Locking of Pure Membrane Elements
The phenomenon of membrane locking arises from “parasitic” membrane strains generated by a finite element when it undergoes pure bending deformation. If the strain energy associated with parasitic strains is a significant portion of the total strain energy in the element, the element becomes artificially stiffened and erroneous results are produced. The fully integrated 9-node lagrangian shell element is an example of a finite element which exhibits membrane locking, even when the bending deformations experienced by the element are small.
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