In Vitro Production of Haploids and Their Use in Cell Genetics and Plant Breeding

  • Y. P. S. Bajaj
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 12)


In earlier works, the author reviewed and emphasized the importance of the in vitro induction of haploids (Reinert and Bajaj 1977; Bajaj 1983 a). During the last decade tremendous progress has been made in this area. The frequency of androgenesis has been increased, work extended successfully to a number of agricultural crops, and new cultivars have been released. This warrants the need to put this information and literature together.


Anther Culture Mesophyll Protoplast Haploid Plant Cell Genetic Unpollinated Ovary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abak K (1983) Study on the anther culture in vitro of pepper (Capsicum annuum). Capsicum Newslett 2: 72 - 73.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmim M, Vieth J (1986) Production de plantes haploldes de Gerberajamesonii par culture in vitro d'ovules. Can J Bot 64: 2355 - 2357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anagnostakis SL (1974) Haploid plants from anthers of tobacco-enhancement with charcoal. Planta 115: 281 - 283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen SB (1985) Anther culture in carrot. In: Bornman CH, Heneen WK, Jensen CJ, Lundqvist A (eds) Proc 1st Nordic Cell and Tissue Culture Symp Research, Breeding and Production of Crop Plants. Hereditas Suppl (Abstract) 3: 132Google Scholar
  5. Ao GM, Zhao SX, Li GH (1982) In vitro induction of haploid plantlets from unpollinated ovaries of corn (Zea mays L.). Acta Gen Sin 9:281-283-Google Scholar
  6. Asselin de Beauville M (1980) Obtention d'haploldes in vitro Ii partir d'ovaires non fecondes de Riz, Oryza sativa L. CR Acad Sci Paris 296D: 489 - 492Google Scholar
  7. Atanassov A (1973) Anther culture of tobacco and sugarbeet as a tool for producing haploid plants and callus of different ploidy levels. Genet Sel 6:501- 507Google Scholar
  8. Aviv D, Galun E (1977) An attempt at isolation of nutritional mutants from cultured tobacco protoplasts. Plant Sci Lett 8: 299 - 304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babbar SP, Gupta SC (1979) Nuclear divisions in protoplasts isolated from microspore tetrads of Datura metel - a critical appraisal. Z Pflanzenphysiol 95: 279 - 282Google Scholar
  10. Badea E, Iordan M, Mihalea A (1985) Induction of androgenesis in anther culture of Digitalis lanata. Rev Roum BioI-BioI Veget 30:63 -71Google Scholar
  11. Bajaj YPS (1966) Growth of Hyoscyamus niger ovaries in culture. Phyton 23: 57 - 62Google Scholar
  12. Bajaj YPS (1972) Protoplast culture and regeneration of haploid tobacco plants. Am J Bot 59: 647Google Scholar
  13. Bajaj YPS (1974a) Induction of repeated cell division in isolated pollen mother cells of Atropa belladonna. Plant Sci Lett 3: 309 - 312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bajaj YPS (1974b) Isolation and culture studies on pollen tetrad and pollen mother cell protoplasts. Plant Sci Lett 3: 93 - 99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bajaj YPS (1975) Protoplast culture and production of haploids. In: Form, structure and function in plants. Sarita Prakashan, Meerut, India, pp 107 -113Google Scholar
  16. Bajaj YPS (1976) Gene preservation through freeze-storage of plant cell, tissue and organ culture. Acta Hortlc 63: 75 - 84Google Scholar
  17. Bajaj YPS (1977a) In vitro induction of haploids in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Improv 4: 54 - 64Google Scholar
  18. Bajaj YPS (1977b) Survival of Atropa and Nicotiana pollen-embryos frozen at -196°C. Curr Sci 46: 305 - 307Google Scholar
  19. Bajaj YPS (1978) Effect of super-low temperature on excised anthers and pollen-embryos of Atropa, Nicotiana, and Petunia. Phytomorphology 28: 171 - 176Google Scholar
  20. Bajaj YPS (1980) Induction of androgenesis in rice anthers frozen at -196 °C. Cereal Res Commun 8: 365 - 369Google Scholar
  21. Bajaj YPS (1981) Regeneration of plants from ultra-low frozen anthers of Primula obconica. Sci Hortic 14: 93 - 95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bajaj YPS (1982) Survival of anther- and ovule-derived cotton callus frozen in liquid nitrogen. Curr Sci 51: 139 - 140Google Scholar
  23. Bajaj YPS (1983a) In vitro production of haploids. In: Evans DA, Sharp WR, Ammirato PV, Yamada Y (eds) Handbook of plant cell culture, vol. 1. MacMillan, New York, pp 228 - 287Google Scholar
  24. Bajaj YPS ( 1983 b) Haploid protoplasts. In: Giles KL (ed) Plant protoplasts. Academic Press, London New York, pp 113 - 141Google Scholar
  25. Bajaj YPS (1983 c) Survival of somatic hybrid protoplasts of wheat x pea and rice x pea subjected to -196°C. Indian J Exp Bioi 21:120-122Google Scholar
  26. Bajaj YPS (1983d) Regeneration of plants from pollen embryos of Arachis, Brassica and Triticum spp. cryopreserved for one year. Curr Sci 52: 484 - 486Google Scholar
  27. Bajaj YPS (1984) The regeneration of plants from frozen pollen embryos and zygotic embryos of wheat and rice. Theor Appl Genet 67:525 - 528Google Scholar
  28. Bajaj YPS (1987) Cryopreservation of pollen and pollen embryos and the establishment of pollen banks. Internatl Rev Cytol 107: 397 - 420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bajaj YPS (1989) Freesia. In: Ammirato PV, Evans DA, Sharp WR, Bajaj YPS (eds) Handbook of plant cell culture, vol. 5. Crop Species. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 413 - 428Google Scholar
  30. Bajaj YPS, Cocking EC (1972) The isolation and culture of microspore tetrads and microspore mother protoplasts of some angiosperms. Proc 3rd Int Symp Yeast Protoplasts, Salamanca, Spain, p 79Google Scholar
  31. Bajaj YPS, Dhanju MS (1980) Induction of organogenesis in callus and androgenesis in anther cultures of Triticum aestivum and T. durum. Annu Wheat Newslett 26: 70Google Scholar
  32. Bajaj YPS, Dhanju MS (1983) Pollen embryogenesis in three ornamental trees, Cassia fistula, Jacaranda acuti/olia and Poinciana regia. J 'll"ee Sci 2: 16 - 19Google Scholar
  33. Bajaj YPS, Davey MR (1974) The isolation and ultrastructure of pollen protoplasts. In: Linskens H-F (ed) Fertilization in higher plants. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 73 - 80Google Scholar
  34. Bajaj YPS, Gill MS (1989) Pollen embryogenesis and chromosomal variation in anther culture of diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.). SABRAO JGoogle Scholar
  35. Bajaj YPS, Gosal SS (1987) Pollen embryogenesis and chromosomal variation in cultured anthers of chickpea. Int Chickpea Newslett 17: 12 - 13Google Scholar
  36. Bajaj YPS, Gosal SS (1988) Establishment of tissue cultures and the regeneration of plants in guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) 11mb.) - an industrial legume crop. SABRAO J 20: 145 - 149Google Scholar
  37. Bajaj YPS, Mohapatra D (1990) Pollen embryogenesis and chromosomal variation in anther culture of Brassica hirta. (Sinapis alba L.)Google Scholar
  38. Bajaj YPS, Pierik RLM (1974) Vegetative propagation of Freesia through callus cultures. Neth J Agric Sci 22: 153 - 159Google Scholar
  39. Bajaj YPS, Singh H (1980) In vitro induction of androgenesis in mung bean Phaseolus aureus ( L. ). Indian J Exp BioI 18: 1316-1318Google Scholar
  40. Bajaj YPS, Davey MR, Grout BW (1975) Pollen tetrad protoplasts: A model system for the study of ontogeny of pollen. In: Mulcahy PI (ed) Gamete competition in plants and animals. North-HoIland, Amsterdam, pp 7 -18Google Scholar
  41. Bajaj YPS, Reinert J, Heberle E (1977) Factors enhancing in vitro production of haploid plants in anthers and isolated microspores. In: Gautheret R (ed) La culture des tissus et des cellules des vegetaux. Mason, Paris, pp 47 - 58Google Scholar
  42. Bajaj YPS, Gosch G, Ottma M, Weber A, Groebler A (1978) Production of polyploid and aneuploid plants from anthers and mesophyll protoplasts of Atropa belladonna and Nicotiana tabacum. Indian J Exp Bioi 16: 947 - 953Google Scholar
  43. Bajaj YPS, Labana KS, Dhanju MS (1980a) Induction of pollen-embryos and pollen-callus in anther cultures of Arachis hypogaea and A. glabrata. Protoplasma 103: 397 - 399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bajaj YPS, Singh H, Gosal SS (1980b) Haploid embryogenesis in anther cultures of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Theor Appl Genet 58:157 -159Google Scholar
