Advertisement

Particles as Collective Stationary States

  • W. Heisenberg
Part of the Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works book series (HEISENBERG, volume B)

Abstract

The hypothesis of Yukawa which connected the nuclear forces with some kind of strongly interacting particles, has led in a rather straight line of reasoning to the modern concept of an elementary particle. The atomic nucleus may be considered as a compound system of nucleons and a field of force; this field is according to Yukawa equivalent to virtual pions (or as we now know: ρ mesons etc.). This ‘virtual’ existence of pions in the nucleus is a consequence of the localisation of the nuclear field which—on account of the uncertainty relations—allows to consider the pions ‘off their mass shell’. If this situation is described by saying that the nucleus potentially consists of nucleons and pions, it should be equally permitted to say that any system (atom, nucleus or elementary particle) potentially consists of any other particles producing together the same symmetry as the system concerned. In this way the particles appear generally as collective states1) resembling the excited states of a solid body or a liquid, like phonons, excitons, polarons etc. The solid body in quantum mechanics should in elementary particle physics be replaced by the ground state ‘world’ or ‘universe’, but else the analogy should be rather close.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1).
    W. Heisenberg, The present situation in the theory of elementary particles, in: Two lectures, Cambridge Univ. Press 1949; Nachr. d. Gott. Akad. Wiss. IIa, 8 (1953), 111; Physica 19 (1953), 897.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    Compare A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gorkov and I. E. Dzyaloshinski, Quantum Field Theory in Statistical Physics, (Prentice Hall 1963), and P. Nozières, Theory of Interacting Fermi Systems (Benjamin New York-Amsterdam 1964 ).Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    J. Dhar and Y. Katayama, Nuovo Cim. 36 (1965), 533.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4).
    K. Symanzik, Green Functions, etc., Hercegovni lectures. W. Zimmermann, Nuovo Cim. 13 (1959), 503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    H. P. Dürr, W. Heisenberg, H. Mitter, S. Schlieder and K. Yamazaki Zs. f. Naturf. 14a (1959), 441.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    H. P. Dürr and W. Heisenberg, On the `Spurion’ theory of strange particles (to appear in Nuovo Cim.).Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    H. P. Dürr, W. Heisenberg, H. Yamamoto and K. Yamazaki, Quantum electrodynamics in the non-linear spinor theory and the value of Sommerfeld’s fine structure constant (to appear in Nuovo Cim.).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Heisenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck Institute for Physics and AstrophysicsMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations