitles.Google Scholar
  126. Wilson, R. C. L., 1968, Carbonate facies variation within the Osmington oolite series in southern England: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology, v. 4, p. 89–123, 5 pls., 9 figs., 5 tables.Five major facies within the oolite are recognized, defined, and interpreted. Facies model given in block diagram.Google Scholar
  127. Wobber, F. J., 1968, Microsedimentary analysis of the Lias in South Wales: Sed. Geology, v. 2, p. 13–49, 12 figs., 6 tables.Petrography in the Carozzi style, but with regional application, helps correlate between a sandy nearshore and a carbonate-shale offshore facies.Google Scholar
  128. Friedman, G. M., ed., 1969, Depositional environments in carbonate rocks: Soc. Econ. Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Pub. 14, 209 p.An excellent volume-resulting from a symposium-with 11 papers plus an introduction by the editor and discussion by participants. Two papers treat deep water limestones, three deal with mixed and transitional ones, and four with shallow water limestones plus ecologic papers. Very well illustrated both with photomicrographs and line drawings.Google Scholar
  129. Dmitrieva, E. V., et al., 1969, Atlas tekstur i struktur osadochnikh gornikh porod Chast 2 Karbonatnye porody (Atlas of textures and structures of sedimentary rocks Part 2 Carbonate rocks): Moskva,Vsesoyznyi Nauchno-Issledovateliskil Geologicheskil Institut (VSEGEI) Ministerstva Geologii SSSR, 707 p., 231 pls., 40 figs., 34 tables.Introduction of 189 pages reviews many aspects of carbonate rock textures and structures at the mega-and microlevels; ends with 20 page glossary of Russian carbonate rock terms in which English equivalents are cited. Western literature covered through 1963, Russian literature through 1964 (but one 1966 paper). About 450 references. Plates contain over 750 figures, including thin section photomicrographs of limestones having biotic debris. However, pIates not organized along biotic lines and are not indexed for biotic constituents. Major Russian contribution. Biogenic, coprolitic, and stromatolitic limestones discussed in various sections of text.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Stanley Horowitz
    • 1
  • Paul Edwin Potter
    • 1
  1. 1.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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