  45. Bajaj YPS, Ram AK, Labana KS, Singh H (1981) Regeneration of genetically variable plants from the anther-derived callus of Arachis hypogaea and A. villosa. Plant Sci Lett 23: 35 - 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bajaj YPS, Gill APS, Sidhu MMS (1983) Some factors affecting the in vitro propagation of Gladiolus. Sci Hortic 18: 269 - 275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Barclay IR (1975) High frequencies of haploid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum) by chromosome elimination. Nature (Lond) 256: 410 - 411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Behnke M (1979) Selection of potato callus for resistance to culture filtrates of Phytophthora infestans and regeneration of resistant\ plants. Theor Appl Genet 55: 69 - 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Behnke M (1980) General resistance to late blight of Solanum tuberosum plants regenerated from callus resistant to culture filtrates of Phytophthora infestans. Theor Appl Genet 56: 151 - 152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bennett MD, Hughes WG (1972) Additional mitosis in wheat pollen induced by ethre!. Nature (Lond) 240:566 - 568Google Scholar
  51. Bernard S (1980) In vitro androgenesis in hexaploid triticale - determination of physical conditions increasing embryoid and green plant production. Z Pflanzenziicht 85: 308 - 321Google Scholar
  52. Bhojwani SS, Cocking EC (1972) Isolation of protoplasts from pollen tetrads. Nature New Bioi 239: 29 - 30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Binding H (1974a) Cell cluster formation by leaf protoplasts from axenic cultures of haploid Petunia hybrida L. Plant Sci Lett 2: 185 - 188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Binding H (1974b) Mutation in haploid cell cultures. In: Kasha KJ (ed) Haploids in higher plantsadvances and potentia!. Univ Guelph Press, Guelph, pp 323 - 337Google Scholar
  55. Binding H (1978) Regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts isolated from dihaploid clones of Solanum tuberosum. Physio!. Plant 43: 52 - 54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Binding H, Binding K, Straub J (1970) Selektion in Gewebekulturen mit haploiden Zellen. Naturwissenschaften 57: 138 - 139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Binding H, Nehls R, Schieder 0, Sopory SK, Wenzel G (1978) Regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts isolated from dihaploid clonesof Solanum tuberosum. Physiol Plant 43: 52 - 55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Blakeslee A, Belling J, Farnham ME, Bergner AD (1922) A haploid mutant in Datura stramonium.Science 55: 646 - 647Google Scholar
  59. Bohorova N, Atanassov A, Georgieva-Thdorova J (1985) In vitro organogenesis, androgenesis and embryo culture in the genus Helianthus L. Z Pflanzenziicht 95: 34 - 44Google Scholar
  60. Bornman CH (1985) Haploidization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) via gynogenesis. In Vitro 21 (3), part II: 103Google Scholar
  61. Bouquet A, Piganeau B, Lamaison AM (1982) Influence du genotype sur la production de cals, d'embryoides et de plantes entieres par culture d'antheres in vitro dans Ie genre Vilis. CR Acad Sci Paris 295: 569 - 574Google Scholar
  62. Bourgin JP (1976) Valine-induced inhibition of growth of haploid tobacco protoplasts and its reversal by isoleucine. Z Naturforsch 31 C:337 - 338Google Scholar
  63. Bourgin JP (1978) Valine-resistant plants from in vitro selected tobacco cells. Mol Gen Genet 161: 225 - 230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Bourgin JP, Missonier C (1978) Culture of mesophyll protoplasts of haploid Nicoliana alata Link and Otto. Incompat Newsl 9:25 - 30Google Scholar
  65. Bourgin JP, Missonier C, Chupeau Y (1976) CR Acad Sci Paris Ser D 282: 1853 - 1856Google Scholar
  66. Bui-Dang Ha D, Pernes J (1982) Androgenesis in pearl millet 1. Analysis of plants obtained from micros pore culture. Z Pflanzenphysiol 108:317–327Google Scholar
  67. Burk LG, Gwynn GR, Chaplin JF (1972) Diploidized haploids from aseptically cultured anthers of Nicotiana tabacum. A colchicine method applicable to plant breeding. J Hered 63:355–360Google Scholar
  68. Caboche M (1980) Nutritional requirements of protoplast-derived, haploid tobacco cells grown at low densities in liquid medium. Planta 149:7 -18Google Scholar
  69. Cagnet-Sitbon M (1981) Production of haploid Gerbera jamesonii plants by culture of unfertilized ovules. Agronomie 1:807 - 812Google Scholar
  70. Cai DT, Zhou C (1984) In vitro induction of haploid embryoids and plant!ets from unpollinated young florets and ovules of Helianthus annuus L. Kexue Tonbao 29: 680 - 682Google Scholar
  71. Cappadocia M, Ahmim M (1988) Comparison of two culture methods for the production of haploids by anther culture in olanum chacoense Bitt. Can J Bot 66: 1 003 -1005Google Scholar
  72. Cappadocia M, Sree Ramulu K (1980) Plant regeneration from in vitro cultures of anthers and stem internodes in an interspecific hybrid, Lycopersicon esculentum L.xL. peruvianum Mill. And cytogenetic analysis of the regenerated plants. Plant Sci Lett 20:157 -166Google Scholar
  73. Cappadocia M, Cheng DSK, Ludlum R (1984) Plant regeneration from in vitro culture of anthers on Solanum chacoense Bitt and interspecific diploid hybrids S. tuberrosum L. x S. chacoense Bitt. Theor Appl Genet 69: 139 143Google Scholar
  74. Cappadocia M, Cheng DSK, Ludlum-Simonette R (1986) Self-compatability in doubled haploids and their Fj hybrids, regenerated via anther culture in self-incompatible Solanum chacoense Bitt. Theor Appl Genet 72: 66 - 69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Cappadocia M, Chretien L, Laublin G (1988) Production of haploids in Gerberajamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook via ovule culture: Influence of fall vs spring sampling on callus formation and shoot regeneration. Can J Bot 66: 11 07 - 1110Google Scholar
  76. Carlson PS (1970) Induction and isolation of auxotrophic mutants in somatic cultures of Nicotiana tabacum. Science 168: 487 - 489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Carlson PS (1973a) The use of protoplasts for genetic research. Proc Nat! Acad Sci USA 70: 598 - 602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Carlson PS (1973b) Methionine sulfoximine-resistant mutants of tobacco. Science 180: 1366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Cella R, Galun E (1980) Utilization of irradiated carrot cell suspensions as feeder layer for cultured Nicotiana cells and protoplasts. Plant Sci Lett 19:243 - 252Google Scholar
  80. Challef RS, Stolarz A (1981) Factors influencing the frequency of callus formation among cultured rice (Oryza sativa) anthers. Physiol Plant 51: 201 - 206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Chang Z, Hong-Yuan Y (1981) Induction of haploid rice plant!ets by ovary culture. Plant Sci Lett 20: 231 - 237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Charmet G, Bran1ard G (1985) A comparison of androgenetic doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in Triticale. Theor Appl Genet 71: 193 - 200Google Scholar
  83. Charmet G, Vedel F, Bernard M, Bernard S, Mathieu C (1985) Cytoplasmic variability in androgenetic doubled haploid lines of triticale. Agronomie 5: 709 - 717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Chase SS (1952) Monoploids in maize: In: Gowen JW (ed) Heterosis. Iowa State College Press, pp 389 - 399Google Scholar
  85. Chen CC (1978) Effects of sucrose concentration on plant production in anther culture of rice. Crop Sci 19: 905 - 906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Chen CC, Chen CM (1980) Changes in chromosome number in microspore callus of rice during successive subcultures. Can J Genet Cytol 22:607 -614Google Scholar
  87. Chen CC, Tsay HS, Huang CR (1986) Rice (Oryza sativa L.): Factors affecting androgenesis. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 2. Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 123 -138Google Scholar
  88. Chen CH, Chen FT, Chien CF, Wang CH, Chang SJ, Hsu HE, Ou HH, Ho YT, Lu TM (1979) A process for obtaining pollen plants of Hevea brasiliensis Muell-Arg. Sci Sinica 22: 81 - 90Google Scholar
  89. Chen Z, Quian C, Quin M, Xu M, Xiao Y (1982) Recent advances in anther culture of Hevea brasiliensis ( Mull. Arg.) Theor Appl Genet 62: 103-108Google Scholar
  90. Chiang MS, Frechette S, Kuo CG, Chong C, Delafield SJ (1985) Embryogenesis and haploid plant production from anther culture of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). Can J Plant Sci 65:1033 -1037Google Scholar
  91. Chinese Workers (1976) A sharp increase of the frequency of pollen plant induction in wheat with potato medium. Acta Genet Sinica 3: 25 - 31Google Scholar
  92. Chou C, Yu Te, Chang CY, Cheng CC (1978) Studies on new hormones of dedifferentiation to rice anther culture. In: Proc Symp Anther Culture. Science, Peking, pp 86 - 92Google Scholar
  93. Chu CC (1978) The N6 medium and its applications to anther culture of cereal crops. In: Proc Symp Plant Tissue Culture. Science, Peking, pp 45 - 50Google Scholar
  94. Chu CC, Wang CC, Sun CS (1976) Development of the pollen embryo of rice and wheat on the medium devoid of hormones. Acta Bot Sinica 8: 239 - 246Google Scholar
  95. Chu Q, Zhang Z, Gao Y (1985) Cytogenetical analysis on aneuploids obtained from pollen clones of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet 71: 506 - 512Google Scholar
  96. Chuong PV, Beversdorf WD (1985) High frequency embryogenesis through isolated microspore culture in Brassica napus L. and B. carinata Braun. Plant Sci 39: 219 - 226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Chuong PV, Beversdorf WD, Powell AD, Pauls KP (1988) Somatic transfer of cytoplasmic traits in Brassica napus L. by haploid protoplast fusion. Mol Gen Genet 211: 197 - 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Clapham D (1971) In vitro development of callus from the pollen of Lolium and Hordeum. Z Pflanzenziicht 65:285 - 292Google Scholar
  99. Clapham D (1973) Haploid Hordeum plants from anthers in vitro. Z Pflanzenziicht 62: 305 - 310Google Scholar
  100. Clapham D (1977) Haploid induction in cereals. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue, and organ culture. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 279 - 298Google Scholar
  101. Collins GB, Sadasivaiah RS (1972) Meiotic analysis of haploid and doubled haploid forms of Nicotiana otophora and N. tabacum. Chromosoma 38:387 -404Google Scholar
  102. Collins GB, Legg PD, Kasperbauer MJ (1974) Use of anther-derived haploids in Nicotiana. I. Isolation of breeding lines differing in total alkaloid content. Crop Sci 14:77 - 80Google Scholar
  103. Corduan G (1975) Regeneration of anther-derived plants from Hyoscyamus niger L. Planta 127: 27 - 36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Corduan G, Spix C (1975) Haploid callus and regeneration of plants from anthers of Digitalis purpurea L. Planta 124: 1 - 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. D'Amato F (1977) Cytogenetics of differentiation in tissue and cell cultures. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue, and organ culture. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 343 - 357Google Scholar
  106. D'Amato F (1985) Cytogenetics of plant cell and tissue cultures and their regenerates. CRC Critical Rev in Plant Sci 3:73 -112Google Scholar
  107. Datta SK, Wenzel G (1987) Isolated microspore derived plant formation in Triticum aestivum ( L. ). Plant Sci 48: 49-54Google Scholar
  108. Datta SK, Wenzel G (1988) Single microspore-derived embryogenesis and plant formation in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Arch Ziichtungsforsch 18: 125 - 131Google Scholar
  109. Day A, Ellis THN (1984) Chloroplast DNA deletions associated with wheat plants regenerated from pollen: possible basis for maternal inheritance of chloroplasts. Cell 39: 359 - 368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Deaton WR, Metz SG, Armstrong TA, Mascia PN (1987) Genetic analysis of the anther-culture response of three spring wheat crosses. Theor Appl Genet 74: 334 - 338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Debergh P, Nitsch C (1973) Premiers resultats sur la culture in vitro de grains de pollen isoles chez la tomate. CR Acad Sci Ser D 276: 1281 - 1284Google Scholar
  112. de Buyser J, Henry Y (1980) Induction of haploid and diploid plants through in vitro anther culture of haploid wheat (n = 3x = 21). Theor Appl Genet 57: 57 - 58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. de Buyser J, Henry Y, Thleb G (1985) Wheat androgenesis: cytogenetical analysis and agronomic performance of doubled haploids. Z Pflanzenziicht 95: 23 - 34Google Scholar
  114. de Buyser J, Henry Y, Laur R, Lonnet P (1981) Utilisation de l'androgenese in vitro dans des programmesGoogle Scholar
  115. de selection du Ble tendre (Triticum aestivum L.). Z Pflanzenziicht 87:290-299Google Scholar
  116. de Buyser J, Henry Y, Lonnet P, Hertzog R, Hespel A (1987) "Florin": A doubled haploid wheat variety developed by the anther culture method. Plant Breed 98: 53-56Google Scholar
  117. De Verna JW, Collins GB (1984) Maternal haploids of Petunia axil/aris (Lam.) BSP via culture of placenta attached ovules. Theor Appl Genet 69: 187 -192Google Scholar
  118. Devreux M, Saccardo F (1971) Mutazioni sperimentali osservate su piante aploidi di tabacco ottenute per colture in vitro di antere irradiate. Atti Ass Genet Ital 16: 69 - 71Google Scholar
  119. Devreux M, Saccardo F, Brunori A (1971) Plantes haploides et lignes isogeniques de Nicotiana tabacum obtenus par cultures d'antheres et tiges in vitro. Caryologia 24: 141 - 148Google Scholar
  120. Dieu P, Beckert M (1986) Further studies of androgenetic embryo production and plant regeneration from in vitro cultured anthers in maize (Zea mays L.). Maydica XXXI: 245 - 259Google Scholar
  121. Dodds JH, Reynolds TL (1980) A scanning electron microscope study of pollen embryogenesis in Hyoscyamus niger. Z Pflanzenphysiol 97: 271 - 276Google Scholar
  122. Dore C (1974) Production de plantes homozygotes males et femelles it partir d'antheres d'asperge cultivees in vitro. CR Acad Sci Paris 278 (17): 2135 - 2138Google Scholar
  123. Dore C (1976) Doublement du stock chromosomique d'haploides d'Asperge par culture in vitro des meristemes en presence de colchicine. Ann Amelior Plant 26 (4): 647 - 653Google Scholar
  124. Dunwell JM, Perry ME (1973) The influence of in vivo growth conditions of Nicotiana tabacum plants on the in vitro embryogenic potential of their anthers. John Innes Annu Rep No 64Google Scholar
  125. Dunwell JM, Sunderland N (1973) Anther culture of Solanum tuberosum L. Euphytica 22:317 - 323Google Scholar
  126. Dunwell JM, Cornish M, De Courcel AGL, Middlefell-Williams JE (1983) Induction and growth of "microspore-derived" embryos of Brassica napus ssp; oleifera. J Exp Bot 34: 1768 - 1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Dunwell JM, Cornish M, De Courcel AGL (1985) Influence of genotype, plant growth temperature and anther incubation temperature on microspore embryo production in Brassica napus ssp. oleifera. J Exp Bot 36: 679 - 689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Dunwell JM, Francis RJ, Powell W (1987) Anther culture of Hordeum vulgare L.: a genetic study of microspore callus production and differentiation. Theor Appl Genet 74: 60 - 64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Falavigna A (1979) Pure lines of Asparagus officinalis obtained by in vitro anther culture in Italy. 5th Proc Int Asparagus Symp, Geisenheim, pp 91- 99Google Scholar
  130. Falavigna A, Chiapperini E, Soressi G (1982) Genetic and environmental factors affecting in vitro androgenesis of asparagus. Genet Agrar 36 (1-2): 173 - 175Google Scholar
  131. Falavigna A, Thcconi M, Soressi G (1983) Progress in the synthesis of F1 hybrids asparagus following in vitro androgenesis. Genet Agrar 37 (1-2): 164 - 165Google Scholar
  132. Falavigna A, Thcconi MG, Casali PE (1985) Asparagus breeding through anther culture: eight years of activity in Italy. 6th Proc Int Asparagus Symp, Guelph, pp 31 - 40Google Scholar
  133. Fitch MM, Moore PH (1983) Haploid production from anther culture of Saccharum spontaneum L. Z PflanzenphysioI109: 197 - 206Google Scholar
  134. Fitch MM, Moore PH (1984) Production of haploid Saccharum spontaneum L. - Comparison of media for cold incubation of panicle branches and for float culture of anthers. J Plant Physiol 117: 169 - 178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Fowler CW, Hughes HG, Janick J (1971) Callus formation from strawberry anthers. Hortic Res 11: 116 - 117Google Scholar
  136. Fridborg G, Eriksson R (1975) Effects of activated charcoal on growth and morphogenesis in cell cultures. Physiol Plant 34: 306 - 308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Friedt W, Foroughi-Wehr B (1981) Anther culture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): plant regeneration and agronomic performance of homozygous diploid progenies. In: Barley genetics IV. Edinburgh Univ Press, pp 690 - 698Google Scholar
  138. Friedt W, Foroughi-Wehr B (1983) Field performance of androgenetic doubled haploid spring barley from F2 hybrids. Z Pflanzenziicht 90: 177 - 184Google Scholar
  139. Foroughi-Wehr B, Friedt W (1981) Responsiveness to anther culture of Hordeum vulgare cv. Dissa and its parents. Barley Genet Newsl 11: 50-53Google Scholar
  140. Foroughi-Wehr B, Friedt W (1984) Rapid production of recombinant barley yellow mosaic virus-resistant Hordeum vulgare lines by anther culture. Theor Appl Genet 67: 377 - 382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Foroughi-Wehr B, Friedt W, Wenzel G (1982) On the genetic improvement of androgenetic haploid formation in Hordeum vulgare L. Theor Appl Genet 62: 233 - 239Google Scholar
  142. Fu Lianfang, Thnd Daoyi (1983) Induction of pollen plants of the Litchi tree (Litchi chinensis Sonn). Acta Genet Sinica 10: 369 - 374Google Scholar
  143. Furner IJ, King J, Gamborg OL (1978) Plant regeneration from protoplasts isolated from a predominantly haploid suspension culture of Datura innoxia ( Mill. ). Plant Sci Lett 11: 169-176Google Scholar
  144. Galun E, Raveh D (1975) In vitro culture of tobacco protoplasts: Survival of haploid and diploid protoplasts exposed to X-ray radiation at different times after isolation. Radiat Bot 15: 79-82Google Scholar
  145. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima 0 (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cell. Exp Cell Res 50: 151 - 158Google Scholar
  146. Gebhardt C, Schnebli V, King PJ (1981) Isolation of biochemical mutants using haploid mesophyll protoplasts of Hyoscyamus muticus II. Auxotrophic and temperature-sensitive clones. Planta 153: 81-89Google Scholar
  147. Gelebart P, San H (1987) Obtention de plantes haploides par culture in vitro d'ovaires et d'ovules non fecondes de Toumesol (Helianthus annuus L.). Agronomie 7 (in press)Google Scholar
  148. Genovesi AD, Collins GB (1982) In vitro production of haploid plants of com via anther culture. Crop Sci 22: 1137 - 1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. George L, Narayanaswamy S (1973) Haploid Capsicum through experimental androgenesis. Protoplasma 78: 467 - 470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. George L, Rao PS (1982) In vitro induction of pollen embryos and plantlets in Brassica juncea through anther culture. Plant Sci Lett 26: 111 - 116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Gleba DM, Gleba Y (1978) Genetika 14: 1935 - 1945Google Scholar
  152. Goodsell SF (1961) Male sterility in com by androgenesis. Crop Sci 1: 227 - 228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Gosal SS, Bajaj YPS (1988) Pollen embryogenesis and chromosomal variation in anther culture of three food legumes–Cicer arietinum, Pisum sativum and Vigna mungo. SABRAO J 20:51- 58Google Scholar
  154. Gresshoff PM (1974) Derivation of a haploid cell line from Vitis vinifera and the importance of the stage of meiotic development of anthers for haploid culture of this and other genera. Z Pflanzenphysiol 73: 132 - 141Google Scholar
  155. Gresshoff PM, Doy CH (1972) Development and differentiation of haploid Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Planta 107: 161 - 170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Gu ZP, Cheng KC (1983) In vitro induction of haploid plantlets from unpollinated young ovaries of lily and its 'embryological observations. Acta Bot Sinica 25:24- 28Google Scholar
  157. Gu ZP, Zheng GC (1984) In vitro induction of haploid plantlets from unpollinated ovaries of highland barley. Acta Bot Sinica 26: 549 - 551Google Scholar
  158. Guha-Mukherjee S (1973) Genotypic differences in the in vitro formation of embryoids from rice pollen. J Exp Bot 24: 139 - 144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Guiderdoni E, Courtois B, Dechanet R, Feldmann P (1986) La production de lignees haploides doublees de riz (Oryza sativa L.) par culture d'antheres in vitro. Agron nop 41: 250 - 257Google Scholar
  160. Harn C, Kim MZ, Choi KT, Lee YI (1975) Production of haploid callus and embryoid from the cultured anther of Capsicum annuum. SABRAO J 7: 71 - 77Google Scholar
  161. He CP, Yang HY (1987) Picioram as an exogenous hormone promotes embryoid differentiation in rice ovary culture. Acta Bioi Exp Sinica 20: 283 - 291Google Scholar
  162. He CP, Yang HY (1988) An investigation on the stability of synergid apogamy and its conditions in rice ovary culture. J Wuhan Bot Res 6Google Scholar
  163. Henry Y, de Buyser J (1985) Effect of the tB/1R translocation on anther culture ability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Cell Rep 4: 307 - 310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Hepler PK, Palelvitz BA (1974) Microtubules and microfilaments. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 25: 309 - 362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Hermsen JGT, Ramana MS (1981) Haploidy and plant breeding. Phil nans Roy Soc Lond B 292: 499 - 507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Hess D, Wagner G (1974) Induction of haploid parthenogenesis in Mimulus luteus by in vitro pollination with foreign pollen. Z Pflanzenphysiol 72: 466 - 468Google Scholar
  167. Hinchee MAW, Fitch MMM (1984) Culture of isolated microspores of Saccharum spontaneum. Z Pflanzenphysiol 113: 305 - 314Google Scholar
  168. Hirabayashi T, Kozaki I, Akihama T (1976) In vitro differentiation of shoots from anther callus in Vitis. Hortic Sci 11: 511 - 512Google Scholar
  169. Ho KM, Kasha KJ (1975) Genetic control of chromosome elimination during haploid formation in barley. Genetics 8: 263 - 275Google Scholar
  170. Hoffmann F, Thomas E, Wenzel G (1982) Anther culture as a breeding tool in rape. II. Progenyanalysis of androgenetic lines and induced mutants from haploid cultures. Theor Appl Genet 61: 225-232Google Scholar
  171. Hondelmann W, Wilberg B (1973) Breeding all male varieties of asparagus by utilization of anther culture and tissue culture. Z Pflanzenziicht 69: 19 - 24Google Scholar
  172. Hosemans D, Bossoutrot D (1983) Induction of haploid plants from in vitro culture of unpollinated beet ovules (Beta vulgaris L.). Z Pflanzenziicht 91: 74 - 77Google Scholar
  173. Hougas RW, Peloquin SJ (1958) The potential of potato haploids in breeding and genetic research. Am Potato J 35: 701 - 707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Hu H (1985) Use of haploids in crop improvement. In: Proc Internatl Seminar Biotechnology in International Agriculture. IRRI, Los BanosGoogle Scholar
  175. Hu H (1986) Wheat: Improvement through anther culture. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 2. Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 55 - 72Google Scholar
  176. Huang B (1984) The effects of sevGoogle Scholar
  177. Huang QF, Yang HY, Zhou C (1982) Embryological observations on ovary culture of unpollinated young flowers in Hordeum vulgare L. Acta Bot Sinica 24:295 - 300Google Scholar
  178. Inagaki MN (1985 a) Embryo culture of wheat cultivar Norin 61 crossed with Hordeum bulbosum L. Jpn J Breed 35:59-64Google Scholar
  179. Inagaki MN (1985b) Chromosome doubling of the wheat haploids obtained from crosses with Hordeum bulbosum L. Jpn J Breed 35: 193 - 195Google Scholar
  180. Inagaki NK (1990) Wheat haploids through bulbosum technique. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 13. Wheat. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  181. Irikura Y (1975) Induction of haploid plants by anther culture in tuberbearing species and interspecific hybrids of Solanum. Potato Res 18: 133 - 140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Irikura Y, Sakaguchi S (1972) Induction of 12 chromosome plants from anther culture in a tuberous Solanum verrucosum. Potato Res 15: 170 - 173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Iyer RD, Raina SK (1972) The early ontogeny of embryoids and callus from pollen and subsequent organogenesis in anther cultures of Datura metel and rice. Planta 104: 146 - 156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Jacobsen E (1980) Die Chromosomenverdopplung in der Ziichtung dihaploider Kartoffeln. Ph D Thesis, Friedrich Wilhelm Univ, Bonn, 159 pGoogle Scholar
  185. Jacobsen E, Sopory SK (1978) The influence of possible recombination of genotypes on the production of micros pore embryoids in anther cultures of Solanum tuberosum and dihaploid hybrids. Theor Appl Genet 52: 119 - 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Jensen CJ (1974) Production of monoploids in barley: A progress report. In: Polyploidy and induced mutations in plant breeding. Int Atom Energy Agency, PL-503124, pp 167-169Google Scholar
  187. Jensen CJ (1977) Monoploid production by chromosome elimination. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue, and organ culture. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 299 - 330Google Scholar
  188. Johansson L, Eriksson T (1977) Induced embryo formation in anther cultures of several Anemone species. Physiol Plant 40: 172 - 174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Kameya T, Hinata K (1970) Induction of haploid plants from pollen grains of Brassica. Jpn Breed 20: 82 - 87Google Scholar
  190. Kao KN (1981) Plant formation from barley anther cultures with Ficoll media. Z Pflanzenphysiol 103:437 -443Google Scholar
  191. Kasha KJ, Kao KN (1970) High frequency haploid production in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Nature(Lond) 225: 874 - 876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Kasperbauer MJ, Collins GB (1972) Reconstitution of diploids from leaf tissue of anther-derived haploids in tobacco. Crop Sci 12: 98 - 101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Keller WA, Armstrong KC (1977) Embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Brassica napus anther cultures. Can J Bot 55: 1383 - 1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Keller WA, Armstrong KC (1981) Production of anther-derived dihaploid plants in autotetraploid marrowstem kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Can J Genet Cytol 23: 259 - 265Google Scholar
  195. Keller WA, Armstrong KC, de La Roche AI (1983) The production and utilization of microspore-derived haploids in Brassica crops. In: Sen SK, Giles KL (eds) Plant cell culture in plant improvement. Plenum, New York, pp 169 - 183Google Scholar
  196. KermicIe JL (1973) Androgenesis and the indeterminate gametophyte mutation: Source of the cytoplasm. Maize Genet Coop Newslett 47: 208 - 209Google Scholar
  197. Kexian W, Xu M, Xie Q (1980) Studies on the law of spontaneous doubling and technology of artificial doubling of chromosome of poplar pollen plants. Sci Technol Forest 3: 6 - 10Google Scholar
  198. Kexian W, Xu M, Ma H, Li W, Zhu W (1981) Primary analysis on genetics expression of pollen plants of poplar. Sci Thchnol Forest 2:5 - 6Google Scholar
  199. King J (1986) Plant cells and the isolation of conditional lethal mutants. Enzyme Microb Technol 9: 514 - 522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. K1imaszewska K, Keller WA (1983) The production of haploids from Brassica hirta Moench (Sinapis alba L.) anther cultures. Z Pflanzenphysiol 109: 235 - 241Google Scholar
  201. Kochhar T, Sabharwal P, Engelberg J (1971) Production of homozygous diploid plants by tissue culture technique. J Hered 62: 59 - 61Google Scholar
  202. Kohler F, Wenzel G (1985) Regeneration of isolated barley microspores in conditioned media and trials to characterize the responsible factor. J Plant Physiol 121: 181 - 191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Krumbiegel G (1979) Response of haploid and diploid protoplasts of Datura innoxia Mill. and Petunia hybrid L. to treatment with X-rays and a chemical mutagen. Environ Exp Bot 19: 99 - 103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Kubicki B, Thlezynska J, Milewska-Pawliczuk E (1975) Induction of embryoid development from apple pollen grains. Acta Soc Bot Pol 44: 631 - 635Google Scholar
  205. Kudirka OT, Schaeffer GW, Baenziger PS (1986) Wheat: Genetic variability through anther culture.In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 2. Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 39 - 53Google Scholar
  206. Kuo CS (1982) The preliminary studies on culture of unfertilized ovary of rice in vitro. Acta Bot Sin 24: 33 - 38Google Scholar
  207. Kuo CS, Lu WL, Kui YL (1986) Corn (Zea mays L.): Production of pure lines through anther culture. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 2. Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Thkyo, pp 152 - 164Google Scholar
  208. Kuo JS, Wang YY, Chien NF, Ku SJ, Kung ML, Hsu HC (1973) Investigations on the anther culture in vitro of Nicotiana tabacum L. and Capsicum annuum L. Acta Bot Sinica 15: 36 - 52Google Scholar
  209. Lamm R (1938) Notes on a haploid potato hybrid. Hereditas 24:391- 396Google Scholar
  210. Lazar MD, Baenziger PS, Schaeffer GW (1984) Combining abilities and heritability of callus formation and plantiet regeneration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) anther cultures. Theor Appl Genet 68: 131 - 134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Lee FM, Chen CC (1987) Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley. Plant Cell Rep 6: 191 - 193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Lelu MA, Bollon H (1985) Obtention d'haploides par culture d'antheres de Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata et var. gemmifera. CR Acad Sci Paris 300: 71 - 76Google Scholar
  213. Levenko BA, Kunakh VA, Yurkova GN (1977) Studies on callus tissue from anthers. I. Tomato. Phytomorphology 27:377 - 383Google Scholar
  214. Li MW, Zhang B (1984) In vitro induction of haploid plantiets from unpollinated ovaries of Coix lacryma-jobi L. Hereditas (Beijing) 6:5 - 6Google Scholar
  215. Lichter R (1981) Anther culture of Brassica napus in a liquid medium. Z Pflanzenphysiol 103: 229 - 237Google Scholar
  216. Lichter R (1982) Induction of haploid plants from isolated pollen of Brassica napus. Z Pflanzenphysiol 105:427 -434Google Scholar
  217. Loh CS, Ingram DS (1982) Production of haploid plants from anther cultures and secondary embryoids of winter oilseed rape, Brassica napus ssp. oleifera. New Phytologist 91: 507 - 516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Loo S, Xu ZH (1986) Rice: Anther culture for rice improvement in China. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 2. Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 139 - 156Google Scholar
  219. Lukjanjuk SF, Ignatova SA (1986) 'll"itica1e: Production of haploid and homozygous plants. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 2. Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 530 - 553Google Scholar
  220. Maliga P (1984) Isolation and characterization of mutants in plant cell culture. Annu Rev Plant PhysioI35: 519 - 542Google Scholar
  221. Marsolais AA, Sequin-Swartz G, Kasha KJ (1984) The influence of anther cold pretreatments and donor plant genotypes on in vitro androgenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 3: 69 - 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Marton L, Dung TM, Mendel RR, Maliga P (1982) Nitrate reductase deficient cell lines from haploid protoplast cultures of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Mol Gen Genet 182:301-304 Mercy ST, Zapata FJ (1987) Position of anthers at plating and its influence on anther callusing in rice. Plant Cell Rep 6: 318 - 319Google Scholar
  223. Meynet J, Sibi M (1984) Haploid plants from in vitro culture of unfertilized ovules in Gerbera jamesonii. Z Pflanzenziicht 93: 78 - 85Google Scholar
  224. Miao SH (1980) Effect of different ammonium salts on the formation of maize pollen embryoids. Acta Bot Sinica 22:356-359 Milewska~Pawliczuk E, Kubicki B (1977) Induction of androgenesis in vitro in Malus domestica. Acta Hortic 78: 271 - 276Google Scholar
  225. Mix G (1985) Antheren- und Ovarienkultur von Sonnenblumen (Helianthus annuus L.). Landbauforsch Volkenrode 35: 153 - 156Google Scholar
  226. Mohan Ram HY, Mehta U, Ramanuja Rao IV, Narasimhan M (1982) Haploid induction in legumes. In: Fujiwara A (00) Plant tissue culture 1982. Maruzen, Tokyo, pp 541 - 542Google Scholar
  227. Moraes-Fernandes MIB, Picard E (1983) Variability of haploid production by anther culture using Brazilian wheat genotypes. Rev Brasil Genet VI 2: 261 - 277Google Scholar
  228. Mroginski LA, Fernandez A (1980) Obtainment of plantlets by in vitro culture of anthers of wild species of Arachis ( Leguminosae ). Oleagineux 35: 89-92Google Scholar
  229. Muentzing A (1937) Note on a haploid rye plant. Hereditas 23: 401Google Scholar
  230. Murakami M, Thkahashi N, Harada K (1972) Induction of haploid plant by anther culture in maize. I. On the callus formation and root differentiation. Kyoto Prefect Univ Fac Agric Sci Rep 24: 1-8Google Scholar
  231. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plantarum 15: 473 - 497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Nagmani R, Raghavan V (1983) Induction of embryogenic divisions in isolated pollen grains of Hyoscyamus niger in a single-step method. Z Pflanzenphysiol 109:87 - 90Google Scholar
  233. Nakamura A, Yamada T, Kadotani N, Itagaki R, Oka M (1984) Studies on the haploid method of breeding in tobacco. SABRAO J 6: 107 - 131Google Scholar
  234. Nam LS, Heszky LE (1986) Rice tissue culture and application to breeding: I. I.duction of high totipotent haploid and diploid callus from the different genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Cereal Res Commun 14: 197 - 203Google Scholar
  235. Negrutiu I (1981) Improved conditions for large scale culture, mutagenesis, and selection of haploid protoplasts of Nicotiana plumbaginijolia Viviani. Z Pflanzenphysiol 104: 431 - 442Google Scholar
  236. Negrutiu I, de Brouwer D, Dirks R, Jacobs M (1985) Mol Gen Genet 199: 330 - 337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Nettancourt D, de Devreux M (1977) Incompatibility and in vitro cultures. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue, and organ culture. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 426 - 441Google Scholar
  238. Niemirowicz-Szczytt K, Zakrzewska Z, Malepszy S, Kubicki B (1983) Characters of plants obtained from Frageria x ananassa anther culture. Acta Hortic 131: 231 - 237Google Scholar
  239. Niizeki H (1968) Induction of haploid rice plant from anther culture. Jpn Agric Res Q 3: 41 - 45Google Scholar
  240. Nishi T, Mitsuoka S (1969) Plants from anther and ovary culture rice plant. Jpn J Genet 44: 341 - 346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Nitsch C (1974) La culture de pollen isole sur milieu synthetique. CR Acad Sci Ser D 278: 1031 - 1034Google Scholar
  242. Nitsch C (1977) Culture of isolated microspores. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue, and organ culture. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 268 - 278Google Scholar
  243. Nitsch C, Norreel B (1973) Effet d'un choc thermique sur Ie pouvoir embryogene du pollen de Datura innoxia cultive dans l'anthere ou isole de l'anthere. CR Acad Sci Ser D 276:303 - 306Google Scholar
  244. Nitsch JP (1969) Experimental androgenesis in Nicotiana. Phytomorphology 19: 389 - 404Google Scholar
  245. Nitsch JP (1972) Haploid plants from pollen. Z Pflanzenziicht 67: 3 - 18Google Scholar
  246. Nitsch JP, Nitsch C (1969) Haploid plants from pollen grains. Science 163: 85 - 87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Nitsch JP, Nitsch C, Pereau-Leroy P (1969) Obtention de mutants a partier de Nicotiana haploides issus de grains de pollen. CR Acad Sci Paris Ser 269: 1650 - 1652Google Scholar
  248. Noerdenskiold H (1939) Studies of a haploid rye plant. Hereditas 28: 204 - 210Google Scholar
  249. Novak FJ (1974) Induction of a haploid callus in anther cultures of Capsicum sp. Z Pflanzenziicht 72: 46 - 54Google Scholar
  250. Ockendon DJ (1984) Anther culture in Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmijera). I Ebryo ields and plant regeneration. nn Appl BioI 105: 285 - 291Google Scholar
  251. Ockendon DJ (1985) Anther culture in Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmijera). II Effect f genotype on embryo yields. Ann Appl BioI 107: 101 - 104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Ohyama K, Nitsch JP (1972) Flowering haploid plants obtained from protoplasts of tobacco leaves. lant Cell Physiol 13: 229 - 236Google Scholar
  253. Ono H, Larter EN (1976) Anther culture of Triticale. Crop Sci 16: 120 - 121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Orton TJ, Browers MA (1985) Segregation of genetic markers among plants regenerated from cultured anthers of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). Theor Appl Genet 69:637 - 643Google Scholar
  255. Ouyang TW, Hu H, Chuang CC, Theng CC (1973) Induction of pollen plants from anthers of Triticum aestivum L. cultured in vitro. Sci Sinica 16: 79 - 95Google Scholar
  256. Ouyang J, Zhou SM, Jia SE (1983) The response of anther culture to culture temperature in Triticum aestivum. Theor Appl Genet 66: 101 - 109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Pace GM, Reed IN, Ho Le, Fahey JW (1987) Anther culture of maize and the visualization of embryogenic microspores by fluorescent microscopy. Theor Appl Genet 73: 863 - 869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Pauk J (1985) Production of haploid plants of maize (Zea mays L.) through androgenesis. Cereal Res Commun 13: 47 - 53Google Scholar
  259. Pehu E, Veilleux RE, Hilu KW (1987) Ouster analysis of anther-derived plants of Solanum phureja (Solanaceae) based on morphological characteristics. Am J Bot 74:47–52Google Scholar
  260. Pelletier G, Raquin C, Simon G (1972) La culture in vitro d'anthere d'Asperge (Asparagus officinalis). CR Acad Sci Paris Ser D 274: 848 - 851Google Scholar
  261. Perez-Bermudez P, Cornejo MJ, Segura J (1985): Pollen plant formation from anther cultures of Digitalis obscura L. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 5: 63 - 68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Petolino JF, Jones AM (1986) Anther culture of elite genotypes of Zea mays L. Crop Sci 26: 1027 - 1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Petolina JF, Thompson SA (1987) Genetic analysis of anther culture response in maize. Theor Appl Genet 74: 284 - 286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Picard E, de Buyser J (1973) Obtension de plantules haploides de Triticum aestivum L. Ii partir de culture d'antheres in vitro. CR Acad Sci Paris Ser D 277:1463 -1466Google Scholar
  265. Picard E, Hours C, Gregoire S, Phan TH, Meunier JP (1987) Significant improvement of androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid induction from wheat plants treated with a chemical hybridization gent. Theor Appl Genet 74: 289 - 297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Pirrie A, Power JB (1986) The production of fertile, haploid somatic hybrid plant (Nicotian glutinosa (N) + N. tabacum (2 N) via gametic: somatic protoplast fusion. Theor Appl Genet 72: 48 - 52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Povolochko PA (1937) Experimental production of haploid plants in the genus Nicotiana. Bull Appl Bot Genet Plant Breed Ser II 7: 175 - 190Google Scholar
  268. Powell W, Borrino EM, Allison MJ, Griffiths OW, Asher MJC, Dunwell JM (1986a) Genetical analysis of microspore derived plants of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Theor Appl Genet 72: 619 - 626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Powell W, CaIigari PDS, Dunwell JM (1986b) Field performance of lines derived from haploid and diploid tissues of Hordeum vulgare. Theor Appl Genet 72: 458 - 465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Quazi HM (1978) Regeneration of plants from anthers of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). Ann Bot 42: 473 - 475Google Scholar
  271. Radojevic L (1978) In vitro induction of androgenic plantlets in Aesculus hippocastanum. Protoplasma 96: 369 - 374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Radojevic LJ, Djordjevic N, Thcic B (1988) In vitro induction of pollen embryos and plantlets in Aesculus carnea Hayne through anther culture. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture (in press)Google Scholar
  273. Raghavan V (1975) Induction of haploid plants from anther culture of henbane. Z Pflanzenphysiol 76: 89 - 92Google Scholar
  274. Raghavan V (1978) Origin and development of pollen embryoids and pollen calluses in cultured anther segments of Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane). Am J Bot 65: 982 - 1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Raghavan V (1981) Distribution of poly(A)-containing RNA during normal pollen development and during induced pollen embryogenesis in Hyoscyamus niger. J Cell Bioi 89:593 - 606Google Scholar
  276. Raghavan V (1984) Protein synthetic activity during normal pollen development and during induced pollen embryogenesis in Hyoscyamus niger. Can J Bot 62: 2493 - 2513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Raghavan V, Nagmani R (1983) Morphogenesis of pollen callus cultures of Hyoscyamus niger. Am J Bot 70: 524 - 531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Rajasekaran K, Mullins MG (1979) Embryos and plantlets from cultured anthers of hybrid grapevines. J Exp Bot 30: 399 - 407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Rajasekaran K, Mullins MG (1983a) Influence of genotype and sex-expression on formation of plantlets by cultured anthers of grapevines. Agronomie 3: 233 - 238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Rajasekaran K, Mullins MG (1983b) The origin of embryos and plantlets from cultured anthers of hybrid grapevines. Am J Enol Vitic 34: 108 -113Google Scholar
  281. Rajasekhar EW (1973) Nuclear divisions in protoplasts isolated from pollen tetrads of Datura metel. Nature (Lond) 246:223 - 224Google Scholar
  282. Rashid A, Street HE (1973) The development of haploid embryoids from anther cultures of Atropa belladonna L. Planta 113: 263 - 270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Rashid A, Street HE (1974) Segmentations in microspores of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tabacum which lead to embryoid formation in anther cultures. Protoplasma 80:323 - 334Google Scholar
  284. Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (1977) Anther culture: Haploid production and its significance. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue, and organ culture. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 251 - 267Google Scholar
  285. Reinert J, Bajaj yps, Heberle E (1975) Induction of haploid tobacco plants from isolated pollen. Protoplasma 84: 191 - 196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Reynolds TL (1984) An ultrastructural and stereological analysis of pollen grains of Hyoscyamus niger during normal ontogeny and induced embryogenic development. Am J Bot 71: 490 - 504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Reynolds TL (1985) Ultrustructure of anomalous pollen development in embryogenic anthers cultures of Hyoscyamus niger. Am J Bot 72: 44 - 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Reynolds TL (1986a) Pollen embryogenesis in anther cultures of Solanum carolinense L. Plant Cell Rep 5: 273 - 275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Reynolds TL (1986b) Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from callus cultures of Solanum carolinense. Am J Bot 73: 915 - 918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Rode A, Hartmann C, Benslimane A, Picard E, Quetier F (1987) Gametoclonal variation detected in the nuclear ribosomal DNA from doubled haploid lines of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Cesar). Theor Appl Genet 74:31- 37Google Scholar
  291. Rogozinska JH, Goska M, Kuzdowicz A (1977) Induction of plants from anthers of Beta vulgaris cultured in vitro. Acta Soc Bot Polon 46: 471 - 479Google Scholar
  292. Rosati P, Devreux M, Laneri U (1975) Anther culture of strawberry. Hortic Sci 10: 119 - 120Google Scholar
  293. Rotondo J, Harney P, Thiessen H (1983) Direct and indirect embryogenesis in microspores of Asparagus officinalis cv. Viking. Asparagus Res Newslett 1 (2):8 - 9Google Scholar
  294. Rowell PL, Miller DG (1971) Induction of male sterility in wheat with 2-chlorethylphosphonic acid (ethrel). Crop Sci 11:629 - 631Google Scholar
  295. Sangwan-Norreel BS (1977) Androgenic stimulating factors in the anthers and isolated pollen grain culture of Datura innoxia Mill. J Exp Bot 28:843 - 852Google Scholar
  296. San Noeum LH (1976) Haploides d'Hordeum vulgare L. par culture in vitro non fecondes. Ann Amelior Plant 26: 751 - 754Google Scholar
  297. Satchuthananthavale R, Irugalbundara ZE (1972) Propagation of callus from Hevea anthers. Q J Rubber Res Inst Ceylon 49:65 - 68Google Scholar
  298. Sato T (1974) Callus induction and organ differentiation in anther culture of poplars. J Jpn For Soc 56: 55 - 62Google Scholar
  299. Sax K (1935) The effect of temperature on nuclear differentiation in rnicrospore development. J Arnold Arbor 19: 301 - 310Google Scholar
  300. Schaeffer GW, Baenziger PS (1982) Anther culture and pollen plant regeneration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Theil). In: Fujiwara A (ed) Plant tissue culture 1982. Maruzen, Tokyo, pp 553–556Google Scholar
  301. Schaeffer GW, Baenziger PS, Worley J (1979) Haploid plant development from anthers and in vitr mbryo culture of wheat. Crop Sci 19: 696 - 702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Schaeffer GW, Sharpe FT, Cregen PB (1984) Variation for improved protein and yield from rice anther ulture. Theor Appl Genet 67: 383 - 389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Schieder 0 (1975) Regeneration von haploiden and diploiden Datura innoxia Mill. Mesophyll-Protoplasten zu Pflanzen. Z Pflanzenphysiol 76: 462 - 466Google Scholar
  304. Schieder 0 (1976) Isolation of mutants with altered pigments after irradiating haploid protoplasts from Datura innoxia Mill. with X-rays. Mol Gen Genet 149:251 - 254Google Scholar
  305. Schmid J, Keller ER (1982) Haploid production by anther culture in Triticum spe/ta–involvement of the q/Q-factor? In: Fujiwara A (ed) Plant tissue culture 1982. Maruzen, Tokyo, pp 571 - 572Google Scholar
  306. Schmid J, Keller ER (1986) Effect of a gametocide on the induction of haploids in Triticum aestivum. In: Horn W, Jensen CJ, Odenbach W, Schieder 0 (eds) Genetic manipulation in plant breeding. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 347 - 349Google Scholar
  307. Sharp WR, Dougall DK, Paddock EF (1971) Haploid plantlets and callus from immature pollen grains of Nicotiana and Lycopersicon. Bull Torrey Bot Club 98: 219 - 222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Sharp WR, Caldas LS, Crocomo OJ (1973) Studies on the induction of Coffea arabica callus from both somatic and rnicrosporogenous tissues; and subsequent embryoid and plantiet formation. Am J Bot 60: 13Google Scholar
  309. Shimada T (1981) Haploid plants regenerated from the pollen callus of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Jpn J Genet 56: 581 - 588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Shimamoto K, King PJ (1983) Isolation of a histidine auxotroph of Hyoscyamus muticus during attempts to apply BUdR enrichment. Mol Gen Genet 189: 69 - 72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Sibi M, Vaulx DR, Chambonnet B (1979) Obtention de plantes haploides par androgenese in vitro chez Ie Piment (Capsicum annuum L.). Ann Amelior Plant 29: 583 - 606Google Scholar
  312. Sitbon M (1981) Production of haploid Gerbera jamesonii plants by in vitro culture of unfertilized ovules. Agronornie 1:807–812Google Scholar
  313. Snape JW (1989) Doubled haploid breeding: Theoretical basis and practical applications. In: Proc 2nd Int Symp Genetic Manipulation in Crops. CIMMYT, Mexico (in press)Google Scholar
  314. Snape JW, Simpson E (1986) The utilization of double haploid lines in quantitative genetics. Bull Soc Bot Fr 133, Actualites Bot 4: 59 - 66Google Scholar
  315. Sopory SK, Bajaj YPS (1987) Anther culture and haploid production in potato. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology ip. agriculture and forestry, vol. 3. Potato. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 89 - 105Google Scholar
  316. Sopory SK, Thn BH (1979) Regeneration and cytological studies of anther and pollen calli of dihaploid Solanum tuberosum. Z Pflanzenziicht 82:31- 35Google Scholar
  317. Sopory SK, Jacobsen E, Wenzel G (1978) Production of monoploid embryoids and plantlets in cultured anthers of Solanum tuberosum. Plant Sci Lett 12:47–54Google Scholar
  318. Steffen A, Schieder (1984) Biochemical and genetical characterization of nitrate reductase deficient mutants of Petunia. Plant Cell Rep 3: 134 - 137Google Scholar
  319. Stow I (1930) Experimental studies on the formation of embryo sac-like giant pollen grain in the anther of Hyacinthus orientalis. Cytologia 1:417 - 439Google Scholar
  320. Straus A, Bucher F, King PJ (1981) Isolation of biochemical mutants using haploid mesophyll protoplasts of Hyoscyamus muticus. I. A N03 non-utilizing clone. Planta 153: 75 - 80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Sunderland N (1974) Anther culture as a means of haploid induction. In: Kasha KJ (ed) Haploids in higher plants: advances and potential. Univ Guelph, pp 91 - 122Google Scholar
  322. Sunderland N, Wicks FM (1971) Embryoid formation in pollen grains of Nicotiana tabacum. J. Exp Bot 22:213 - 226Google Scholar
  323. Sunderland N, Wildon DC (1979) A note on the pretreatment of excised flower buds in float culture of Hyoscyamus anthers. Plant Sci Lett 15: 169 - 175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Sunderland N, Collins GB, Dunwell JM (1974) The role of nuclear fusion in pollen embryogenesis of Datura innoxia Mill. Planta 117: 227 - 241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Swanson EB, Coumans MP, Wu SC, Barsby TL, Beversdorf WD (1987) Efficient isolation of microspores and the production of microspore-derived embryos from Brassica napus. Plant Cell Rep 6: 94 - 97Google Scholar
  326. Thnaka M, Nakata K (1969) Thbacco plants obtained by anther culture and the experiment to get diploid seeds from haploids. Jpn J Genet 44:47 - 54Google Scholar
  327. Thomas E, Wenzel G (1975a) Embryogenesis from microspores of Brassica napus. Z Pflanzenzilcht 74: 77 - 81Google Scholar
  328. Thomas E (1975b) Embryogenesis from microspores of rye. Naturwissenschaften 62: 40 - 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Thomas E, Hoffmann F, Potrykus I, Wenzel G (1976) Protoplast regeneration and stem embryogenesis of haploid androgenetic rape. Mol Gen Genet 145: 245 - 247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Thurling N, Chay PM (1984) The influence of donor plant genotype and environment on production of multicellular microspores in cultured anthers of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera. Ann Bot 54: 681 - 693Google Scholar
  331. Ting YC (1985) Meiosis and fertility of anther culture-derived maize plants. Maydica 30: 161 - 169Google Scholar
  332. Tomes DT,.Collins GB (1976) Factors affecting haploid plant production from in vitro anther culture of Nicotiana species. Crop Sci 51: 139 - 140Google Scholar
  333. Trinh TH, Lie-Schricke H, nan Thanh K (1986) Regeneration des plantes a partir de culture d'antheres et d'ovules non fecondes du haricot aile (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.). Bull Soc Bot Fr 133, Actual BotGoogle Scholar
  334. Truong-Andre I, Demarly Y (1984) Obtaining plants by in vitro culture of unfertilized maize ovaries (Zea mays L.) and preliminary studies on the progeny of a gynogenetic plant. Z Pflanzenzilcht 92: 309 - 320Google Scholar
  335. Tsay HS, Hsu JY (1985) The breeding of all-male asparagus plants by means of anther culture. 6th Proc Int Asparagus Symp, Guelph, pp 22 - 30Google Scholar
  336. Tsay HS, Miao SH, Widholm JM (1986a) Factors affecting haploid plant regeneration from maize anther culture. J Plant Physiol 126: 33 - 40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Tsay SS, Tsay HS, Chao CY (1986b) Cytochemical studies of callus development from microspore in cultured anther in rice. Plant Cell Rep 5: 119 - 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Uhrig U (1981) Regeneration of protoplasts of dihaploid potato plants bleached by a herbicide (SAN 6706). Mol Gen Genet 181: 403 - 405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Vagera J (1984) Androgenesis and somatic embryogenesis induced from pollen embryoids in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on charcoal media. In: Novak FJ, Havel L, Dolezel J (eds) Proc Int Plant tissue and cell culture - Appl crop improvement. Czech Acad Sci Prague, pp 243–244Google Scholar
  340. Vagera J, Havranek P (1985) In vitro induction of androgenesis in Capsicum annuum L. and its genetic aspects. BioI Plant 27: 10 - 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Vaulx DR, Chambonnet D, Pochard E (1981) Culture in vitro d'antheres de piment (Capsicum annuum L.): amelioration des taux d'obtention de plantes chez differents genotypes par des traitements a + 35°C. Agronomie 1: 859 - 864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Vaulx DR, Pochard E, Chambonnet D (1982) Distribution of TMVPo susceptible and resistant doubled haploid lines from anther culture of heterozygous L + L 1 hybrids. Capsicum Newslett 1:52–53Google Scholar
  343. Veilleux RE, Booze-Daniels J, Pehu E (1983) Anther culture of a 2n pollen producing clone of Solanum phureja Juz. & Buk. Can J Genet Cytol 27: 559 - 564Google Scholar
  344. Veilleux RE, Booze-Daniels J, Pehu E (1985) Anther culture of a 2n pollen-producing clone of Solanum phureja Jaz. & Buk. Can J Genet Cytol 27: 559 - 564Google Scholar
  345. Wang CC, Kuang BJ (1981) IIlduction of haploid plants from the female gametophyte of Hordeum VUlgare L. Acta Bot Sinica 23: 329 - 330Google Scholar
  346. Wang CC, Chu CC, Sun CS, Wu SH, Yin KC, Hsu C (1973) The androgenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum) anthers cultured in vitro. Sci Sinica 16: 218 - 222Google Scholar
  347. Wang CC, Sun CS, Chu CC (1974) On the condition for the induction of rice pollen plantlets and certain factors affecting the frequency of induction. Acta Bot Sinica 16:43 - 53Google Scholar
  348. Wang CC, Chu ZC, Sun CS (1975) The induction of Populus pollen-plants. Acta Bot Sinica 17 (1): 56 - 59Google Scholar
  349. Wang YY, Sun CS, Wang CC, Chien N (1973) The induction of the polleIi plantlets of Triticale and Capsicum annuum from anther culture. Sci Sinica 16:147 -151Google Scholar
  350. Wei ZM, Kyo M, Harada H (1986) Callus formation and plant regeneration through direct culture of isolated pollen of Hordeum vulgare cv. Sabarlis. Theor Appl Genet 72: 252-255Google Scholar
  351. Wenzel G, Thomas E (1974) Observations on the growth in culture of anthers of Secale cereale. Z Pflanzenziicht 72: 89 - 94Google Scholar
  352. Wenzel G, Uhrig H (1981) Breeding for nematode and virus resistance in potato via anther culture. Theor Appl Genet 59:333 - 340Google Scholar
  353. Wenzel G, Hoffmann F, Potrykus I, Thomas E (1975) The separation of viable rye microspores from mixed populations and their development in culture. Mol Gen Genet 138:293 - 297Google Scholar
  354. Wenzel G, Hoffmann F, Thomas E (1977) Increased induction and chromosome doubling of androgenetic haploid rye. Theor Appl Genet 51: 81 - 86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Wenzel G, Meyer C, Przewozny T, Uhrig H, Schieder 0 (1980) Incorporation of microspore and protoplast techniques into potato breeding programs. NSF-CNRS SEM on regeneration from cells and tissue culture and genetic variability. Orsay, FranceGoogle Scholar
  356. Wenzel G, Schieder 0, Przewozny T, Sopory SK, Melchers G (1979) Comparison of single cell culturederived Solanum tuberosum L. plants and model for their application in breeding programs. Theor Appl Genet 55:49- 55Google Scholar
  357. Wernicke W (1977) Experiment on the culture of isolated microspores in Nicotiana and Hyoscyamus. Z Pflanzenphysiol 81: 330 - 340Google Scholar
  358. Wernicke W, Lorz H, Thomas E (1979) Plant regeneration from leaf protoplasts of haploid Hyoscyamus muticus L. produced via anther culture. Plant Sci Lett 15: 239 - 250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Wheatherhead MA, Burdon J, Henshaw GG (1978) Some effects of activated charcoal as an additive to plant tissue culture media. Z Pflanzenphysiol 89: 141 - 147Google Scholar
  360. White PR (1943) A hand-book of plant tissue culture. Jacques Cattel Press, Thmpe, ArizGoogle Scholar
  361. Woo SC, Huang CY (1980) Anther culture of Oryza glaberrima Steud and its hybrids with O. sativa L. Bot Bull Acad Sinica 21: 75 - 79Google Scholar
  362. Wu BJ, Chen KC (1982) Cytological and embryological studies on haploid plant production from cultured unpollinated ovaries of Nicotiana tabacum L. Acta Bot Sinica 24:125 -129Google Scholar
  363. Wu JL, Zhong LQ, Nong FH, Chen ML, Zhang HY, Zheng BL (1983) Selection of a pure line of maize (Zea mays) by anther culture and observations on its hybrids. Sci Sinica 26:725 -733Google Scholar
  364. Wu KX, Xu MZ (1984) Induction of maternal haploid plants from unpollinated ovaries of poplar in vitro. Acta Gen Sinica 11: 47 - 51Google Scholar
  365. Xu ZH, Sunderland N (1986) DNA microphotometry of Hordeum VUlgare Google Scholar
  366. Xu ZH, Huang B, Sunderland N (1981) Culture of anthers in conditioned media. J Exp Bot 32: 767 - 778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Zagorska N, Abadjieva M, Georgiev H (1982) Inducing regeneration in anther cultures of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). CR Acad Bulg Sci 35:97 -100Google Scholar
  368. Zagorska N, Robeva P, Dimitrov B, Stereva R, Gancheva V (1984) Induction of regeneration in anther cultures in Medicago sativa L. CR Acad Bulg Sci 37: 1099 - 1102Google Scholar
  369. Zamir D, Jones RA, Kedar N (1980) Anther culture of male-sterile tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutants. Plant Sci Lett 17: 353 - 361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Zamir D, Thnksley SD, Jones RA (1981) Genetic analysis of the origin of plants regenerated from anther tissues of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Plant Sci Lett 21:223 - 227Google Scholar
  371. Zenkteler M, Misiura E (1974) Induction of androgenic embryos and cultured anthers of Hordeum, Secale and Festuca. Biochem Physiol Pflanzen 165:337 -340Google Scholar
  372. Zenkteler M, Straub J (1979) Cytoembryological studies on the progress of fertilization and the development of haploid embryos of Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42) after crossing with Hordeum bulbosum (2n = 14). Z Pflanzenzilcht 82: 36 - 44Google Scholar
  373. Zhang J, Cheng K (1984) The pathways of pollen plant morphogenesis of Hyoscyamus niger L. Acta Bioi Expt Sinica 17: 369 - 375Google Scholar
  374. Zhang LJ, Anceau C, Lepoivre P, Seilleur P, Semal J (1987) An efficient method for the regeneration of wheat (Triticum aestivum) from anther culture. Bull Rech Agron Gembloux 22 (4): 301 - 314Google Scholar
  375. Zhihua L, Liu Y, Zhang P (1985) A study on the spontaneous doubling of chromosome number of poplar pollen plants. Sci Silvae Sin 21 (3): 227 - 233Google Scholar
  376. Zhou C, Yang HY (1990) In vitro production of haploids in rice through ovary culture. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 14. Rice. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  377. Zhu ZC, Wu HS (1979) In vitro induction of haploid plantlets from the unpollinated ovaries of Triticum estivum and Nicotiana tabacum. Acta Gen Sinica 6: 181 - 183Google Scholar
  378. Zou C-J, Li P-F (1981) Induction of pollen plants of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). Acta Bot Sin 23: 79 - 81Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. P. S. Bajaj
    • 1
  1. 1.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations