A Penalty Formulation for Thin Plate Elements of Arbitrary Shape and Order
Using an integral form of the Kirchhoff hypothesis a set of algebraic constraints valid in thin plate analysis and relating rotational and translational degrees of freedom of a CO element is formed. The constraints are then enforced by means of a penalty formulation. The approach yields highly accurate CO plate elements of both quadrilateral and triangular shape. Approximations of various order can be accommodated.
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