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Basin Analysis and the Sedimentary Model (1963–1976)

  • Paul Edwin Potter
  • Francis J Pettijohn

Abstract

Basin analysis in the past thirteen years has greatly expanded and has been transformed so that today there is a vast, diversified literature to which geophysicists and students of tectonics, especially plate tectonics, as well as sedimentologists and stratigraphers contribute. During these thirteen years developments have been so great that, if one had been a Rip Van Winkle asleep in a library, awakening today and having to catch up would be a staggering task. Seismic surveys yielding a seismic stratigraphy, magnetic and gravity surveys, more detailed bathymetric studies, and deep-sea drilling have greatly enhanced our understanding of the modern ocean basins and their relation to the continents so that today we know a great deal about continental margins and very much more about ocean basins.

Keywords

Continental Margin Plate Tectonic Continental Drift Molasse Basin Sedimentary Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Lithologic Atlases, Source Books and Maps plus Bibliographies

  1. BRGM, ELF-RE, ESSO-REP and SNPA, 1974: Atlas du bassin d’Aquitaine. Bur. Rech. Geol. Mineral., Borte Postale 6009, 45018 Orleans, Cedex, France. (French and English). Twenty-six beautiful colored plates of southwestern France (Aquitaine is called the “Texas” of France) most of which contain more than one geologic map and cross section and all of which contain a complete English as well as French text. The Aquitaine Basin is principally a Mesozoic basin rich in carbonates and flysch followed by Tertiary molasse. An outstanding example of the cooperation of many different organizations and people and a rich source for classroom basin studies.Google Scholar
  2. Burk, C. A., and C. L. Drake, eds., 1974: The geology of continental margins. New York: Springer, 1009 p. Thirteen parts with 71 papers, including many descriptions of selected continental margins and the geology of selected small ocean basins plus 9 interesting papers on ancient continental margins. Excellent example of contribution of marine geophysics to basin sedimentology.Google Scholar
  3. Dickinson, W. R., ed., 1974: Tectonics and sedimentation. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Sp. Pub. 22, 204 p. Good collection of review articles and description of specific types of sedimentation on one of sedimentology’s age-old, but major, questions. Full emphasis on plate tectonics. Cf. DOTT and SHAVER (1974).Google Scholar
  4. Dott, R. H., jr., and R. H. Shaver, eds., 1974: Modern and ancient geosynclinal sedimentation. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Sp. Pub. 19, 380–381 p. Twenty-nine articles in honor of Marshall Kay, one of North America’s great students of geosynclines. Six major sub-headings include much material on this topic. Excellent source book. See also DICKINSON (1974).Google Scholar
  5. Exploration Dept. Shell Oil Co., 1975: Stratigraphic atlas North and Central America. Houston: Shell Oil Company. A collection of 226 plates (31 X 40 em) of black and white cross-sections and maps of the major subdivisions of all the geologic systems in North and Central America arranged in order of geologic age. Included are paleogeologic maps, outcrop, isopach, and lithofacies maps and maps showing the occurrences of oil and gas, radiometric ages, age of zero edge, stratigraphic and structural cross sections, and additional data of special interest in one or another geologic system. References for data taken from published papers are given at end of sections for each geologic system. These extend to 1970, with a few to 1971 and 1972.Google Scholar
  6. Hamilton, W., 1974: Map of sedimentary basins of the Indonesian region. V.S. Geol. Survey, Misc. Invs. Ser. Map I-875-B. Isopachs of sedimentary fill plus distribution of Neogene volcanics, severely deformed Cenozoic sediments, basin complexes and location of major faults, including subduction zones, in a vast area. Brief discussion of geologic history of individual basins.Google Scholar
  7. Holland, C. H., ed., 1971 and 1974: Cambrian of the new world, 1 and Cambrian of the British Isles, Norden, and Spitsbergen, 2. London: Wiley Interscience, 456 and 300 p. These two volumes, the first of a series on the lower Paleozoic rocks of the world, contain a vast wealth of material; Volume 1 has five chapters and Volume 2, seven chapters. Little about paleocurrents, but numerous semi-schematic maps, abundant cross sections and much emphasis on paleogeography and stratigraphic paleontology. Good source materials for a seminar on megasedimentology.Google Scholar
  8. Kasbeer, T., 1973: Bibliography of continental drift and plate tectonics. Geol. Soc. Am., Spa Paper 142, 96 p. Although oriented toward plate tectonics, you will find many papers on megasedimentology in this volume.Google Scholar
  9. Linden, W. J. M. van der, and J. A. Wade, eds., 1975: Offshore geology eastern Canada, vol. 2 Regional geology. Geol. Survey Canada, Paper 74-30, 258 p. Useful as a source for basin development and geology along part of a trailing continental margin. Especially notable are the studies by Jansa and Wade of a basin analysis of the continental margin and the large collection of maps and seismic profiles. An outstanding source of data for teacGoogle Scholar
  10. Mccrossan, R. G., ed., 1973: The future petroleum provinces of Canada — their geology and potential. Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geologists, Mem. 1, 720 p. Twenty-seven authors effectively describe the Phanerozoic sedimentary on-and offshore basins of Canada. Many informative cross sections and regional maps, some of the latter in color. Superb collection of case histories.Google Scholar
  11. Mccrossan, R. G., and R. P. Glaister, eds., 1964: Geologic history of western Canada. Calgary, Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geologists, 232 p. Sixteen chapters including the Precambrian, all the geologic systems and the Quaternary plus a chapter on formation fluids and a concluding historical summary. Area studied includes about 15 percent of North America. Many illustrations (colored maps and cross sections) plus many references. Excellent source for basin studies.Google Scholar
  12. Nairn, A. E. M., and F. G. Stehli, eds., 1973 and 1974: The ocean’s basins and margins, vol. 1, The South Atlantic, and vol. 2, The North Atlantic. New York: Plenum Press Inc., 583 and 598 p. These two volumes are part of a series planned for all the world’s oceans and their margins. Many papers relevant to megasedimentology, continental drift and geophysics.Google Scholar
  13. Price, R. A., and R. J. W. Douglas, eds., 1972: Variations in tectonic styles in Canada Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spa Paper No. 11, 688 p. A very good source book for those interested in the relations between tectonics and sedimentation, all in 11 chapters. If you are in a hurry, be sure and read p. 639–665, a summary of sedimentary basins and geotectonic evolution. Many helpful summary tables.Google Scholar
  14. ROCKY MOUNTAIN ASSOC. GEOLOGISTS, 1972: Geologic atlas of the Rocky Mountain region. Denver: A. B. Hirschfeld Press, 331 p. The complete geologic history of a large part of the United States with many maps and cross sections by many different local experts. Key ideas: paleogeography, tectonics, basin descriptions, paleoenvironments, and economic resources.Google Scholar
  15. Schott, W., ed., 1969: Palaogeographischer Atlas der Unterkreide von Nordwestdeutschland. Bundesanst. Bodenforsch. Hannover, 315 p. Three parts: an “Explanation” of 315 pages and two large paleogeographic atlases, one of 289 pages and the other a large number of folded maps. Over 1,100 references that are cross-indexed by regional geology, stratigraphy, paleogeography, paleontology, economic geology, etc. An in-depth study that contains all the elements of a basin analysis.Google Scholar
  16. Spencer, A. M., ed., 1974: Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts. Edinburgh and London: Scottish Acad. Press and Geol. Soc., Sp. Pub. 4, 809 p. Something of a world atlas with 42 articles by local experts plus a general analysis by Spencer himself. Emphases is primarily on tectonic deformation, but virtually every article has a standardized stratigraphic table giving thicknesses, lithology and age of fill. Also an appendix consisting of a very interesting questionnaire for making inventories of orogenic belts. This questionnaire could be easily adapted to a more detailed inquiry into basin filling. Rich source book for megasedimentology.Google Scholar
  17. Various Authors, 1967: Paleotectonic investigations of the Permian system in the United States. U.S. Geol.Survey Prof. Paper 315, Parts A to K, 271 p. Eleven parts (for different geographic regions) provide some source materials for students of basin analyses.Google Scholar
  18. Vinogradov, A. P., ed., 1967,1968 and 1969: Atlas-litologo-paleogeograficheskikh kart USSR, 1, 2, 3 and 4. Moscow, Glav, Upravlenie Geodezii i Kartografii (Russian and English). An unparalled compilation of many diverse maps including the Precambrian to Quaternary. All maps are colored and show dominant lithologies and thicknesses and distribution of units. Also some maps show intensity of tectonic movements, plus distribution of oil and gas and other mineral resources. A vast wealth of material for classroom studies of basins by those willing to take the time to digest it all.Google Scholar
  19. Young, G. M., ed., 1973: Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation. Geol. Assoc. Canada, Sp. Paper 12, 271 p. Twelve papers on diverse sedimentological aspects of the Huronian (Precambrian) of Canada with some emphasis on paleocurrents.Google Scholar
  20. Ziegler, A. M., B. R. Rickardo and W. S. Mckerrow, 1974: Correlation of the Silurian rocks of the British Isles. Geol. Soc. Am., Sp. Paper 154, 154 p. An unusual source book for a basin analysis. Very brief discussion of correlation, distribution, lithofacies, sediment sources, marine red beds, fossil communities and unconformities in 18 pages, including 7 figures followed by correlation of 450 Silurian stratigraphic units and more than 800 references.Google Scholar

Basins, Geosynclines and Plate Tectonics

  1. Asmus, H. E., 1975: Controle estrutual da deposicao Mesozocia nas bacias da margem continental Brasileira. Rev. Brasileira Geociencias 5, 160–175. Relates fill of the Brasilian continental margin to structural and depositional consequence of separation of South America from Africa beginning in the Upper Jurassic. Good example of the “mew breed” of basin studies. Key ideas: plate tectonics, continental drift, sedimentary sequences, and basin models.Google Scholar
  2. Atwater, T., 1970: Implications of plate tectonics for the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of western North America. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 81, 3513–3536. Primarily a study of the tectonic patterns and their relation to motion at boundary of North American and Pacific plates, both present and past.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berggren, W. A., and C. D. Hollister, 1974: Paleogeography, paleobiogeography and the history of circulation in the Atlantic Ocean in W. W. Hay, ed., Studies in paleoceanography. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Sp. Pub. 20, 126–186. An interpretation of the tectonic evolution of this classic &x201C;geosyncline” in terms of the plate tectonic paradigm, with special emphasis on the northern Appalachians.Google Scholar
  4. Dewey, J. F., W. C. Pitman III, W. B. F. Ryan and J. Bonnin, 1973: Plate tectonics and the evolution of the Alpine System. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 84, 3137–3180. Detailed analysis of tectonic history of zone of Alpine deformation related to interaction of European and African plates; a very complex history.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dickinson, W. R., 1972: Evidence for plate tectonic regimes in the rock record. Am. J. Sci. 272, 551–576. Useful schematic diagrams nicely display the possible variation of continental separation and types of basins associated with a “leading” edge and plate boundaries. The author is a sedimentary petrologist, one who early leaped aboard the plate tectonics train, perhaps because he lives in California.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Editorial Committee, 1975: Problems on geosynclines in Japan. Tokyo, Association for the Geological Collaboration in Japan, Organizing Committee for the Symposium, 1974, Monograph/t c, 262 p. (Japanese). Twenty-nine articles ranging from sedimentology to structure to metamorphic and igneous petrology. Useful reference to see what basin analysis can be like in complexly intruded and folded geosynclinal belt. English abstracts and figure captions.Google Scholar
  7. Falvey, D. A., 1974: The development of continental margins in plate tectonic theory. J. Australian Petrol. Explor. Assoc. 14, 95–106. Attempts to apply plate tectonic theory to the so-called Atlantic-type continental margins and to formulate a general model. The new element in this model is the attribution of the initial subsidence in the rift-valley zone to metamorphism in the deep crust which leads to denser rock and hence subsidence. Heretofore the depression was attributed to thinning related to crustal stretching. From this model theoretical time-stratigraphic and structural cross sections are constructed for each of the stages in the rifting and continental separation.Google Scholar
  8. Fischer, A. G., and S. Judson, eds. 1975: Petroleum and global tectonics. Princeton Uni. Press, 322 p. Nine papers with many directly related to basin analysis.Google Scholar
  9. Gussow, W. C., 1976: Sequence concepts in petroleum engineering. Geotimes, September, 16–17. Brief summary of an exciting new development — the worldwide recognition of eustatic cycles from seismic sections. See Sloss (1974) as well.Google Scholar
  10. Hallam, A., 1971: Mesozoic geology and the opening of the North Atlantic. J. Geol. 79,129–157. Includes generalized facies and environmental interpretations for western Europe and eastern North America during Mesozoic in light of plate tectonics concepts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hollister, C. D., D. A. Johnson and P. F. Lonsdale, 1974: Current-controlled abyssal sedimentation: Samoan Passage, equatorial west Pacific. J. Geol. 82, 275–300. Figure 1 shows the inferred probable path of strongest Antarctic bottom water flow in the deep ocean to extend over nearly 2,400 miles. Integrated geophysical and geologic study indicate intense flow in narrow passage — as inferred from sediment types — beginning in Eocene. A good example of a new breed of deeper ocean basin analysis studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hsu, K. J., 1973: Mesozoic evolution of the California Coast Ranges in K. A. Dejong and R. Scholten, eds. Gravity and tectonics: New York: John Wiley and Sons, p.379–396. Excellent summary of a fascinating area with emphasis on the types and sequences of its flysch fill as well as on largest scale of all deformational structures, melanges. Plate tectonic interpretation stressed.Google Scholar
  13. Kahle, C. F., ed., 1976: Plate tectonics, assessments and reassessments. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Mem. 23, 514 p. Twenty-four papers including some on sedimentology such as Global Tectonics and the Sediments of Modern and Ancient Trenches: Some Different Interpretations, Early Evidence of Continental Drift: Pro and Con, and Marine Sedimentary Environments and Their Faunas in Gondwana Area.Google Scholar
  14. Kinsman, D. J. J., 1975: Rift valley basins and sedimentary history of trailing continental margins in A. G. Fischer and Sheldon Judson, eds., Petroleum and global tectonics. Princeton, Princeton Univ. Press, 83–126. Strong emphasis on geophysics but includes discussion of sediment source areas and supply as well as the fill of rifted continental margins, including the author’s favorite sediment-evaporites.Google Scholar
  15. Klemme, H., 1971: Giants, supergiants and their relation to basin types. Oil and Gas J., March 1, 8 and 15. Relation of oil production to plate tectonics and classification of eight types of basins; observes that 85 percent of world’s oil comes from 5 percent of the world’s oilfields.Google Scholar
  16. Le Pichon, X., J. Francheteau and J. Bonnin, 1973: Plate tectonics (Developments in Tectonics, 6). Amsterdam: Elsevier Publ. Co., 302 p. Parts of Chapters 6 and 7, processes at accreting and consuming plate boundaries, have direct relevance to megasedimentology.Google Scholar
  17. Lowell, J. D., B. Cenik and J. Gerard, 1972: Sea-floor spreading and structural evolution of southern Red Sea. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists 56, 247–259. A good example of modern rifting and geothermal gradients so high that oil exploration was locally abandoned. Because no major river enters the Red Sea, instead of a thick clastic section &x2014; as in the head of the Gulf of California — its fill consists mostly of evaporites, carbonates, and only minor clastics plus lavas.Google Scholar
  18. Meyerhoff, A. A., and H. A. Meyerhoff, 1973: Tests of plate tectonics in C. F. Kahle, ed., Plate Tectonics-assessments and reassessments. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Mem.23, 43–145. Summary of a large amount of data by a creative antidrift thinker, one who should certainly not be overlooked. But drift or antidrift, paleocurrents have a role to play.Google Scholar
  19. Mitchel, A. H., and H. G. Reading, 1969: Continental margins, geosynclines and ocean floor spreading: J. Geol. 77,629–646. Contintntal margins divided with three types: Atlantic (no trench), Andean (trench) and island arcs plus “other”, the unaccounted for “error”.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Naylor, D., and S. N. Mounteney plus Pergrum, R. M., G. Rees and D. Naylor, 1975: Geology of the northwest European continental shelf 1 and 2. London, Graham Trotman Dudley Ltd., 162 and 224 p. Volume 1 has two parts-structural setting and geology of the west British shelf (subdivided into geographic areas) while Volume 2 is devoted to the North Sea and describes its basin evolution as well as its history of oil and gas exploration. Well illustrated, not excessively technical and very well done.Google Scholar
  21. Sestini, G., ed., 1970: Development of the northern Apennines geosyncline. Sediment. Geol. 4, 203–642. Ten articles on a fascinating geosyncline — its eugeosynclinal, miogeosynclinal, and postgeosynclinal aspects, plus topics such as olistostromes, flysch, and significance for continental drift. Best single English-language description of northern Apennines. See also RICCI LUCCHI (1975).Google Scholar
  22. Sloss, L. L., 1972: Synchrony of Phanerozoic sedimentary-tectonic events of the North American craton and Russian platform. Int. Geol. Congr. 24th Sess. Sec. 6, 24–32. After comparing the geologic histories of two widely separated cratons and finding much evidence for broadly synchronous periods of basin subsidence, it is suggested that even laterally moving plates have possibly had similar epeirogenic histories.Google Scholar
  23. Woodland, A. W., ed., 1975: Petroleum and the continental shelf of north-west Europe. 1, Geology. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 501 p. This volume, an outstanding source book for basin analysis, concludes 38 papers that touch on almost all aspects of megasedimentology-tectonics, sedimentary fill, geophysics, thermal history, diagenesis, and petroleum potential. Article by Ziegler (p. 131-149) gives a short overview relating the North Sea’s basin history to the tectonic framework of north-western Europe. Highly recommended.Google Scholar
  24. Yorath, C. J., E. R. Parker, and D. J. Glass, 1975: Canada’s continental margins and offshore petroleum exploration. Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geologists, Mem. 4, 898 p. Many case histories and much more, organized in Atlantic, Baffin Bay, Arctic and Pacific facing margins plus sections on engineering studies and general topics, the the latter containing two articles of special interest: Some Remarks on Regression and Transgression in Deltaic Sediments plus North Atlantic Old Red SandstoneSome Implications for Devonian Paleography. Excellent source book.Google Scholar
  25. Ziegler, W. H., 1975: Outline of the geological history of the North Sea in A. W. Woodland, ed., Petroleum and the continental shelf of north-west Europe. London, Applied Science Publishers Ltd. and the Institute of Petroleum 1, 165–187. The North Sea lies on cratonic crust and has been affected by four diastrophic periods. To explain how these affected the North Sea basin, the author considers regional tectonics and geology as far away as Africa and North Africa and brings it all together with liberal use of plate tectonics. Sixteen informative facies and tectonic maps plas an excellent summary of geologic events. See also his article North Sea Basin History in the Tectonic Framework of Northwestern Europe of the same volume.Google Scholar

Paleocurrents and Continental Reconstruction

  1. Bigarella, J. J., 1970: Continental drift and paleocurrent analysis in 2nd Gondwana Symp., Proc. and Papers. Int. Union Geol. Sci., Comm. on Stratigraphy, Subcommission on Gondwana Stratigraphy and Paleontology (Geol. Soc. South Africa, Marshalltown, Transvaal, South Africa), p. 73–97. One of the best-and one of the few — efforts using paleocurrent data to see if continents fit.Google Scholar
  2. Bigarella, J. J., 1973: Paleocurrents and the problem of continental drift. Geol. Rundschau 62, 447–477. Paleocurrent analysis on a super-regional, grand scale is used to investigate the former proximity between South America and Africa, by the leading student of cross-bedding in the southern hemishpere. In a general way paleocurrents indicate radial transport from a common source. Over 100 references.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boucot, A. J., 1974: Early Paleozoic evidence of continental drift: Pro and con in C. F. Kahle, ed., Plate tectonics — assessments and reassessments. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists Mem. 23, 273–294. Early Paleozoic lithofacies, structural, biogeographic, and animal community data do not indicate intercontinental connection, nor do they disprove it. Very interesting example of contribution of paleontology and other evidence to problems of continental drift.Google Scholar
  4. Whittington, H. B., and C. P. HUGHES, 1972: Ordovician geography and faunal provinces deduced from trilobite distribution. Roy. Soc. London Philos. Trans., Biol. Sci. 263, 235–278. Statistical analysis of fauna at both the generic and family levels plus world maps of the reconstructed continents.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Turbidite Basins

  1. Briggs, G., and L. M. Cline, 1967: Paleocurrents and source areas of late Paleozoic sediments of the Ouachita Mountains, southeastern Oklahoma. J. Sediment. Petrol. 37, 985–1000. Facies relations, sedimentary petrology and paleocurrents all indicate that the Ouachita geosyncline derived its sediments from marginal sources. Most was derived from the south but transported longitudinally by turbidity currents. See also MORRIS (1974).Google Scholar
  2. Contescu, L. R., 1974: Geologic history and paleogeograhpy of eastern Carpathians, example of Alpine geosyncline evolution. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists 58, 2436–2476. Best English-language overview of the complexly deformed eastern Carpathian geosyncline. Paleocurrents are very complex, because they respond to local uplifts within and marginal to basin as well as generallongitudinal slope of principal basin. Author emphasizes the order within the geosynclinal fill.Google Scholar
  3. Graham, S. A., W. R. Dickinson and R. V. Ingersoll, 1975: Himalayan-Bengal model in flysch dispersal in the Appalachian-Ouachita system. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 86, 273–286. This paper is a good example of deductive thinking and synthesis typical of the impact of plate tectonics on our concepts of basins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lajoie, J., 1970: Flysch sedimentology in North America. Geol. Assoc. Canada Sp. Paper 7, 272 p. Fourteen papers ranging from the Recent to the early Paleozoic plus some experimental results. Paleocurrent data abundant.Google Scholar
  5. Mclver, N. L., 1970: Appalachian turbidites in G. W. Fisher, F. J. Pettijohn, J. C. Reed jr., and K. N. Weaver, eds., Studies of Appalachian geology — central and southern. New York: Interscience, 69–81. Primarily a review of paleocurrent patterns in Martinsburg (Ordovician) and Upper Devonian turbidites in Appalachian BaGoogle Scholar
  6. Morris, R. C., 1974: Sedimentary and tectonic history of the Ouachita Mountains in W. R. Dickinson, ed., Tectonics and sedimentation. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Sp. Publ. 22, 120–142. Outstanding integration of paleocurrents, stratigraphy, and petrology of Paleozoic Ouachita turbidite basin combined with explanation in terms of plate tectonics.Google Scholar
  7. Ojakangas, R. W., 1968: Cretaceous sedimentation, Sacramento Valley, California. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 79, 973–1008. Analysis of 35,OOO-foot (10,668 m) fill of Cretaceous trough by use of sandstone mineralogy and paleocurrent structures. Determination of source areas and paleocurrent flow patterns.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Parea, G. C., 1965: Evoluzione della parte settentrionale della Geosinclinale Appenninica dall’Albiano all’Eocene superiore. Ace. Naz. Sci. Lett. Art. Ser. VI, 7, 97 p. One of the earliest basin analysis of turbidites and their related sediments. Particularly noteworthy are the criteria for distribution of the different facies within the basin (p. 57–66), where different ages of sub sea fans are delineated, and the regional paleogeographic reconstruction. Early big thinking, very well done.Google Scholar
  9. Scott, K. M., 1966: Sedimentology and dispersal pattern of a Cretaceous flysch sequence, Patagonian Andes, southern Chile. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists 50, 72–107. A well-integrated study of clast size (in conglomerates), sandstone provenance, grain fabric, sole markings and slump folds in a turbidite basin.Google Scholar
  10. Trettin, H. P., 1971: Geology of Lower Paleozoic formations, Hazen Plateau and southern Grant Land Mountains, Ellesmere Island, Arctic Archipelago. Geol. Surv. Canada, Bull. 203, 134 p. Conceptual model with lateral and longitudinal fill. Details of how structural attitude affects reorientation of bedding.Google Scholar
  11. Walker, R. G., and E. Mutti, 1973: Turbidite facies and facies associations in G. V. Middleton and A. H. Bouma, eds., Turbidites and deep-water sedimentation, Los Angeles. Pacific Section Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral. 119–157. A good resume of slope-fan-basin floor system. The turbidite model is described in terms of various turbidite facies, their areal distribution and vertical profile or sequence.Google Scholar
  12. Walker, R. G., 1975: Generalized facies models for resedimerited conglomerates of turbidite association. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 86, 737–748. Proposes three conglomerate models and relates these to a general submarine turbidite fan model.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Yerkes, R. F., T. H. Mcculloh, J. E. Schoellhamer and J. G. Vedder, 1965: Geology of the Los Angeles Basin California — an introduction. U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 420-A, 57 p. Evolution of a prolific oil-producing turbidite basin and much of its geology. Cf. CONREY (1967) in Chapter 8.Google Scholar

Molasse Basins

  1. Eisbacher, G. H., 1974a: Sedimentary history and tectonic evolution of the Sustut and Sifton Basin, north-central British Columbia. Geol. Survey Canada Paper 73-31, 57 p. Very well-documented, integrated study of clastic fill of successor basins (northcentral British Columbia). Cross-bedding, clast size, provenance, and paleohydraulics.Google Scholar
  2. Eisbacher, G. H., 1974 b: Evolution of successor basins in the Canadian Cordillera of British Columbia in R. H. Dott Jr., and R. H. Shaver, eds., Modern and ancient geosynclinal sedimentation. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Sp. Publ. 19, 274–291. A well-documented effort to relate sedimentology to basin geometry and evolution in light of plate tectonics.Google Scholar
  3. Fuchtbauer, H., 1967: Die Sandsteine in der Molasse nordlich der Alpen. Geol. Rundschau 56, 266–300. The last of a series of papers on the molasse basin of southern Germany. Mainly petrographic but including data on size decline of pebbles, percent of conglomerate, and paleocurrent flow based on mapping heavy mineral provinces.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Meckel, L. D., 1967: Origin of Pottsville conglomerates (Pennsylvanian) in the central Appalachians. Bull. Am. Geol. Soc. 78, 223–258. An analysis of that part of the Appalachians lying in Pennsylvania and adjacent areas utilizing facies, petrography, and paleocurrents. Reconstruction of basin geometry, source areas, and depositional pattern.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Meckel, L. D., 1970: Paleozoic alluvial deposition in the central Appalachians: A summary in G. W. Fisher, F. J. Pettijohn, J. C. Reed Jr., and K. N. Weaver, eds., Studies of Appalachian geology — central and southern. New York: Interscience, 49–67. A summary of the current and dispersal patterns in three nonmarine Paleozoic alluvial wedges in central Appalachians. Presents depositional model and finingupward fluvial cycles.Google Scholar
  6. Royse, C. F., Jr., 1970: A sedimentologic analysis of the Tongue River-Sentinel Butte interval (Paleocene) of the Williston, Basin, western North Dakota. Sediment. Geol. 4, 19–80. Integrated facies study — paleocurrents, sedimentary structures and grain size plus short section on basin analysis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Schoeffler, J., 1973: Etude structurale des formations molassiques du piedmont nord des Pyrenees. Rev. Inst. Francais du Petrole 28, 515–665. Combines sedimentology with the structure to provide an unusually complete, indepth study of molasse along the north side of the Pyrenees. Excellent.Google Scholar
  8. Veit, Erwin, 1963: Der Bau der siidlichen Molasse Oberbayerns auf Grund der Deutung seismischer Profile. Bull. Ver. Schweiz. Petrol. Geol. Ing. 30, 15–52. Essentially a paper on the geometry of the Tertiary molasse basin, which is 4,000 to 5,000 m thick, in southern Bavaria.Google Scholar

Shelf and Shelf-to-Basin Transition

  1. Adams, R. W., 1970: Loyalhanna limestone — cross-bedding and provenance in G. W. Fisher, F. J. Pettijohn, J. C. Reed Jr., and K. N. Weaver,eds., Studies of Appalachian geology — central and southern. New York: Interscience, 83–100. Depositional framework of Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvanian) of southwestern Pennsylvania and adjacent areas based on facies, petrography and paleocurrents. A tide-dominated, shallow marine trough with multiple sources.Google Scholar
  2. Asquith, D.O., 1970: Depositional topography and major marine environments, late Cretaceous, Wyoming. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists 54, 1184–1224. Very informative maps and cross sections illustrate specific slope deposits-how to recognize, map and interpret them. A very significant article for every student of sedimentary basins. Includes a discussion of how to decompact a slope sequence to obtain a better idea of its original configuration.Google Scholar
  3. Galloway, W. E., and L. F. Brown Jr., 1973: Depositional systems and shelfslope relations on cratonic basin margin, uppermost Pennsylvanian of northcentral Texas. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists 57, 1185–1218. A good analysis of a three-component depositional system: (1) fluvial-deltaic, (2) shelf-edge, and (3) slope-fan (turbidite). Mainly based on subsurface data, geometry and character of sand bodies. A well-documented and well-integrated model for sediment dispersal of a basin margin province. Good discussion of intrabasinal tectonics versus extrabasinal eustatic controls on depositional facies.Google Scholar
  4. Thomson, A., M. R. Thomasson, 1969: Shallow to deep water facies development in the Dimple Limestone (Lower Pennsylvanian), Marathon Region, Texas in G. M. Friedman, ed., Depositional environments in carbonate rocks. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral. Sp. Pub. 14, 57–77. An interesting example of shelf to basin transition of a carbonate sediment, the deep-water facies being a carbonate turbidite.Google Scholar

Cratonic and Other Basins

  1. Barrett, P. J., 1970: Paleocurrent analysis of the mainly fluviatile Permian and Triassic Beacon rocks, Beardmore Glacier area, Antarctica. J. Sediment. Petrol. 40, 395–411. Based mainly on parting lineation and cross-bedding in Beacon sandstones, Antarctica. Over 3000 measurements.Google Scholar
  2. Beuf, S., B. Biju Duval, O. De Charpal, P. Rognon, O. Gariel and A. Bennacef, 1971: Les gres du Paleozoique inferieur au Sahara. Paris, Editions Technip.,464p. Description of Lower Paleozoic sandstones of the Sahara — a vast tectonically stable craton in sharp contrast to continental margins. Perhaps the standard for all cratonic areas. Very well illustrated and well written.Google Scholar
  3. Jordan, R. R., 1964: Columbia (Pleistocene) sediments of Delaware. Delaware Geol. Survey Bull. 12, 59 p. Grain size, petrology, and sedimentary structures in a Pleistocene coastal plain with diverse environments. Very rich in data and many maps. Good model for basin analysis of comparable deposits.Google Scholar
  4. Mckee, E. D., and E. J. Crosby, Coordinators, 1975: Paleotectonic investigations of the Pennsylvanian System in the United States. Part I, Introduction and Regional Analysis of the Pennsylvanian System; Part II, Interpretive summary and special features of the Pennsylvanian System; Part III, Plates. U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 853, 349 and 192 p. A vast amount of stratigraphic information organized by regions as well as articles on special features and interpretation plus many, many maps. Mostly, but not completely, detrital sedimentation.Google Scholar
  5. Miall, A. D., 1975: Post Paleozoic geology of Banks, Prince Patrick, and Eglinton Islands, Arctic Canada in C. J. Yorath, E. R. Parker, and D. J. Glass eds., Canada’s Continental Margins and Offshore Petroleum Exploration. Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geologists Mem 4, 557–587. Combines paleocurrent mapping with facies and thickness maps plus cross sections. Article nicely illustrates the utility of paleocurrent mapping early in a basin analysis.Google Scholar
  6. Mulder, C. J., P. Lehner, and D. C. K. Allen, 1974: Structural evolution of the Neogene salt basins in the eastern Mediterranean and the Red. Sea. Geol. Mijnbouw 54, 208–221. Notable for its seismic sections illustrating olistostromes (Fig. 5) in the eastern Mediterranean and the evolution of the evaporite fill of the Red Sea rift whose main subsidence began in the Oligocene. What will the future study of paleocurrent systems in evaporite basins contribute to our knowledge of rift sedimentation.Google Scholar
  7. Schwab, F. L., 1970: Origin of the Antietam Formation (Late Precambrian (?) Lower Cambrian) central Virginia. J. Sediment. Petrol. 40, 354–366. Provenance and paleocurrent (cross-bedding) study showing cratonic source of Antietam (Cambrian) orthoquartzite in central Appalachians.Google Scholar
  8. Stewart, J. H., F. G. Poole and R. F. Wilson, 1972: Stratigraphy and origin of the Chinle Formation and related upper Triassic strata in the Colorado Plateau region. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 690, 336 p. A basin analysis of detrital Triassic conglomerates, sandstones, and mudstones (with many red beds) over large parts of Arizona and nearby states. The analysis integrating paleocurrents, isopach maps, and petrology. Figures 31 and 33 especially informative. Many carefully described stratigraphic sections make this an excellent general reference study. See also U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Papers 691 and 692.Google Scholar
  9. Weimer, R. J., 1970: Rates of deltaic sedimentation and intrabasin deformation, Upper Cretaceous of Rocky Mountain region in J. P. Morgan, ed., Deltaic sedimentation, modern and ancient. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral. Sp. Publ. 15, 270–292. Some principles of basin analysis developed by regional study of Cretaceous sedimentation in 14 states of the United States. Stresses importance of penecontemporaneous growing structures as traps for petroleum.Google Scholar

References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Edwin Potter
    • 1
  • Francis J Pettijohn
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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