Skip to main content
Book cover

Trees II pp 300–323Cite as

Poplar (Populus spp.)

  • Chapter

Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE,volume 5)

Abstract

The genus Populus (poplars) forms part of the Salicaceae along with the willows (Salix). The genus is large, providing a spectrum of species whose final height and shape vary with environmental conditions. They are widely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere, forming extensive natural stands, and also in large tracts of man-made plantations. Poplars are dioecious; intraspecific and interspecific hybridization is common and heterosis is frequently observed. They continue to be cultivated extensively for their rapid rate of growth, quality of timber and relative ease of vegetative propagation.

Keywords

  • Hybrid Poplar
  • Haploid Plant
  • Cambial Cell
  • Stem Explants
  • Stem Internode

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-61535-1_15
  • Chapter length: 24 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   269.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-61535-1
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   349.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Ahuja MR (1983) Somatic cell differentiation and rapid clonal propagation of aspen. Silv Genet 32:131–135

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahuja MR (1984) Protoplast research in woody plants. Silv Genet 33:32–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Akinyemiju OA, Dickmann DI (1982) Contrasting effects of simazine on the photosynthetic physiology and leaf morphology of two Populus clones. Physiol Plant 55:402–406

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson HW, Bowman K(1979) Some aspects of chemotaxonomy of hybrid poplar. In: Fayle DCF, Zsuffa L, Anderson HW (eds) Poplar research, management and utilization in Canada, Rep 13. Ontario Minist Nat Resourc For Res Inf Pap 102, pp 1–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Anon (1974) Scientists claim to double growth rate for hybrid poplar. J For 72:299

    Google Scholar 

  • Bajaj YPS (1983) Haploid protoplasts. In: Giles KL (ed) Plant protoplasts. Academic Press, London New York, pp 113–141

    Google Scholar 

  • Bajaj YPS (1986) In vitro preservation of genetic resources: techniques and problems. Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement. Proc Int Symp IAEA, Vienna, pp 43–57

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin IT, Schultz JC (1983) Rapid changes in tree leaf chemistry induced by damage: evidence for communication between plants. Science 221:227–279

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bawa KS, Stettler RF (1972) Organ culture with black cottonwood: Morphogenetic response of female catkin primordia. Can J Bot 50:1627–1631

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berbee FM, Berbee JG, Hildebrandt AC (1972) Induction of callus and trees from stem tip cultures of hybrid poplar. In Vitro 7:629

    Google Scholar 

  • Berbee JG, Omuemu JO, Martin RR, Castello JD (1978) Detection and elimination of viruses in poplar. In: Intensive plantation culture. USDA For Serv Gen Tech Rep Nc-21, pp 85–89

    Google Scholar 

  • Biddle PG, Tinsley TW (1971) Some effects of poplar mosaic virus on the growth of poplar trees. New Phytol 70:67–75

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Blanarikova V, Karacsonyi S (1978) The isolation of tissue culture of Populus alba L. pyramidalis. Biol Plant 20:14–18

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Broertjes C, Harten AM van (eds) (1978) Application of mutation breeding in the improvement of vegetatively propagated crops: An interpretive literature review. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • Burrows WJ (1978) Evidence in support of de novo synthesis of free cytokinins. Planta 138:53–57

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Butt AD (1985) A general method for the high-yield isolation of mesophyll protoplasts from deciduous tree species. Plant Sci 42:55–59

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bychenkova EA (1963) An investigation of callus formation in certain trees and shrubs by the method of tissue culture in vitro. Sov Plant Physiol 151:1077–1080 (Transl)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bychenkova EA, David A (1978) Callus formation and organogenesis in tissues of leaves of Populus balsamifera L. cultivated in vitro. Sov Plant Physiol 25:216–222 (Transl)

    Google Scholar 

  • Casey AC (1985) Virus elimination from rose and poplar using meristem tissue culture. M Sci Thesis, School Bot, Trinity Coll, Dublin Univ Ireland

    Google Scholar 

  • Chalupa V (1974) Control of root and shoot formation and production of trees from poplar callus. Biol Plant 16:316–320

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chalupa V (1975) Induction of organogenesis in forest tree cultures. Commun Inst For Czech 9:39–50

    Google Scholar 

  • Chalupa V (1979) In vitro propagation of some broad-leaved forest trees. Commun Inst For Czech 11:159–170

    Google Scholar 

  • Chang LK (1978) Induction and culture of regenerated plantlets from anthers of genus Populus. In: Proc Symp Plant tissue culture. Science Press, Peking, p 241

    Google Scholar 

  • Charenon J, Taris B (1960) Remarques sur la structure des tissus Néoformes et l’apparition d’organes spécialisés chez quatre cultivars de Populus et chez Salix alba cultivés in vitro. C R Acad Sci 251:2070–2071

    Google Scholar 

  • Christie CB (1978) Rapid propagation of aspens and silver poplars using tissue culture techniques. Proc Int Plant Propagators Soc 28:255–260

    Google Scholar 

  • Chun YW (1985) Isolation and culture of in vitro cultured Populus alba×P. grandidentata protoplasts. J Korean For Soc 71:45–59

    Google Scholar 

  • Chun YW, Hall RB (1984) Survival and early growth of Populus alba×P. grandidentata in vitro culture plantlets in soil. J Korean For Soc 66:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Chun YW, Hall RB, Stephens LC (1986) Influences of medium consistency and shoot density on in vitro shoot proliferation of Populus alba×P. grandidentata. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 5:179–185

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • D’Amato F (1986) Spontaneous mutation and somaclonal variation. In: Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement. Proc Int Symp IAEA, Vienna, pp 3–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Diaz-Colon JD, Bowey RW, Davis FS, Baur JR (1972) Comparative effects and concentration of Picloram, 2,4,5-T and Dicamba in tissue culture. Physiol Plant 27:60–64

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dorion N, Godin, B, Bigot C (1983) Isolation and culture of leaf protoplasts from Ulmus sp.: Preliminary report. In: Potrykus I, Harms CT, Hinnen A, Hutter R, King PJ, Shillito RD (eds) Protoplasts 1983. Proc 6th Int Protoplast Symp. Birkenhäuser, Basel, pp 8–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglas GC (1982) Protoplast isolation from totipotent cell-cultures of Populus hybrid TT32. In: Fujiwara A (ed) Plant tissue culture 1982. Maruzen, Tokyo, pp 605–606

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglas GC (1984) Formation of adventitious buds in stem internodes of Populus spp. cultured in vitro on basal medium: Influence of endogenous properties of explants. J Plant Physiol 116:313–321

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglas GC (1985) Formation of adventitious buds in stem internodes of Populus hybrid TT32 cultured in vitro: Effects of sucrose, zeatin, IAA and ABA. J Plant Physiol 121:225–231

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Douglas GC (1986) Effects of gamma radiation on morphogenesis and mutagenesis in cultured stem explants of poplar. In: Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement. Proc Int Symp IAEA, Vienna, pp 121–128

    Google Scholar 

  • Duda U, Kacperska A (1983) Frost tolerance estimation in callus derived from Poplar and winter rape plants using three different methods. Z Pflanzenphysiol 111:69–74

    Google Scholar 

  • Evers PW (1983) Tree physiology and micropropagation in the People’s Republic of China: Report of a visit, June 5-19. Rijksinst Onderzoek Bosen Landschapsbown Dorschkamp Wageningen. Rapp 350, 16 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO (1979) Poplars and willows in wood production and land use. FAO Forestry series 10. FAO, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • Frohlich HJ (1982) Fortschritte bei der vegetativen Vermehrung. Forstarchiv 53:3–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Frohlich HJ, Weisgerber H (1984) Research on in vitro techniques within the framework of poplar breeding — results and future trends. In: Proc Joint Meet Working Parties S2-02-10 Poplar Provenances and S2-03-07. Breeding Poplar within the IPC adhoc Committee Poplar Breeding. 17th Sess Int Poplar Comm, Oct 1-4, 1984, Ottawa, Can. Natl Plant Mater Centre, Soil Conserv Centre, Aokantere, Minist Works Dev, Palmerston North, N Z, pp 63–77

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaget M, Villar M, Dumas C, Lemoine M, Thessier du Cros E (1984) Poplar improvement: New strategies currently in progress in France. In: Proc Joint Meet Working Parties S2-02-10. Poplar Provenances and S2-03-07. Breeding Poplar within the IPC adhoc Committee Poplar Breeding. 17th Sess Int Poplar Comm, Oct 1-4, 1984, Ottawa, Can. Natl Plant Mater Centre, Soil Conserv Centre, Aokantere, Minist Works Dev, Palmerston North, N Z, pp 25–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Gresshoff PM, Doy CH (1972) Development and differentiation of haploid Lycopersicon esculentum tomato. Planta 107:161–170

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Guries RP, Stettler RF (1976) Pre-fertilization barriers to hybridization in the poplars. Silv Genet 25:37–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Heslin MC, Douglas GC (1986a) Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on growth and development of poplar plants derived from tissue culture. Sci Hortic 30:143–149

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heslin MC, Douglas GC (1986b) Synthesis of poplar mycorrhizas. Trans Br Mycol Soc 86:117–122

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hewett EW, Wareing PF (1973a) Cytokinins in Populus × robusta Schneid: A complex in leaves. Planta 112:225–233

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hewett EW, Wareing PF (1973b) Cytokinins in Populus × robusta Scheid: Changes during chilling and bud burst. Physiol Plant 28:393–399

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Horgan R, Hewett EW, Horgan JM, Purse JG, Wareing PF (1975) A new cytokinin from Populus × robusta. Phytochemistry 14:1005–1008

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hubbes M (1979) Some important diseases of poplars. In: Fayle DCF, Zsuffa L, Anderson HW (eds) Poplar research, management and utilization in Canada, Rep 18. Ontario Minist Nat Resourc For Res Inf Pap 102, pp 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacquiot C (1966) Plant tissues and excised organs cultures and their significance in forest research. J Inst Wood Sci 16:22–34

    Google Scholar 

  • Jobidan R, Thibault JR (1982) Allelopathic growth inhibition of nodulated and unnodulated Alnus crispa seedlings by Populus balsamifera. Am J Bot 69:1213–1223

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnsson H (1940) Cytological studies of diploid and triploid Populus tremula and of crosses between them. Hereditas 26:321–352

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karolewski P (1985) The role of free proline in the sensitivity of poplar (Populus robusta) plants to the action of SO2. Eur J For Pathol 15:199–206

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim JH, Lee SK, Chun YW (1981) Mass propagation of tree species through in vitro culture 1. Bud culture of Populus alba × P. glandulosa F. Res Rep Inst For Genet (Immok Yukchong Yonku-so Yongu Pogo) 17:57–63

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopecky F (1960a) Experimental production of haploid white poplars P. alba L. Silv Genet 9:102–105

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopecky F (1960b) Experimental production of haploids of P. alba L. Erdeszeti Kulatasok 56:151–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopecky F (1961) Experimentally produced haploids of P. alba L. Topola (Beograd) 5:2–4

    Google Scholar 

  • Lester DT, Berbee JG (1977) Within-clone variation among black poplar trees derived from callus culture. For Sci 23:122–131

    Google Scholar 

  • Lu CH, Chang HF, Liu YH (1978) Induction and cultivation of pollen plants from poplar pollen. In: Proc Symp Plant tissue culture. Science Press, Peking, p 242

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathes MC (1964a) The in vitro formation of plantlets from isolated aspen tissue. Phyton 21:137–141

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathes MC (1964b) The use of isolated plant tissue in studies related to forest genetics. Tappi 47:710–713

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathes MC, Einspahr DW (1965) Comparison of tree growth and callus production in aspen. For Sci 11:360–363

    Google Scholar 

  • Meer van der FA (1979) Test methods for poplar mosaic virus for the production of healthy stock, epidemiological research and detection of resistance. In: Proc Meet Poplars in France and Belgium, 17-22 Sept 1979, IUFRO Working Parties S2. 02-10 Poplar provenances and S2. 03-07 Breeding poplar with participation of the IE A For Biomass Planning Group B, pp 104–111

    Google Scholar 

  • Meer van der FA, Maat DZ, Vink J (1980) Poplar mosaic virus: purification, antiserum preparation and detection in poplars with the enzyme linked immuroabsorbent assay (ELISA) and with infectivity tests on Nicotiana megalosiphon. Neth J Plant Pathol 86:99–110

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mehra PN, Cheema GS (1980) Clonal multiplication in vitro of Himalayan poplar Populus ciliata. Phytomorphology 30:336–343

    Google Scholar 

  • Mgaloblishvili MP, Litivinov AI, Kalandadze AN, Sanadze GA (1982) Action of cycloheximide, chloramphenicol and diuron on photosynthesis and the isoprene effect in protoplasts of poplar leaf mesophyll. Sov Plant Physiol 29:290–295 (Transl)

    Google Scholar 

  • Muhle Larsen C (1970) Recent advances in poplar breeding. Int Rev For Res 3:1–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Navratil S (1979) Virus and virus-like diseases of poplar: are they threatening diseases. In: Fayle DCF, Zsuffa L, Anderson HW (eds) Poplar research, management and utilization in Canada, Rep 19. Ontario Minist Nat Res For Res Inf 102, pp 1–17

    Google Scholar 

  • Nepveu G, Keller R, Teissier du Cros E (1978) Sélection juvénile pour la qualité du bois chez certains peupliers noirs. Ann Sci For 35:69–92

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ohba K, Murai M (1966) Studies on radiosensitivity of forest trees 2. Growth and somatic mutations of Alnus, Populus and Betula species under chronic gamma irradiation in a gamma field. J Jpn For Soc 48:12–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Okoro OO, Grace J (1978) The physiology of rooting Populus cuttings. II Cytokinin activity in leafless hardwood cuttings. Physiol Plant 44:167–170

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Parsons TJ, Sinkar VP, Stettler RF, Nester EW, Gordon MP (1986) Transformation of poplar by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biotechnology 4:533–536

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Riou A, Harada H, Taris B (1975) Production des plantes entières à partir des cellules separés de cals de Populus. C R Acad Sci Paris Ser D 280:2657–2659

    Google Scholar 

  • Russell JA, McCown BH (1986) Culture and regeneration of Populus leaf protoplasts isolated from non-seedling tissue. Plant Science 46:133–142

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rutledge CB, Douglas GC (1988) Culture of meristem tips and micropropagation of 12 commerical clones of poplar in vitro. Physiol Plant 72:367–373

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Saito A (1976) Isolation of protoplasts from mesophyll cells of Paulownia fortunei Hemsl. and Populus euramericana cv. 1-45/51. J Jpn For Soc 58:301–305

    Google Scholar 

  • Saito A (1980) Fusion of protoplasts isolated from somatic cells of tree species. Bull For For Prod Res Inst 309:7–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Sakai A, Sugawara Y (1973) Survival of poplar callus at super-low temperatures after cold acclimation. Plant Cell Physiol 14:1201–1204

    Google Scholar 

  • Schulzke R (1983) Über die Probleme bei der Verwendung von Aspen. Holzzucht 37:10–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Shain L, Miller JB (1982) Pinocembrin: an antifungal compound secreted by leaf glands of eastern cottonwood. Phytopathology 72:877–880

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simon S (1908) Untersuchungen uber die Differenzierungsvorgänge in Callusgewebe von Holzgewächsen. Jahrb Wiss Bot 45:351–478

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh JJ, Heather WA (1981) An improved method for detached leaf culture of Melampsora leaf rusts of Populus species. Trans Br Mycol Soc 77:436–438

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stettler R (1968a) Irradiated mentor pollen: its use in remote hybridization of black cottonwood. Nature (London) 219:746–747

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stettler R (1968b) Experimental induction of haploid parthenogenesis in Populus trichocarpa. Genetics 60:229

    Google Scholar 

  • Stettler R, Bawa KS (1971) Experimental induction of haploid parthenogenesis in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa T. G ex Hook). Silv Genet 20:15–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Stettler RF, Koster R, Steenackers V (1980) Interspecific crossability studies in poplars. Theor Appl Genet 58:273–282

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thessier du Cros E (1984) Breeding strategies with poplars in Europe. For Ecol Manag 8:23–29

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thibault JR, Fortin TA, Smirnoff WA (1982) In vitro allelopathic inhibition of nitrification by balsam poplar and balsam fir. Am J Bot 69:676–679

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson DG, Gordon JC (1977) Propagation of poplars by shoot apex culture and nutrient film technique. In: Tappi Conf Papers — Forest biology and wood chemistry Conf. Tappi, At, pp 77–82

    Google Scholar 

  • Tralau H (1957) A haploid form of Populus tremula from Uppland. Bot Notiser 110:481–483

    Google Scholar 

  • Tremblay FM, Power JB, Lalonde M (1985) Callus regeneration from Alnus incana protoplasts isolated from cell suspensions. Plant Sci 41:211–216

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Venverloo CJ (1973) The formation of adventitious organs I. Cytokinin-induced formation of leaves and shoots in callus cultures of Populus nigra L. Italica. Acta Bot Neerl 22:390–398

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Verma DC, Wann SR (1983) Isolation of high yields of viable protoplasts from quaking aspen seedlings and cultured loblolly pine cell suspension. In: Potrykus I, Harms CT, Hinnen A (eds) Protoplasts 1983: Poster Proc 6th Int Protoplast Sym. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 10–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang C, Sun C, Chu Z (1975) The induction of Populus pollen plants. Acta Bot Sin 17:56–59

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitehead HCM, Giles KI (1977) Rapid propagation of poplars by tissue culture methods. N Z J For Sci 7:40–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson AG (1984) Resistance to Melampsora-larici-populina of hybrid progenies from the cross Populus deltoides × P. ciliata. In: Proc Joint Meet Working Parties S2-02-10 poplar provenances and S2-03-07. Breeding poplar with IPC adhoc Comm Poplar Breeding, 17th Sess Int Poplar Comm, Oct 1-4, 1984, Ottawa, Can. Natl Plant Mater Centre, Soil Conserv Centre, Aokantere, Minist Works Dev, Palmerston North, N Z, pp 135–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Winton LL (1968) The rooting of liquid-grown aspen callus. Am J Bot 55:159–167

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Winton LL (1970) Shoot and tree production from aspen tissue cultures. Am J Bot 57:904–909

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Winton LL (1971) Tissue culture propagation of european aspen. For Sci 17:348–350

    Google Scholar 

  • Winton LL, Mathes MC (1973) Aspen callus. In: Kruse PF, Patterson MK (eds) Tissue culture: Methods and application. Academic Press, London New York, pp 161–165

    Google Scholar 

  • Winton LL, Stettler RF (1974) Utilization of haploidy in tree breeding. In: Kasha KJ (ed) Haploids in higher plants: advances and potential. Univ Guelph, pp 259–273

    Google Scholar 

  • Withers LA (1985) Long-term storage of in vitro cultures. In: Schafer-Menuhr A (ed) In vitro techniques, propagation and long term storage. Nijhoff/Junk, Dordrecht Boston Lancaster, pp 137–148

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolter KF (1968) Root and shoot initiation in aspen callus culture. Nature (London) 219:509–510

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wu K, Xu M (1984) Induction of maternal haploid plants from unpollinated ovaries of poplar in vitro. Acta Genet Sinica 11:47–51

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wu SC, Kuniyuki AH (1985) Isolation and culture of almond protoplasts. Plant Sci 41:55–60

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu X, Wang R, Liang Y (1980) Induction of poplar pollen plantlets. Sci Silv Sin 16:190–197

    Google Scholar 

  • Zsuffa L (1979) The features and prospects of poplar breeding in Ontario. In: Fayle DCF, Zsuffa L, Anderson HW (eds) Poplar research management and utilization in Canada, Rep 1. Ontario Minist Nat Resourc For Res Inf Pap 102, pp 1-5

    Google Scholar 

  • Zufa L (1971) A rapid method for vegetative propagation of aspens and their hybrids. For Chron 47:36–39

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1989 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Douglas, G.C. (1989). Poplar (Populus spp.). In: Bajaj, Y.P.S. (eds) Trees II. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, vol 5. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-61535-1_15

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-61535-1_15

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-64862-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-61535-1

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive